yuddh aparaadh

san 1943 mein Poland ke kisaanon ki hatya

sainikon athva anyaanya vyaktiyon ke pratikool (Hostile) ya lagbhag usi tarah ke kaam, jinke liye pakade jaane par shatruon ke dvaara ve dandit kiye ja sakte hain, yuddh aparaadh kahe jaate hain. antararaashtreeya kaanoon ke virooddh kiye gaye kaam, jo abhiyukt ke apne desh ke kaanoon ke pratikool hain, yuddh aparaadh (War crimes) mein antarnihit hote hain; yatha, vyaktigat laabh ke uddeshya se ki gayi loot ya hatya, shatru raashtra ki or se ya uske aadesh se kiye gaye aparaadh.

anukram

yuddh aparaadh ke prakaar

aparaadhon ke prakaar mein bhinnata ke kaaran yuddh aparaadh chaar shreni mein vibhkt kiye ja sakte hain:

(1) sashastr sena ke sadasyon dvaara, yuddh ke maanya niyamon ka ullanghan ;

(2) aise vyaktiyon dvaara, jo shatru ki sena ke sadasya naheen hon, sashastr vidroh;

(3) jaasoosi tatha yuddh sambandhi vishvaasaghaat;

(4) lootpaat ke kaam

yuddh ke maanya niyamon ka ullanghan

(1) vishaile ya anyaanya kaaranon se varjat astr shastr ka tatha gas ka prayog.

(2) rog athva aaghaat se peedit sainikon kinva nihatthe sharanaarthiyon ki hatya ya unhein ghaayal karna.

(3) chhalaghaat (Aasassination) karna ya chhalaghaati (Assassin) ki niyukti karna.

(1) vishvaasaghaat ki bhaavana se sharan dene ke liye nivedan ya usi niyat se rogi kinva ghaayal hone ka bahaana karna.

(2) shyuddhabandiyon, ghaayalon athva rogiyon ke saath dushtaacharan (III kreatment) evam unke niji dhan ka apaharan.

(3) shatru paksh ke nirdosh asainik vyaktiyon ko maarana tatha ghaayal karna evam unki niji sapattish ka apaharan athva vinaash karna.

(4) vijit deshon ke logon ko sena ki sthiti athva unke bachaav ke vishay mein vaarta dene ko baadhya karna.

(5) yuddhakshetr mein mrut sainikon ke prati ashobhan aacharan evam unke shareer se unke niji dravya ya anya keemati vastuon ya astr shastr ka apaharan.

(6) ajaayabaghar, aspataal, girja, school ityaadi ki sampatti ko nasht ya aatmasaat‌ karna.

(7) aarakshit, khule (open) shaharon par aakraman, ghera (siege) tatha golaabaari. aarakshit sthaanon par samudri jahaajon ke dvaara golaabaari karna. asainik aabaadi (civil population) ko aantakit karne ke abhipraaya se usapar havaai golaabaari karna.

(8) bachaav karanevaale shahar mein avasthit aitihaasik stoopon, aspataalon evam dharm, kala, vigyaan tatha daatavya uddeshyon ke liye makaanon par, vishisht sanket rahane ke baavajood, goli varsha karna.

(9) shatrupaksh ke jahaajon par, unke dvaara pataaka nat kar aatmasamarpan ka sanket paane par bhi, aakraman karna tatha unhein dubona evam shatru ke jahaajaraani (cargo) par nireekshan (visit) ki maaaing kiye bina aakraman karna.

(10) aspataali jahaajon par aakraman karna ya unhein bandi banaana.

(11) yutr ke dauraan mein shatrupaksh ki vardi ka vyavahaar karna.

(12) yuddhaviraam (Truce) ke pataaka-vaahakon par aakraman karna.

(13) sandhi ki sharto ka ullanghan.

uchchaadhikaariyon ka aadesh

aisa bachaav maanya naheen hota ki yuddharat sarkaar kinva uske kisi commander ke aadesh se kisi ne koi aparaadh kiya. kabhi aisi dviya utpann hoti hai ki ek or jahaaain sainik apne commander ki aajnyaa paalan karne ko baadhya hai, doosari or us aajnyaa ka paalan yuddh ke niyam ke pratikool hone ke kaaran aparaadh hai. yeh bhi sambhav ho sakta hai ki yuddh ke dauraan mein use saakarik ddashti se ukt aajnyaa ki amaanyata samajh mein na aae aur vah apne commander ki aajnyaa ka paalan kare. yuddh ke niyam bahudha vivaadaaspad hote hain. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi aadesh anyatha amaanya hone par bhi pratishodh [reprisal] ke roop mein maanya ho jaaya. aisi sthiti mein aise kaam ko yuddh-aparaadh mein praaya: naheen liya jaata. tathaapi mukhya siddhaant yeh hai ki sainik apne commander ki vaidhaanik (Legal) aajnyaa hi maanane ko baadhya hai. at: yadi yuddh ke maanya niyamon ke pratikool vah apne uchchaadhikaari ki aajnyaa ka paalan karta hai to uske daayitv se vah mukt naheen ho sakta. ukt daayitv ko aadesh dene vaale commander tak hi seemit karna vastut: raajya ke pramukh par us daayitv ko sochana hoga. par antararaashtreeya evam deshaj (Municipal), kaanoon ki ddashti se aisa karna vivaadaaspad hai.

antararaashtreeya sainik nyaayaalaya (International Military Tribunal) ne apne chaartar (san‌ 1945 i0) mein uchchaadhikaari ka aadesh poornaat: sveekaar naheen kiya. 8 vein anuchhed mein isne kaha hai- 'abhiyukt ne apni sarkaar athva apne uchchaadhikaari ki aajnyaa se koi kaam kiya, yeh bachaav use us daayitv se mukt naheen kar sakta. kintu nyaayaalaya ke vichaar mein yadi nyaaya ki aisi maaaing hai to dand ki kathorata ko kam karne mein ukt bachaav par vichaar kiya ja sakta hai.' nooremabarg (Germany) ke nyaayaalaya ne naatsi adhikaariyon dvaara prastut kiye gaye bachaav- 'uchchaadhikaari ke aadesh ka paalan'- ko asveekaar karte hue kaha ki jaan boojhakar kiye gaye amaanushik aparaadh, yatha gaisacheinbar mein band kar yahoodiyon ka nirmoolan (Extermination), asainik nirmam hatya, aadi ke liye ukt bachaav par dand ki kathorata kam karne ke nimit bhi vichaar naheen kiya ja sakta. disanbabar, 1946 mein sanyukt raashtrasangh ne ek mat se is siddhaant ko maanyata di.

adheenasth adhikaariyon ke liye commander ka uttaradaayitv

vijit desh ke nivaasiyon (civil populattion) athva yuddhabandiyon ke prati yadi sainik ya nimnakoti ke sainik adhikaari atyaachaar karein to aadesh se aisa kaam ho ya ise rokane dabaane ke liye asane cheshta naheen ki to uske virooddh ek dabi prakalpana uthegi ki usane ukt utyaachaar ki sveekruti di ya use protsaahit kiya. at: vah apne adheenasth sailikon ke amaanya kaam ke liye daayi hoga. isi siddhaant par san‌ 1946 i0 Amreeki militri commission ne dviteeya mahaayuddh ke dauraan mein fileepin mein Japani sainikon dvaara ki gayi jyaadati ke liye Japani commander yaamaashati ko praanadand diya, yadyapi usane apne bachaav mein kaha ki yaataayaat vichhinn hone ke kaaran vah apne sainikon par niyantran naheen rakh saka.

yadi vijit desh ke nivaasi vijetaaon se loha lein to unki sthiti (status) sainik jaisi naheen maani jaayagi. par antararaashtreeya vidhaan ki parampara ke anusaar shatru paksh ko yeh adhikaar hai ki unhein 'yuddh aparaadhi' ke roop mein dand de.

antararaashtreeya vidhaan kisi paksh dvaara jaasoosi (espionager) evam raajadroh (treason) ko vyavahaar mein laane ko maanyata deta hai; par pratipaksh ko adhikaar hai ki inhein avaidhaanik ghoshit karein. yatha, doosare mahaayuddh ke dauraan mein Germany ke naatsi shaasakon ne british naagaarik emari ko Britain ke virooddh aakaashavaani ke maadhyam se prachaar kaarya mein niyukt kiya. pashchaat‌ british sena dvaara Germany par adhikaar hone pi emari ko angreji nyaayaalaya ne praanadand diya.

sandarbh granth

  • openahem, ela0: intaranaishanal laaain, khand 2, 1958;
  • history ov di United neshas vaar crimes commission, 1948 (169272);
  • Jackson: di case against di naatsi vaar kriminls, 1946;
  • aartikil 6 ov di chaartar ov di faar istarn militri tribunal;
  • aartikil 2 (bi) ov law nan0 10 ov di elaaid control, kaaunsil for Germany riletatang tu di trial ov vaar kriminls.

baahari kadiyaaain