yooropa (upagrah)

yooropa
Europa-moon.jpg
gailileeyo yaan dvaara li gayi yooropa ki tasveer.
khoj
khoj karta Galileo Galilei
Simon Marius
khoj ki tithi January 8, 1610[1]
upanaam
praavadhaanik naam Jupiter II
visheshan Europan
yug January 8, 2004
periyepsis 664 862 km[3]
epoaipsis 676 938 km[3]
maadhya kaksheeya trijya 670 900 km[4]
vikendrata 0.009[4]
parikraman kaal 3.551181 d[4]
ausat parikraman gati 13.740 km/s[4]
jhukaav 0.470° (to Jupiter's equator)[4]
svaami grah Jupiter
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya 1560.8 km (0.245 Earths)[4]
tal-kshetrafal 3.09×a107 km2 (0.061 Earths)[5]
aayatan 1.593×a1010 km3 (0.015 Earths)[5]
dravyamaan 4.7998×a1022 kg (0.008 Earths)[4]
maadhya ghanatv 3.01 g/cm3[4]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 1.314 m/s2 (0.134 g)[3]
palaayan veg 2.025 km/s[3]
ghoornan Synchronous[6]
aksheeya naman 0.1°[7]
albedo 0.67 ± 0.03[8]
satah ka taapamaan
Surface
nyoon maadhya adhi
~50 K[9] 102 K 125 K
spasht parimaan 5.29 (opposition)[8]
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab 0.1 µaPa (10-12 bar)[10]

yooropa (Europa), hamaare saur mandal ke paaainchave grah bruhaspati ka chautha sab se bada upagrah hai. iska vyaas (daayaameetar) lagbhag 3,138 kimi hai jo hamaare chandrama se chand kilometer hi chhota hai.

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

yooropa ko angreji mein "Europa" likha jaata hai. praacheen yoonaani sootron ke anusaar yooropa ek foneekeeyaai raaj-mahila ka naam tha.

banaavat aur sambhaavit samudra

yooropa ke androoni dhaanche ki do sanbhaavanaaeain

yooropa mukhya roop se patthareele padaarthon ka bana hua hai aur iska kendra lohe ka hai.[11] iski satah paani ki barf ki bani hui hai aur poore saur mandal ki sab se samatal satahon mein gini jaati hai.[12] is satah par daraarein to nazar aati hain lekin prahaar kretar bahut kam hain. daraaron mein bhi nai barf se bhari hui lagateen hain. satah ko dekh kar bahut se vaigyaaniko ko lagta hai ke uske neeche zaroor ek paani ka samudra hoga. unki soch hai ke jab bhi satah kisi ulkaapind ke girne se fatati hai ya usamein bruhaspati ke jvaarabhaata bal ki kheenchaataani se daraarein padti hain, to neeche se saagar ke paani se sampark rakhane waali garm barf oopar aa jaati hai aur sakhti se jamkar ghaav bhar deta hai. agar vaastav mein aisa samudra hai to sambhav hai ke usamein jeevan panap raha ho.[13] is sambhaavana ki vajah se Europe aur America ki antariksh kshodh ejeinsiyaaain yooropa par aur anusandhaan karne ki yojanaaeain bana rahi hain.[14][15] vaigyaanik yeh bhi anumaan lagte hain ke yooropa ki sakht barfeeli satah arabon saal pehle hue apne nirmaan ke baad 80° ghoom chuki hai. is se yeh shanka aur teevr hoti hai ki satahi barf ka khol ek paani ke gole ke oopar tair raha hai aur aaraam se hil-dul sakta hai.[16] anya vaigyaaniko ka kehna hai ke aisa koi samudra naheen hai aur baahar ki sakht barf ke neeche keval naram barf hai - lekin aisa vishvaas rakhane vaale vaigyaanik alp sankhya mein hain.

yadi vaastav mein samudra hai to usaki gaharaai 100 kimi tak ho sakti hai. is samudra mein pruthvi ke saare samudron ke paani se dugane se bhi adhik paani hoga.

vikirn

yooropa ki satah par bruhaspati ke vikirn (redeeyeshan) ka prabhaav kaafi hai. har roj satah par ausatan 540 raim (rem) ka vikirn padta hai. agar kisi manushya ko in haalaat mein rahana pade to usako jaanleva vikirn rog ka ho jaana nishchit hai.

vaayumandal

yooropa ka ek bahut hi patala vaayumandal hai jismein adhiktar aanavik aakseejan (O2) maujood hai. is vaayu ki taadaad itni kam hai ke pruthvi par vaayu ka dabaav yooropa se das kharab guna zyaada hai.[17][18]

kshodh yaan ka prastaav

ek kalpit chitr jismein yooropa par utare kshodh yaan ke ek hissa barf pighla-pighla kar samudra tak pahuainch gaya hai aur usane khoj karne ke liye paani mein ek svanirdeshit yaan chhod diya hai

yooropa ke ird-gird antariksh se use gaur se dekhne ke liye yaan bhejane ke bahut se prastaav hain. uske alaava ek aisa bhi prastaav hai ke ek yaan ko yooropa par utaara jaae. is yaan mein parmaanu shakti se garami paida karne wala ek bhaag hoga jo satah ki barf ko pighlaakar yuropa mein tab tak dhansata chala jaaega jab tak ke vah ya to samudra mein pravesh kar le ya fir yeh saabit kar de ke aisa koi samudra hai hi naheen. kyonki vaigyaanik maanate hain ke oopari barf ki satah 10 kimi se adhik moti hai isliye is yaan ko samudra tak pahuainchane ke liye bahut gaharaai tak dhansana hoga.[19] yeh bhi aavashyak hoga ke iski prasaaran shakti bahut ho taaki barf ki itni gaharaai ke neeche se bhi vah sandesh aur tasveerein bhej sake. is yaan mein aisi kaabaliyt bhi hogi ki vah swayam hi samudra mein ghoomta rahe aur apni disha chun sake kyonki pruthvi se us tak nirdesh pahuainchane mein kuchh minute lageinge.[20][21]

inhein bhi dekhein

bahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; IAUMoonDiscoveries naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. "JPL HORIZONS solar system data and ephemeris computation service". Solar System Dynamics. NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-10.
  3. a aa i E Calculated on the basis of other parameters
  4. a aa i E u oo A ai "Overview of Europa Facts". NASA. http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Jup_Europa. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-27.
  5. a aa Using the mean radius
  6. See Geissler et al. (1998) in orbit section for evidence of non-synchronous orbit.
  7. Bills, Bruce G. (2005). "Free and forced obliquities of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter". Icarus 175 (1): 233–247. Bibcode 2005Icar..175..233B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.10.028.
  8. a aa Yeomans, Donald K. (2006-07-13). "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL Solar System Dynamics. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?sat_phys_par. abhigman tithi: 2007-11-05.
  9. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; cyclo naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  10. McGrath (2009). "Atmosphere of Europa". In Pappalardo, Robert T.; McKinnon, William B.; and Khurana, Krishan K.. Europa. University of Arizona Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-8165-2844-6.
  11. Jeffrey S. Kargel, Jonathan Z. Kaye, James W. Head, III, et al. (2000). "Europa's Crust and Ocean: Origin, Composition, and the Prospects for Life". Icarus 148 (1): 226 –265. Bibcode 2000Icar..148..226K. doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6471. http://www.planetary.brown.edu/pdfs/2440.pdf.
  12. "Europa: Another Water World?". Project Galileo: Moons and Rings of Jupiter. NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 2001. http://teachspacescience.org/cgi-bin/search.plex?catid=10000304&mode=full. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-09.
  13. Tritt, Charles S. (2002). "Possibility of Life on Europa". Milwaukee School of Engineering. http://people.msoe.edu/~tritt/sf/europa.life.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-10.
  14. Friedman, Louis (2005-12-14). "Projects: Europa Mission Campaign; Campaign Update: 2007 Budget Proposal". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 2006-02-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20060215134920/http://www.planetary.org/programs/projects/explore_europa/update_12142005.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-10.
  15. David, Leonard (2006-02-07). "Europa Mission: Lost In NASA Budget". Space.com. http://www.space.com/news/060207_europa_budget.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-10.
  16. Cowen, Ron (2008-06-07). "A Shifty Moon". Science News. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/32135/title/A_shifty_moon.
  17. Hall, Doyle T.; et al.; Detection of an oxygen atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Europa, Nature (journal), Vol. 373 (23 fravari 1995), pp. 677–679 (accessed 15 April 2006)
  18. Savage, Donald; Jones, Tammy; and Villard, Ray (1995-02-23). "Hubble Finds Oxygen Atmosphere on Europa". Project Galileo. NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/europa/hst.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-17.
  19. Billings, Sandra E.; and Kattenhorn, Simon A. (2005). "The great thickness debate: Ice shell thickness models for Europa and comparisons with estimates based on flexure at ridges". Icarus 177 (2): 397–412. Bibcode 2005Icar..177..397B. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.013.
  20. P. Weiss, K.L. Yung, N. Koemle, S.M. Ko, E. Kaufmann, G. Kargl ; Thermal drill sampling system onboard high-velocity impactors for exploring the subsurface of Europa, Advances in Space Research (18 January 2010)
  21. Hsu, J.. "Dual Drill Designed for Europa's Ice". Astrobiology Magazine. http://www.astrobio.net/exclusive/3463/dual-drill-designed-for-europa's-ice.