yoorokendreeyata

vishv ka ulta maanachitr : yeh yoorokendreeyata-rahit hai.
adhikaansh sthaanon par yeh bataaya jaata hai ki lokatantr Europeeya sanskruti ke den hai. anya sanskrutiyon mein lokatantr bahut pehle se paaya jaata hai - yeh baat kaheen konein mein chhote aksharon mein likh di jaati hai.
kaastuntuniya par turkon ke adhikaar ne yoorokendreeyata ko bahut dhakka pahuainchaaya.

yoorokendreeyata (Eurocentrism) vah pakshapaatapoorn vichaaradhaara hai jisme Europe ko saari achhi cheejon ki janmasthali maana jaata hai tatha har cheej ko Europe ke najariye se dekhne ki koshish ki jaati hai.

anukram

parichay

ek vichaar ke roop mein yurokeindreeyata ki pravruttiyon ka srot punarjaagaran kaal (rinesaaain) mein dekha ja sakta hai. rinesaaain mein praacheen yoonaan aur rom ki kala aur darshan ko hi gyaan ke mukhya srot ke roop mein maanyata di gayi thi. iske baad ki avadhiyon mein yurop ki shreshthata ka yeh vichaar tarah-tarah se sootrabaddh kiya jaata raha. dheere-dheere upaniveshavaadi aagrahon ke tahat yurop aur yuropeeya saanskrutik poorvadhaaranaaon ko svaabhaavik, naisargik aur saarvabhaum maan kar unheen ke aadhaar par baaki duniya ki vyaakhya aur vishleshan karne ke ravaiye ke roop mein 'yurop- seintrik' drushtikon ubhara. beesaveen sadi mein dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad se pooainjeevaad aur saamraajyavaad ke aalochak yurokeindreeyata ko ek vichaaradhaara ke roop mein dekhne lage. sattar ke dashak se pehle oksafrd dikshanari mein yeh shabd naheen milta tha.  par assi ke dashak mein sameer ameen ke maarksavaadi lekhan ne ise bauddhik jagat mein aksar istemaal ki jaane waali avadhaarana mein badal diya. vidambana yeh hai ki maarksavaadi vidvaanon dvaara gadha gaya yeh pad maarks ke lekhan ki aalochna karne ke liye bhi istemaal kiya jaata hai. maarks ko yuroseintrik karaar dene vaalon ki kami naheen hai. haalaaainki maarks ke lekhan mein yuropeeya shreshthata ka sahajaat aagrah talaash karna mushkil hai, par aalochakon ka kehna hai ki vishv-itihaas ki unki samajh yuropeeya anubhav ke aadhaar par hi bani thi aur ve maanavata ke bhavishya ko samagr roop se yuropeeya model ke aaine mein hi dekhte the.

1851 se hi duniya ke nakshon ke longeetyood mereediyn ke kendra mein greenavich, London ko rakha jaana yurokeindreeyata ka hi ek tathya hai jise bina kisi saanskrutik aapatti ke saari duniya ne hajm kar liya hai. uttar-aupaniveshik adhyayan ke tahat yurokeindreeyata ka ek ullekhaneeya udaaharan maraketar etalas ko maana jaata hai. is etalas mein yurop ka samasheetoshn kshetr doosare kshetron ke mukaabale kaheen bade aakaar ka dikhaaya gaya hai. is etalas mein vishv ka maanachitr vibhinn mahaadveepon ko pradarshit karne waali vastunishth rekhaaon se hi chitrit naheen hai. maanachitr mein space vichaaradhaaraatmak roop se moort kiya gaya hai aur ismein nakshe ke saath diye gaye paath aur anya chitron ki madad bhi li gayi hai. parinaamasvaroop yeh naksha yurop ko vishv ke sthaanik aur saanskrutik taatparyon ke kendra mein sthaapit kar deta hai.

Edward Saeed ki kruti 'oriyentalijm' mein yurokeindreeyata ki kadi jaaainch-padtaal ki gayi hai. Saeed ka kehna hai ki yeh vichaar na keval anya sanskrutiyon ko prabhaavit karke unhein apne jaisa banaane ki taraf dhakelata hai, balki unhein apne anubhav ke daayare mein ek khaas mukaam par rakhane ke jriye un par pashchim ka prabhutv thop deta hai. Saeed ke mutaabik jnyaaanodaya ke baad se hi yuropeeya sanskruti ne ek pranaaleebaddh anushaasan viksit kar liya hai jiske aujaaron se vah poorv ki duniya ko prabandhit karte hue gadhti hai.

yurokeindreeyata saahitya-adhyayan, itihaas-lekhan aur maanavashaastr ke anushaasan ke maadhyam se bhi pusht hui hai. saahitya ke kshetr mein iske pairokaaron ne badi chaalaaki se apni dhaaranaaon ko saahitya ke saarvabhaum ki tarah sthaapit karne ki pariyojana chalaai. itihaas mein vijetaaon ke drushtikon se lekhan kiya gaya. maanavashaastr  ki duniya mein yurokeindreeyata ne svajaativaadi aagrah ke roop mein ghuspaith ki aur gair-yuropeeya sanskrutiyon ko yuropeeya sabhyataamoolak maanakon ke baraks 'aadim' karaar diya. kuchh sanskruti-sameekshakon ki to maanyata hai ki agar yurokeindreeya vichaar pehle se sthaapit na hota to maanavashaastr ke shuruaati roopon ka upaniveshavaad ke saath itna ghanishth rishta sthaapit hi na ho paata. isaaiyat ke prachaar-prasaar ke liye mishnariyon dvaara chalaayi jaane waali shaikshanik gatividhiyon mein bhi yurokeindreeyata ki pushti karne ka rujhaan rahata hai. inheen sab kaaranon se gair-yuropeeya samaajon ne aadhunikeekaran ki prakriya mein yurokeindreeyata ko itna jajb kar liya hai ki pashchim se aane waali har cheej ya kruti ko shreshth maanane ka vichaar vigyaan, udyog, ganit, kala, manoranjan aur sanskruti jaise sabhi mahattvapoorn kshetron par lagbhag sthaai roop se haavi ho chuka hai. yahaaain tak ki yurokeindreeyata ke prati satark rahane vaale log bhi antat: uske saath taalamel baithaate hue paaye jaate hain.

aitihaasik drushti se dekhein to yuropeeya shreshthata ka vichaar pandrahaveen sadi mein yuropeeya saamraajyavaad ke saath-saath sudrudh hua. vaigyaanik kraanti, vaanijyik kraanti aur aupaniveshik saamraajyon ke vistaar ne aadhunik yug ke udaya ke roop mein swayam ko abhivyakti kiya. ise 'yuropeeyan chamatkaar' ka daur maana jaata hai jisse pehle yurop aarthik aur praudyogik drushti se Turkey ki otoman khilaaft, Bhaarat ke mugl saamraajya aur cheen ke ming saamraajya ke mukaabale naheen thahar sakta tha. atthaarahaveen aur unneesaveen sadi ki audyogik kraanti aur yuropeeya upanivesheekaran ki doosari lahar ke saath hi yeh avadhaarana apne charam par pahuainch gayi. yuropeeya taakatein duniya mein vyaapaar aur raajaneeti par chha gayeen. pragativaad aur udyogavaad ke aadhaar par teji se viksit hui yuropeeya sabhyata ko vishv ka saarvabhaum kendra maanane vaalon ne aakhet, kheti aur pashupaalan par aadhaarit samaajon ke prati tirskaarapoorn vimarsh rache. atthaarahaveen sadi mein hi yuropeeya lekhakon ko yurop aur duniya ke doosare mahaadveepon ki tulana mein yeh kehte hue paaya ja sakta tha ki yurop bhaugolik kshetrafal mein doosaron se chhota zaroor hai, par vibhinn kaaranon se usaki sthiti khaas tarah ki hai. iske baad yeh khaas sthiti yuropeeya reeti-rivaajon, shishtata, vigyaan aur kala mein usaki mahaarat ka tark de kar paribhaashit ki jaati thi. yurokeindreeyata ke baare mein ek savaal yeh bhi uthaaya jaata hai ki kya yeh pravrutti duniya ke anya bhaagon mein paaye jaane vaale svajaativaad ki hi ek kism naheen hai? cheeniyon aur jaapaaniyon mein bhi saanskrutik shreshthata ka dambh hai. 'American sadi' ki daavedaariyaaain bhi svajaativaad ka hi ek namoona hai. lekin yurokeindreeyata ko jaise hi upaniveshavaad ke pariprekshya mein rakh kar dekha jaata hai, vaise hi yeh vichaar saamaanya svajaativaad se alag ek vishisht sanrachana ki tarah dikhaai dene lagta hai. yurokeindreeyata ki saakh mein kshaya ki shuruaat bhi upaniveshavaad virodhi aandolanon ke jor pakadne aur dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad chali vi-upanivesheekaran ki yugapravartak prakriya se hui. aajaadi ke aandolanon dvaara kiye sthaaneeya paramparaaon aur moolyon ke raashtravaadi daavon ne pashchimi saanskrutik aham ko chunauti di. Bhaarat aur ameriki mahaadveep ke madhya va dakshini hisson mein isi maksad se naye itihaas ka srujan hua aur nayi saanskrutik asmitaaeain gadhi gayeen. yurokeindreeyata ke baraks vishv-sabhyata ki bahukeindreeya tasveeron mein rang bhare gaye. Ravindra naath thaakur jaisi poorvi hastiyon ke vichaaron ki vishvavyaapi pratishtha aur gaaaindhi pradatt pashchim ki sabhyataamoolak aalochna ne bhi yurokeindreeyata ko manch se dhakelane mein ullekhaneeya bhoomika nibhaayi.

sandarbh

1. deepesh chakravarti (2000), provinshiylaaijing yurop : postakoloniyl thaut aind historikl difreins, prinsatan yunivrsiti press, prinsatan, enaje.

2. vaasilis laimbropolas (1993), the raaij of yuroseintrijm : enaataumi of intarapriteshan, prinsatan yunivrsiti press, prinsatan, enaje.

3. ela shohaat aur Robert staim (1994), anathinking yuroseintrijm : malteekalcharalijm aind the media, rautalej, London.

4. J.M. blaut (1993), the kolonaaijrs model of the world : jiyograafeekal difyoojns aind yuroseintrik history, gilfrd press, New York.

inhein bhi dekhein

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