yoonaani varnamaala

yahaaain greek akshar anupreshit hain.

yoonaani varnamaala (Greek alphabet) chaubees aksharon ki varn vyavastha hai jinke prayog se yoonaani bhaasha ko aathaveen sadi isa-poorv se likha ja raha hai. pratyek svar evam vyanjan liye pruthak chinh waali yeh pehli evam praacheenatam varnamaala hai.[1] yeh varnamaala foneeshiyaai varnamaala se utpann hui thi aur Europe ki kai varn-vyavasthaaeain isi se janmi hain. angreji likhne ke liye prayukt roman lipi tatha roosi bhaasha likhne ke liye prayog ki jaane waali seerilik varnamaala donon yoonaani lipi se janmi hain. doosari shataabdi isaapoorv ke baad ganitjnyaon ne yoonaani aksharon ko ank darshaane ke liye bhi prayog karna shuroo kar diya.[1] yoonaani varnon ka prayog vigyaan ke kai kshetron mein kiya jaata hai, jaise bhautiki mein tatvon ke naam, sitaaron ke naam, biraadari evam saathi sampradaaya ke naam, ooshn katibndheeya chakravaaton ke naam ke liye.

yoonaani varn
Α
alfa
Β
beeta
Γ
gaama
Δ
delta
Ε
epsiln
Ζ
jeeta
Η
eta
Θ
theeta
Ι
aayota
Κ
kappa
Λ
laimda
Μ
myoo
Ν
new
Ξ
jaai
Ο
omikraan
Π
pai
Ρ
ro
Σ
sigma
Τ
taaoo
Υ
apsiln
Φ
faai
Χ
chaai
Ψ
saai
Ω
omega

anukram

itihaas

yoonaani varnamaala ka udbhav maaiseeniyaai (Mycenaean) sabhyata ke patan ke shataabdiyon baad evam poorvavarti yoonaani lekhan pranaali, rekheeya bi (B) lipi ke aprayukt hone ke baad aathaveen sadi E. poo.[2] ke madhya mein hua. rekheeya bi (B) ka udbhav rekheeya A (A) se hua jo ki minoaai sabhyata dvaara viksit thi, jinki bhaasha yoonaani se sanbandhit naheen thi, parinaamasvaroop minoaai aksharamaala yoonaani bhaasha ki dhvaniyon ke lipyantaran hetu aadarsh maadhyam upalabdh naheen karaateen.

aaj prachalit yoonaani varnamaala ka vikaas yoonaani andhakaar kaal ke baad hua, yaani maaiseeniyaai sabhyata ke patan (si A. 1200 E.poo) evam praacheen yoonaan (yoonaan) ke utkarsh, jo ki lagbhag 800 E. poo. mein homar ke mahaakaavyon evam 776 E. poorv mein praacheen olanpik khelon ki shurooaat se praarambh hua, ke madhya ka samay tha. dhvanyaatmak foneeshiyaai varnamaala ke ek anukalan ke roop mein, iska sabse ullekhaneeya parivartan, svar aksharon ka samaaveshan hai, jiske bina yoonaani apathaneeya hoti.[1]

semeetik (Semitic) varnamaala mein svar chinh moolat: prayog naheen kiye gaye. poorvavarti pashchimi seemitik (Semitic) lipi parivaar (foneeshiyaai, ibraani, moaabaait ityaadi) mein, ek avishisht svar ke saath vyanjan hetu ek akshar hamesha prayukt kiya gaya. isne pathaneeyata ko kam naheen kiya kyonki seemitik (Semitic) bhaashaaon mein shabd triakshari jadon par aadhaarit hai jo ki keval vyanjan ki upasthiti maatr se arth spasht karta hai evam sandarbh dvaara svar spasht hote hain. vipreet, yoonaani ek bhaaropeeya bhaasha hai at: svar mein antar arth mein bada antar paida karta hai. ataev, yoonaani varnamaala ne aksharon ko do shreniyon - svar evam vyanjan (cheejein jo saath mein dhvanit hoteen hain) mein vibhkt kar diya, jahaaain ek vyanjan ko ek uchchaaran yogya ikaai banane ke liye svar ke saath prayog karna aavashyak hai. yadyapi praacheen yugaaritik (Ugaritic) varnamaala ne metris lekshnis (Matres lectionis) ka vikaas kiya, yaani pranaaleegat roop se prayog na kiye gaye svaron ko prakat karne ke liye vyanjan aksharon ka prayog.

pratham svar akshar A (alfa (alpha)), Ε (epsilaun (epsilon)), Ι (aayota (iota)), Ο (omikraun (omicron)), evam Υ (oopsilaun (upsilon)) the jo ki seemitik glotal (Semitic glottal), faaringial (pharyngeal) ya dheere nikalne vaale vaalevyanjanon (glide consonants) ke parivartan the, jinmein se jyaadaatar greek bhaasha mein aavashyakta se adhik the kramash: /ʔ/ ('aleph), /h/ (he), /j/ (yodh), /ʕ/ ([[|ʿaaayin]]) evam /w/ (waw). poorvi greek mein, jismein ki poori tarah se uchchaaran ka abhaav tha, seemitik glotal (Semitic glottal) vyanjan /ħ/(heth) ka H (H) (ita (eta)) deergh svaron ke liye bhi prayog hota tha /ɛaaː/ evam antat: Ω (omega (omega)) akshar ka prayog deergh ke liye praarambh hua /ɔaaː/. deergh khule aksharon e evam o ke shaamil karne ka kaaran bhaasha ke maukhik roopavijnyaaan adhyayan (morphology) mein nihit hai. paramparaagat greek mein nishchayaatmak evam sanbhaavanaarthak aksharon mein spasht bhed tha jo ki 'ε (i (E)) vs. η (H (H))' evam 'ο (O (O)) vs. ω (Ω)' ke navapravartan dvaara spasht kiya gaya. anya svaron mein deergh evam hrusv ke madhya graafik antar ki aavashyakta naheen hai. shaabdik saamagriyon hetu, saamaanyat: yeh ek paryaapt lakshan hoga lekin jab kabhi bhi maukhik pranaali ke baahar deergh svar η and ω aate hain - evam ve α, ι and υ ki tarah sarvavyaapi hote hain - un par chitraatmak (graafik) roop se vichaar karna hoga. do anya deergh svar chitraatmak bhed praapt karte hain - deergh band e (εaaι) evam deergh band u (οaυ) - donon chitr dvaara samajhe jaate hain.

greek ne teen naye vyanjan aksharon Φ (faai (phi)), Χ (chi (chi)) and Ψ (saai (psi)) ko bhi shaamil kiya jo ki apne vikaas ke anusaar varnamaala ke ant mein diye gaye hain. ye vyanjan dhvanyaatmak (Phoenician) aksharon mein tulana yogya uchchaaranon ke abhaav mein bane the. pashchimi greek mein, X ka prayog /ks/ hetu tatha Ψ ka prayog /kʰ/ hetu kiya gaya tha - at: laitin akshar X pashchimi greek varnamaala se liya gaya hai. in aksharon ki mool utpatti vivaadaaspad hai.

akshar Ϻ (san (San)) ka prayog Σ (sigma (sigma)) se bhinn kiya gaya tha. praacheen kaal se hi sigma (sigma) jeeta evam san varnamaala se vilupt ho gaya. akshar Ϝ (Wau, baad mein digaamma (Digamma) sambodhit) evam Ϙ (koppa (Koppa)) bhi aprayukt ho gaye. poorv mein inka prayog pashchimi boli ke liye hi aavashyak tha baad mein vaastav mein iski koi aavashyakta naheen thi. lekin ye akshar aayonik ankeeya pranaali mein prayog hote rahe jismein ki sankshipt ankeeya moolyon ke aksharon ki shreni shaamil thi. Ϡ (sanpi (Sampi)), pratyakshat: aayoniya (Ionia) ka durlabh sthaaneeya glyph roop tha, jo baad mein 900 darshaane ke liye shaamil kiya gaya. hajaar ko oopari baayein kone par mark ke dvaara likha gaya (1000 hetu 'A, ityaadi).

chooainki greek ati laghu akshar (minuscules) kaafi arse baad astitv mein aae, ataev san hetu vaastav mein koi bhi aitihaasik laghuroop akshar maujood naheen hai. anya aksharon hetu laghu roopon ka prayog keval ank ke roop mein hua. aadhunik greek ank 6 hetu vau (Wau) ke sthaan par stigma (stigma) (Ϛ,ϛ) naamak ek puraane bandh ka prayog karta hai, ya ΣaaΤ/σaτ yadi yeh upalabdh na ho. 90 ke liye Z -aakaar ke koppa (Koppa) roop prayog kiye gaye :Ϟ, ϟ. (dhyaan dein ki kuchh web braaujar/faunt sanyugm yahaaain anya koppa (Koppa) darshaaenge.)

mool roop se, greek varnamaala ke kai roop the, jinmein pashchimi (kelaseediyn (chalcidian)) evam poorvi (aayonik) greek pramukh hain. poorvavarti ne puraani itailik varnamaala tatha baad mein laitin varnamaala, jabki uttaravarti vartamaan greek varnamaala ka aadhaar hai. Athens ne mool roop se shaasakeeya dastaavejon hetu etik (Attic) lipi ka prayog kiya jaiseki kaanoon sanbandhi dastaavej evam homar ki rachanaayein; ismein alfa se lekar oopsilaun tak ke akshar shaamil hain evam "e" ke sthaan par ita (eta) akshar ka prayog hai. 403 E.poo. mein, Athens ne apne maanak ke roop mein aayonik lipi ko apnaaya evam jald hi anya sanskaran vilupt ho gaye.

Athens ke raashtreeya puraataattvik sangrahaalaya mein mitti ke bartanon par praarambhik greek varnamaala

tab tak greek baanain se daanyein likhi jaati thi, lekin mool roop se yeh daanyein se baanain likhi jaati thi (asamaroop aksharon ko palatane ke saath) evam beech mein kisi bhi or se likhi jaati thi - ya sarvaadhik sanbhaavya roop mein, tatha kathit boustrophedon tareeke se, jismein ek ke baad ek panktiyaaain disha parivrtit karti theen.

hailanistik kaal mein, baaijenatiym (Byzantium) ke ereesatofenis (Aristophanes) ne uchchaaran vishishtata ke liye greek aksharon ke visheshak chinh (diacritics) ko praarambh kiya. madhyakaal ke dauraan greek lipi mein laitin varnamaala ke samaanaantar parivartan huye : jabki puraane roop yaadagaar lipi ke roop mein bane rahe, vaheen ek inchi (Uncial) evam antat: laghu roop prabhaavi huye. laitin deergh aur hrusv s ke samaan shabd ke ant mein σ ko samaan roop se ς likha gaya.

aksharon ke naam

pratyek dhvanyaatmak (Phoenician) akshar ke naam ek shabd tha jo ki us akshar ki dhvani se praarambh hota tha ; at: "ox" hetu ʾaaaleph shabd ko glotal avarodh (glottal stop) /ʔ/ hetu apnaaya gaya, bet, ya "ghar" ("house"), /b/ dhvani hetu evam anya kai. jab greek dvaara aksharon ko apnaaya gaya, jyaadaatar dhvanyaatmak (Phoenician) naam greek dhvani vigyaan (Phonology) ke anuroop banaaye rakhe gaye/ halke parivrdhit kiye gaye ; at: ʾaaaleph, bet, gimel alfa, beeta, gaama ho gaye. in apnaaye gaye naamon ka greek mein koi matlab naheen tha sivaae aksharon ke sambodhan ke. haalaanki, baad mein greekon ke dvaara jode gaye ya parivrdhit kiye gaye kuchh chinhon ke vaastav mein naam va arth the. udaaharan ke liye - O mikron (o mikron) evam O mega (o mega) matlab hai "chhota O (o)" evam "bada O (o)". isi prakaar, A psilaun (e psilon) evam a psilaun (u psilon) ka matlab hai "saada i (e)" evam "saada you (u)".

mukhya akshar

yoonaani aksharon aur unke baraabar ke lipyantarit devanaagari akshar neeche ki taalika mein diye gaye hain. taalika mein samakaksh foneeshiyaai akshar bhi diya gaya hai jisse pratyek yoonaani akshar liya gaya hai. antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak varnamaala ka prayog karte huye uchchaaran likhe gaye hain. neeche diya gaya "shaastreeya uchchaaran" 5veen sadi uttaraardh evam 4veen sadi poorvaardh (E.poo.) mein aitik bhaashaaoain (Attic) ke punarnirmit uchchaaran hain. dhyaan rahe ki kuchh aksharon ke poorv-shaastreeya yug ya gair-aitik boliyon mein pruthak uchchaaran the.

akshar poorvaj
foneeshiyaai
akshar
akshar ka naam devanaagari lipyantaran a॰adha॰ava॰ uchchaaran sambandhit ank
sanskrut devanaagari praacheen
yoonaani
madhyakaaleen
yoonaani
aadhunik
yoonaani
praacheen
yoonaani
aadhunik
yoonaani
shaastreeya
praacheen
yoonaani
aadhunik
yoonaani
Α α अल्फ़ alf avarn alfa ἄaaλaaφaaα άaλaφaα a, aa [a] [aː] [a] 1
Β β बॅत bait aavarn beta, beeta βaaῆaaτaaα βaήaτaα b va [b] [v] 2
Γ γ गम्ल gaml ivarn gaama γaaάaaμaaμaaα γaaάaaμ(μ)α g g, g, ya [ɡ] [ɣ], [ʝ] 3
Δ δ दॅल्त dailt ivarn delta δaaέaaλaaτaaα δaaέaaλaaτaaα the the, dh [d] [ð] 4
Ε ε हे he uvarn ऍpsiln εaἶ ἒ ψaaιaaλaaόaaν έaaψaaιaaλaaοaaν A [e] 5
Ζ ζ ज़ई ji oovarn jeta, jeeta ζaaῆaaτaaα ζaήaτaα za [zd, dz, zː](?) [z] 7
Η η ख़ॅत khait rivarn eta, ita ἦaaτaaα ήaτaα A i [ɛaaː] [i] 8
Θ θ तॅथ़ taith riavarn theta, theeta θaaῆaaτaaα θaήaτaα th, th [tʰ] [θ] 9
Ι ι योद yod lvarn aayota ἰaaῶaaτaaα (γ)ιaώaτaα i [i] [iː] [i], [ʝ] 10
Κ κ काफ़ kaaf llvarn kaapa κaaάaaπaaπaaα κaaάaaπ(π)α k [k] [k], [c] 20
Λ λ लम्द lamd evarn laamda λaaάaaβaaδaaα λaaάaaμaaβaaδaaα λaaάaaμ(β)δaaα l [l] 30
Μ μ मेम mem aivarn myoo μaaῦ μaaι/μaυ m [m] 40
Ν ν नुन nun ovarn new νaaῦ νaaι/νaυ na [n] 50
Ξ ξ सॅम्क saimk auvarn jaai ξaaεaaῖ ξaaῖ ξaι ks ks [ks] 60
Ο ο अईन ain anvarn omikraun οaὖ ὂ μaaιaaκaaρaaόaaν όaaμaaιaaκaaρaaοaaν O [o] 70
Π π पे pe a:varn paai πaaεaaῖ πaaῖ πaι p [p] 80
Ρ ρ रोश rosh yavarn ro ῥaaῶ ρaω r, rh r [r], [r̥] [r] 100
Σ σ ς शिन shin ravarn sigma σaaῖaaγaaμaaα σaίaγaμaα s [s] 200
Τ τ तऊ taoo lavarn taaoo τaaαaaῦ τaαaυ t, t [t] 300
Υ υ वाउ vaau vavarn upasiln, apasiln ὖ ψaaιaaλaaόaaν ύaaψaaιaaλaaοaaν u, ya ya, va, f [ʉ(ː)], [y(ː)] [i] 400
Φ φ utpatti matabhedit
(lekh dekhein)
shavarn faai, fi φaaεaaῖ φaaῖ φaι f f [pʰ] [f] 500
Χ χ shavarn kaai, chaai, khaai χaaεaaῖ χaaῖ χaι ch ch, kh [kʰ] [x], [ç] 600
Ψ ψ savarn saai, si ψaaεaaῖ ψaaῖ ψaι ps [ps] 700
Ω ω अईन ain havarn omega ὦ μaέaγaα ωaaμaaέaaγaaα O, au O [ɔaaː] [o] 800
  1. vivran aur vibhinn lipyantaran pranaaliyon ke liye greek ki romanaaijeshan (Romanization) dekhein.

bhinn roop

kuchh akshar bhinn aakaar ke hote hain, yeh mukhyat: madhyakaaleen laghu akshar likhaavat se vanshaagat hote hain. haalaanki greek ki saamaanya mudran kala mein unka upayog poori tarah faunt shaili ki baat hai, aise kuchh bhinnaroopon ko yoonikod mein alag se enkoding di gayi hai.

  • chinh ϐ ("karld beeta") beeta ka pravaahi bhinn roop hai (β). praacheen yoonaani mudran kala ki French parampara mein β shabd-aadyat: mein env ϐ shabd-aantarik mein istemaal hota hai.
  • akshar epsilaun do samaan roop se punaraavrutt shaileegat roopon mein ho sakta hai, ya to aakaarabaddh\epsilaun\,\! ('lyunet epsilaun', stroke ke saath ek ardhavrutt jaisa) athva vairaepsilaun\,\! (sankhya 3 ke paarshveeya roop se ulte roop jaisa) chinh ϵ (U+03F5) navachandraakaar roop ke liye hota hai jiska prayog takaneeki chinh ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • chinh ϑ ("script theeta") theeta (θ) ka karsiv roop hai, jiska prayog haath se likhne mein aksar kiya jaata hai aur takaneeki chinh ke roop mein vishisht arth ke saath kiya jaata hai.
  • chinh ϰ ("kappa chinh") kappa (κ) ka karsiv roop hai aur iska prayog takaneeki chinh ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • chinh ϖ ("vairiyent pai") pai (π) ka praacheen lipi-roop hai aur iska prayog takaneeki chinh ke roop mein bhi kiya jaata hai.
  • akshar ro (rho) (ρ) vibhinn shailigt roopon mein ho sakta hai jinmein poonchh neeche ki or tirchhi roop se aane waali athva seedhe neeche ki or aane waali athva daahini or mudi hui ho sakti hai. chinh ϱ (U+03F1) khaas taur se mude hue roop mein takaneeki chinh ke roop mein prayukt hota hai.
  • akshar sigma ki, maanak vartani mein, do roop hote hain: ς jiska prayog keval shabdon ke ant mein, tatha σ, jiska prayog anyatr hota hai. ϲ("navachandraakaar sigma", laitin akshar c ke jaisa) ek madhyayugeen shailigt roop hai, jiska prayog donon pariveshon mein bina antim/anantim vishishtata ke kiya ja sakta hai.
  • kaipitl akshar oopsilaun (Υ) anek shailigt roopon mein ho sakta hai, jinmein oopari stroke ya to laitin Y ki tarah seedha hota hai, athva halka sa muda hua hota hai. chinh ϒ (U+03D2) khaastaur se mude roop ke liye hota hai, jiska prayog takaneeki chinh ke roop mein hota hai.
  • akshar faai ki do samaan roop se shailigt roopon mein punaraavrutti hoti hai, jinka roop ya to \tekstastaail\faai\,\! (ek vrutt jismein isse hokar ek oordhvaadhar stroke ho) athva \tekstastaail\vairafaai\,\! (oopar ki or ek tirchhe aakaar wala). chinh ϕ (U+03D5) vishesh roop se band (klojd) roop ke liaa hota hai, jiska prayog takaneeki chinh ke roop mein kiya jaata hai.

aprachalit akshar

nimnalikhit akshar maanak greek varnamaala ka hissa naheen hain, lekin poorv-shaastreeya samay mein kuchh boliyon mein prayog mein the. akshar vau, san, koppa aur sanpi bhi greek ankon mein istemaal kiye jaate the.

akshar anuroopi
dhvanyaatmak
akshar
naam lipyantaran uchchaaran ankeeya moolya
angreji praarambhik
greek
uttarakaaleen
greek
bahusvaraatmak
Ϝ ϝ (Ϛ ϛ) Waw Waw stigm Stigma σaaτaaίaaγaaμaaα ST st [st] 6
Ϟ ϟ (Ϙ ϙ) Qoph Qoph kopp Koppa ϙaaόaaπaaπaaα κaaόaaπaaπaaα kyoo q [k] pehle /you/(u), /O/ (o) 90
Ϡ ϡ (Ͳ ͳ) mool vivaadit,
sanbhavat: Tsade Tsade
sampi Sampi σaaαaaμaaπaaῖ esaes ss sambhavat: sparshasangharsh,
lekin samuchit moolya vaad vivaad mein hai;
[sː], [ks], [ts] prastaavit hain
900
  • varnamaala se vau (Wau) vilupt ho gaya kyonki aayonik boli evam anya boliyon se iske dvaara nikalne waali vah dhvani jo othon aur kanth dvaara niklati hai,[w] vilupt ho gain. ab yeh ank 6 ko darshaane hetu ankeeya chinh ke roop mein hi prayukt hota hai. is kaarya roop mein, yeh baad mein madhyakaaleen greek hastalekhan mein bandh yuktaakshar stigma (ϛ) ke saath sammishrit hua, jiska uske chhote akshar ke roop mein samaan aakaar tha.
  • sanpi (jise deesigma bhi kaha jaata hai) ne ankurit sparshasangharsh dhvanit kiya jo baad mein adhiktar boliyon mein -σaσ- (sanbhavat: [sː]) mein evam etik (Attic) mein -τaaτ- (sanbhavat: [tː] mein viksit hua. iske vaastavik maan par kaafi vichaar vimarsh hua lekin [ts]aksar prastaavit hota hai. iska aadhunik naam iske aakaar se liya gaya hai : (ω)σaaαaaν πaι = like (akshar) pi.[3]

aksharon ka ti (T) tak ka kram dhvanyaatmak (Phoenician) ya hebroo varnamaala ki tarah hota hai.

akshar anuroopi
dhvanyaatmak
akshar
naam lipyantaran uchchaaran ankeeya moolya
angreji praarambhik
greek
uttarakaaleen
greek
bahusvaraatmak
Ϝ ϝ (Ͷ ͷ) Waw Waw vau Wau (digmm Digamma) ϝaaαaaῦ δaaίaaγaaαaaμaaμaaα dabalyoo w [w] 6
Ͱ ͱ Heth Heth het Heta ἧaτaα H h [h]
Ϻ ϻ Tsade Tsade (sthiti)
Sin Sin (naam)
san San ϻaaάaaν σaάaν S s [s]
Ϸ ϸ Tsade Tsade (sthiti)
Sin Sin (naam)
sho Sho esaech š [ʃ]

visheshak chinh (Diacritics)

praacheen greek hetu paramparaagat roop se prayukt bahusvaraatmak (polytonic) vartani mein svar, svaraaghaat (accent) evam shvasan (breathings) naamak visheshak chinh liye huye ho sakte hain. svaraaghaat (accent), gahan svaraaghaat (saaaincha:Huge), bhaari svaraaghaat (saaaincha:Huge) evam svar ki lanbaai darshaane vaale (sarkamafleks) svaraaghaat (saaaincha:Huge) ho sakte hain. praacheen greek mein, ek svar hetu vibhinn prakaar ki sur-teevrata (Pitch) ke svaraaghaat hote hain. roman saamraajya kaal ke ant tak, sur teevrata svaraaghaat (pitch accent) tanaav svaraaghaat (stress accent) mein viksit ho gaye evam baad ki greek mein samast svaraaghaaton ne tanaav svar chinhit kiye. ye shvasan aniyamit ya kharaab shvasan (saaaincha:Huge) hain jo shabd ke praarambh mein ek dhvani karte hain /h/ evam niyamit ya sugam shvasan hain (saaaincha:Huge) jo shabd ke praarambh mein koi dhvani naheen karte /h/. akshar rho (ρ) yadyapi ek svar naheen hai, lekin jab yeh shabd praarambh karta hai to hamesha ek aniyamit dhvani karta hai. greek mein ek anya visheshak chinh diyaaeresis (diaeresis) (saaaincha:Huge) hai jo hiyetas (hiatus) ko pradarshit karta hai.

1982 mein puraani varnavinyaas pranaali, jo ki bahusvaraatmak (polytonic) ke roop mein jaani jaati thi, ko saraleekrut karke ekal svaraatmak (monotonic) pranaali mein badal diya gaya, jo ki aaj greek mein shaasakeeya hai. svaraaghaaton ko ek, tonos (the tonos) tak hi seemit kar diya gaya, tatha shvasan samaapt kar diya gaya.

dvivrn evam dvisvar (Digraphs and diphthongs)

daayagraaf (Digraph) ya dvivrn, aksharon ka ek yugm hai jiska prayog ek dhvani ya ek se adhik dhvaniyon, jo ki ek shreni mein likhe gaye aksharon ke anukool naheen hoteen, ko likhne ke liye hota hai. greek ki vartani mein dvivrn shaamil hote hain. ismein svar aksharon ke kai jode bhi shaamil hain jinka uchchaaran dvisvar (dipthongs) ki tarah hota hai lekin uchchaaran mein inhein ekal svar (monophthongs) tak kam kar diya gaya hai. inmein se jyaadaatar aadhunik greek ke chaaritrik vikaas hain lekin shaastreeya greek mein kuchh pehle se upasthit the. inmein se kisi ko varnamaala ka akshar naheen maana jaata.

baaijaintaain kaal ke dauraan dvivrn mein ek aayota upalipi (iota sub script) ke roop mein mook aayota (Silent iota) ko likhne ka rivaaj ho gaya.ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ

anya bhaashaaon hetu greek varnamaala ka prayog

hamesha se greek varnamaala ka praathamik roop se prayog greek bhaasha ko likhne ke liye hua hai. lekin, vibhinn kaalon evam sthaanon par iska prayog anya bhaashaaon ko likhne ke liye bhi hua hai.[4]

poorv udaaharan

  • 800 se 300 E.poo. ke dauraan lidiyn (lydian) evam freejiyn (Phrygian) jaisi bhaashaaon ko likhne ke liye prayukt Asia maainar ki adhiktar varnamaalaayein maamooli parivrtanon ke saath poorv greek varnamaala hi theen - jaise ki mool praacheen itaalik varnamaala.
  • thraashiyn (Thracian) sahit kuchh paaleo-baalkan (Paleo-Balkan) bhaashaayein. praacheen maisedoniyn (mecedonian) jaisi anya padosi bhaashaaon ya boliyon hetu, pruthak shabdon ko greek lekhon mein sanrakshit kiya gaya hai, lekin koi satat lekh sanrakshit naheen hai.
  • kuchh gaulish (Gaulish) abhilekhon (aadhunik France mein) mein greek varnamaala ka prayog hai (si. 300 E.poo.).
  • heksepala ke orijen (Origen's Hexapla) mein baaibal ke hebroo lekhon ko greek aksharon mein likha gaya tha.
  • aathaveen sadi ke ek arabi ansh mein greek varnamaala ka ek lekh sanrakshit hai.
  • aaraeksavaaijed Arxyz mein 10 se 12 sadi E.poo. ka ek puraana osetik (ossetic) abhilekh mila hai, jo ki osetik (ossetic) bhaasha ka praacheenatam gyaat abhipramaanan hai.

atirikt aksharon ke saath

greek varnamaala ko sammilit kiye huye kuchh varnamaalaayein kuchh atirikt akshar se bhi poorn hui hain:

  • baiktriyn varnamaala sho (Sho) akshar ko jodti hai evam iska prayog kushaan saamraajya (varsh 65 - 250) ke tahat baiktreeyan bhaasha ko likhne ke liye hota tha.[5]
  • koptik (Coptic) varnamaala aath aksharon ko jodti hai jo ki demotik (Demotic) se liye gaye hain. iska aaj bhi, jyaadaatar mishr mein, koptik (coptic) bhaasha likhne ke liye prayog ho raha hai. akshar saamaanyat: ek inchi (Uncial) roop banaaye rakhate hain jo ki aaj greek mein prayog ho rahe roop se alag hai (Gaelic varnamaala mein prayukt laitin aksharon ke roop se tulana karein.
  • makuriya (Makuria) (aadhunik soodaan) ki praacheen nubiyn (Nubian) bhaasha teen koptik (coptic) aksharon ko jodti hai jinmein se do akshar meroitik (Meroitic) lipi se liye gaye hain evam enaji (ng) hetu do greek gaama (gamma) ke ek dvivrn ko.

adhik aadhunik kaal mein

  • koptik (Coptic) (uparyukt dekhein)
  • roodhivaadi isaaiyon karamanaleeds (Karamanlides) dvaara boli gayi Turkey bhaasha praay: greek lipi mein likhi jaati thi evam karamanalidika (karamanlidika) kahi jaati thi.
  • varsh 1500 (Elsie, 1991) ke lagbhag tausk albaaniyn (Tosk Albanian) ko praay: greek varnamaala ka prayog karte huye likha jaata tha. 18veen sadi ke dauraan moschopolis (Moschopolis) sthit printing press ne kai albaaniyn (Albanian) paathon ko greek lipi mein prakaashit kiya. keval 1908 mein monostar (monostir) sammelan ne tausk (Tosk) evam gheg (Gheg) donon ke liye laitin vartani ka maanakeekaran kiya. greek aadhaarit arvaneetik (Arvanitic) varnamaala ka prayog ab keval grees (yoonaan) mein hota hai.
  • aadhunik bulgeriyaai evam maisedoniyn bhaashaaon ke samaan vibhinn dakshini slaivik (slavic) boliyon ko greek lipi mein likha gaya hai. aadhunik dakshini slaivik bhaasha ab parivrdhit sirilik (cyrillic) varnamaalaaon ka prayog karti hai.[6]
  • aromeniym (vlaach) (Vlach) ko greek aksharon mein likha gaya hai. abhi bhi aromaniyn bhaasha hetu maanak vartani naheen hai lekin aisa prateet hota hai ki romaaniyn (Romanian) vartani sveekaar ki jaaegi.
  • gagauj (Gagauz), uttareepoorv baalkan (Balkans) ki ek Turkey bhaasha.
  • surguch (Surguch) uttari yoonaan mein roodheevaadi isaaiyon ke ek chhote samooh dvaara bole jaane waali ek Turkey bhaasha.
  • aarm (Urum) ya greek taataar (Greek Tatar).

anyatr se li gain varnamaalaayein

greek varnamaala ne kai anya varnamaalaaon ko janm diya hai:[1]

  • laitin varnamaala, greek varnamaala ke puraatan pashchimi roop ki ek shaakha hai.
  • gothik (Gothic) varnamaala gothik bhaasha ko likhne ke liye uttar puraatanakaal mein abhiklpit.
  • glegoleetik (Glagolitic) varnamaala, slaivik (Slavic) bhaashaaon ko likhne ke liye madhyakaal mein abhiklpit.
  • sirilik (cyrillic) varnamaala, jisne thode samay baad glegoleetik (Glagolitic) varnamaala ka sthaan liya.

yeh aarmeniyn varnamaala ki ek sambhaavit uttaraadhikaari bhi maani jaati hai evam iska jaurjiyaai (Georgian) varnamaala ke vikaas par prabhaav hai.

ganit mein greek

ganit, bhautiki evam anya vijnyaaanon mein greek prateekon ka prayog paramparaagat roop se naamon ke liye hota raha hai. laitin aksharon se yugmit karne par, laitin akshar saamaanyat: parivrti char (variables) darshaatein hain jabki greek akshar maanadand (Parametens) darshaate hain. kai prateekon ke paramparaagat arth hain jaise ki taral gativijnyaaan mein aakraman kon (Angle of attack) ke liye angreji bhaasha ke chhote alfa (α), svaichhik chhoti dhanaatmak sankhya hetu chhote epsilaun (ε), jod hetu bade sigma (Σ) evam maanak vichlan hetu chhota sigma (σ) aadi.

greek enkoding

computer mein upayog ke liye, greek online ke liye enkoding ki kai kismein istemaal ki gayi hain, unamein se kai aaraefasi (RFC) 1947 mein dastaavej hain.

ISO/aaiisi (ISO/IEC) 8859-7 aur yoonikod do pramukh hain jo aaj bhi istemaal ki jaati hain. ISO (ISO) 8859-7 keval svaraatmak vartani ka samarthan karta hai aur yoonikod bahusvaraatmak vartani ka.

ISO/aaiisi (ISO/IEC) 8859-7

shreni AO-FF (eo-efaef) (heks) ke liye yeh yoonikod shreni 370 -3 seeef (CF) (neeche dekhein) ka anusaran karti hai, sivaaya ki kuchh prateek jaise ©, ½, § aadi vaha istemaal kiye jaate hain jahaaain yoonikod ke paas aprayukt sthaan hain. jaise sabhi ISO (ISO)-8859 enkoding yeh 00-7F (ef) (heks) ke liye eesaseeaaiaai (ASCII) ke baraabar hai.

yoonikod mein greek

yoonikod aadhunik aur praacheen greek mein aam satat paath ke liye aur yahaaain tak ki puraalekh vidya ke liye kai puraatan roopon ke liye bahusvaraatmak vartani ka achhi tarah se samarthan karta hai. aksharon ke sanyojan ke upayog ke saath, yoonikod greek bhaashaashaastr env upabhaasha-shaastr tatha vibhinn anya vishisht aavashyakataaon ka bhi samarthan karta hai. yadyapi, adhiktar maujooda paath pratipaadan engine aksharon ke sanyojan ka achhi tarah se samarthan naheen karte, to haalaanki mekronn (macron) aur gahan (acute) ke saath alfa U+03B1 U+0304 U+0301 ke roop mein darshaaya ja sakta hai, yeh kabhi kabhaar hi theek rahata hai: ᾱaá.[7]

yoonikod mein greek akshar ke 2 mukhya block hain. pehla "greek aur koptik" (Coptic) (U+0370 se U+03FF) hai. yeh block ISO (ISO) 8859-7 par aadhaarit hai aur aadhunik greek likhne ke liye paryaapt hai. kuchh puraatan akshar aur greek-aadhaarit takaneeki prateek bhi hain.

block koptik (Coptic) varnamaala ka bhi samarthan karta hai. poorv mein, adhiktar koptik (Coptic) akshar samaan-dikhne vaale greek aksharon ke saath kodapauints (codepoints) baaaintate the; lekin bahut se adhyayanasheel kaaryon mein, donon lipiyaaain kaafi alag aakaar ke aksharon ke saath prakat hoteen hain, to isliye yoonikod 4.1, koptik (Coptic) aur greek ekeekrut naheen the. vah koptik akshar bina kisi greek sam kaksh ke abhi bhi is block mein rahate hain.

bahusvaraatmak greek likhne ke liye, ek vyakti "greek vistaarit" block mein sanyukt daaiekaritikl (diacritical) chinh ya poorv-prakrutisth (precomposed) aksharon ka prayog kar sakta hai (U+1F00 to U+1FFF).

greek aur koptik

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ek B C di E F
0370 Ͱ ͱ Ͳ ͳ ʹ ͵ Ͷ ͷ ͺ ͻ ͼ ͽ ;
0380 ΄ ΅ Ά · Έ Ή Ί Ό Ύ Ώ
0390 ΐ Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο
03A0 Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω Ϊ Ϋ ά έ ή ί
03B0 ΰ α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο
03C0 π ρ ς σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω ϊ ϋ ό ύ ώ Ϗ
03D0 ϐ ϑ ϒ ϓ ϔ ϕ ϖ ϗ Ϙ ϙ Ϛ ϛ Ϝ ϝ Ϟ ϟ
03E0 Ϡ ϡ (koptik akshar yahaaain)
03F0 ϰ ϱ ϲ ϳ ϴ ϵ ϶ Ϸ ϸ Ϲ Ϻ ϻ ϼ Ͻ Ͼ Ͽ

greek vistaarit (poorv-prakrutisth (precomposed) bahusvaraatmak greek)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ek B C di E F
1F00
1F10
1F20
1F30 Ἷ
1F40
1F50
1F60
1F70 ά έ ή ί ό ύ ώ
1F80
1F90
1FA0
1FB0 Ά ι ᾿
1FC0 Έ Ή
1FD0 ΐ Ί
1FE0 ΰ Ύ ΅ `
1FF0 Ό Ώ ´

sanyojan aur akshar-mukt visheshak chinh (diacritics)

greek bhaasha se sambandhit visheshak chinhon ka sanyojan aur antaraalan (akshar-mukt):

sanyojan antaraalan namoona vivran
U+0300 U+0060 ( ̀) "vaariya (varia)/bhaari svaraaghaat"
U+0301 U+00B4
U+0384
( ́) "oksiya/ tonos/ gahan svaraaghaat"
U+0304 U+00AF ( ̄) "mekronn" (macron)
U+0306 U+02D8 ( ̆) "varaachi/breev"
U+0308 U+00A8 ( ̈) "dialytika/ diyaaeresis"
U+0313 U+02BC ( ̓) "psili/ alpaviraam se oopar" (spirits lenis)
U+0314 U+02BD ( ̔) "daasiya / oopar alpaviraam ulat" (spirits espar)
U+0342 ( ͂) "perispomeni" (sarkamafleks)
U+0343 ( ̓) "koronis" (= U+0313)
U+0344 U+0385 ( ̈aá) "dialytika tonos" (depariketid, = U+0308 U+0301)
U+0345 U+037A ( ͅ) "ypogegrammeni/ aayota upalipi".

greek varnamaala ke ek sabaset ke saath enkoding

aaibeeem (IBM) code prushth 437, 860, 861, 862, 863, env 865 mein akshar ΓaaΘaaΣaaΦaaΩaaαaaδaaεaaπaaσaaτaaφ (saath hi ß ke liye ek vaikalpik vyaakhya ke roop mein β) shaamil hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

  • praacheen greek dhvani vigyaan
  • arvaneetik (Arvanitic) varnamaala
  • etik (attic) ank, ekrofonik ki ek pranaali jo greek varnamaala ke aksharon ka prayog kar sankhya ko darshaati hai.
  • kyumai (Cumae) varnamaala
  • greek aksharon ka angreji uchchaaran
  • greek faunt society
  • ganit, vigyaan aur injeeneeyaring ke kshetr mein prayog kiye jaane vaale greek akshar
  • greek lipyantaran
  • greeklish (Greeklish)
  • greek ank anukramik ki ek pranaali jo greek varnamaala ke aksharon ka prayog kar sankhya ko darshaati hai
  • helenik dhvani sanbandhi varnamaala
  • angreji derivative ke saath greek shabdon ki soochi
  • eksaemael (XML) aur echateeemael (HTML) akshar ikaai sandabhon ki soochi
  • dhvanyaatmak (Phoenician) varnamaala
  • greek ki romanaaijeshan (Romanization)

granth soochi

  • Elsie, Robert (1991). "Albanian Literature in Greek Script: the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth-Century Orthodox Tradition in Albanian Writing" (PDF 0.0 bytes). Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 15 (20). http://www.elsie.de/pub/pdf_articles/A1991AlbLitGreek.pdf.
  • Humez, Alexander; Nicholas Humez (1981). Alpha to omega: the life & times of the Greek alphabet. Godine. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87923-377-X. - ek lokapriya itihaas, jismein varnamaala ke mukaabale angreji mein greek jadon ke baare mein adhik jaankaari hai.
  • Jeffery, Lilian Hamilton (1961). The local scripts of archaic Greece: a study of the origin of the Greek alphabet and its development from the eighth to the fifth centuries B.C.. Oxford. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-19-814061-4.
  • Macrakis, Michael S. (ed.) (1996). Greek letters: from tablets to pixels: proceedings of a conference sponsored by the Greek Font Society. Oak Knoll. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-884718-27-2. - harman jpf, methyu Carter, nikolas baarkar, John A. len, kaaili makakaartar jerom pignot, piyerre makake, silvio levi, it al dvaara aksharon ki koding, itihaas env mudran kala par kaagaj-patra shaamil hain.
  • Hansen and Quinn (1992 - especially noted for an excellent discussion on traditional accents and breathings, as well as verbal formation). Greek - An Intensive Course, Second Revised Edition. Fordham University Press.
  • Powell, Barry B. (1991). Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet. - homar ke granthon ke mool ke bandhan, praarambhik abhilekhon aur deting ki charcha karta hai. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 052158907X
  • Macrakis, Stavros M. (1996). Character codes for Greek: Problems and modern solutions. http://www.writingsystems.net/systems/greek/languages.htm. - greek varnamaala ki charcha shaamil karta hai, jo greek ke alaava anya bhaashaaon ke liye prayukt ki jaati hai.
  • si.J. ruijagh (1998) sur la det de la kriyeshan de l'varnamaala garek (Sur la date de la créaation de l'alphabet grec). mnemosin (Mnemosyne) 51, 658-687

not

  1. a aa i E Coulmas, Florian (1996). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-631-21481-X.
  2. sabse praarambh mein likhi gayi vastuon ki tithi; A.dabalyoo.jaunastan, "the elfaabet", N. stemapolidis aur vi. karaagioraghis mein, ideees, si roots fraum sidonn too helva: intarakanekshanajs in the medeeteraaniyn 2003:263-76, deting par vartamaan chhaatravrutti ka sankshep karti hai.
  3. "Greek Letter Sampi". http://www.parthia.com/fonts/sampi.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-01-04.
  4. S. makrakis, granth soochi ke liye 1996 dekhein
  5. new faainadingj in ensheeent Afghanistan- uttari hindu-kush se mila bekatariyn (Bactrian) dastaavej, pro॰ nikolas sims-Williams dvaara vyaakhyaan (London vishvavidyaalaya)
  6. Dva balgarski rakopisa s gracko pismo", Balgarski starini 6, 1920; Andre mejn (André Mazon) env Andre veleint (André Vaillant), L'Evangelaire de Kulakia, un parler slave de Bas-Vardar, Bibliothèaque d'éatudes balkaniques 6, 1938; jargan kristofsan (Jüargen Kristophson), "Das Lexicon Tetraglosson des Daniil Moschopolitis", Zeitschrift füaar Balkanologie 9 :11; Max Demeter Peyfuss, Die Druckerei von Moschopolis, 1731-1769: Buchdruck und Heiligenverehrung in Erzbistum Achrida, Wiener Archiv füaar Geschichte des Slawentums und Osteuropas 13, 1989.
  7. yoonikod mein jatil greek akshar roopon ki vistrut charcha ke liye dekhein greek yoonikod mudde (greek yoonikod ishooj).

baahya link