yookreni bhaasha evam saahitya

yookreni bhaashaabhaashi kshetr
yookreni bhaasha ke lekhak aur kavi

ukreni bhaasha, ukreni janta ki bhaasha hai jo moolat: Ukraine mein rahati hai. iska vikaas praacheen roosi bhaasha se hua. yeh slevonik bhaashaaon ki poorvi shaakha mein he jismein iske atirikt roosi evam beloroosi bhaashaaeain sammilit hain. is bhaasha ke bolanevaalon ki sankhya 3 karod 28 lakh se adhik hai. iski boliyon ke teen mukhya samooh hain - uttari upabhaasha, dakshin-pashchimi upabhaasha aur dakshin-poorvi upabhaasha. aadhunik saahityik ukreni ka vikaas dakshin-poorvi upabhaasha ke aadhaar par hua. ukreni bhaasha rooparachana aur vaakyavinyaas mein roosi bhaasha ke nikat hai.

yookreni saahitya ka itihaas

ukreni bhaasha ka vikaas 12veen sadi se praarambh hua. is kaal se ukreni janta ne anek lokakathaaon aur lokageeton ki rachana ki. isi kaal mein veeragaathaaeain, pauraanik kathaaeain evam dhaarmik rachanaaeain viksit hone lageen. praaya: in krutiyon ke rachayitaaon ke naam agyaat hain. 16veen shataabdi se naatakon ka bhi vikaas hua. 19veen shataabdi ke madhya se ukreni saahitya mein yathaarthavaadi dhaara viksit hone lagi. vyangaatmak rachanaaeain ek prasaddhi vyangalekhak skovorota (1722- 1794 E.) likhne lage. suprasiddh kavi aur gadyakaar i.p. kotlaarevski (1769-1838 E.) ne nav ukreni saahitya ki sthaapana ki. inhonne saahitya aur jeevan ka drudh sambandh rakha, ukreni saahitya ki sabhi shailiyon par bahut prabhaav daala tatha aadhunik saahityik bhaasha ki neenv rakhi.

taraas grigoryevich shevcheinko (1814-1861 E.) mahaan kraantikaari janakavi the. unhonne ukreno saahitya mein aalochanaatmak yathaarthavaad ki sthaapana ki. apni krutiyon mein ve jaar ke viruddh kraantikaari kisaan aandolan ki bhaavanaaeain aur vichaar prakat karte the. unki anek kavitaaeain atyant lokapriya hain. us samay ke prasiddh gadyakaaron mein panaas mirni aur naatakakaaron mein i. kaarpeko-kaariya hain. suprasiddh kavi, naatakakaar aur gadyakaar ke roop mein i.ya. fraanko (1856-1916) vikhyaat hain, jinhonne apni bahusankhyak rachanaaon mein ukreni janta ke jeevan ka vistaarapoorn varnan kiya hai. suprasiddh kavayitri lesya ukraainka (1871-1913) aur kavi kotsyoobinski (1864-1913) ne apni kavitaaon mein ukreni janta ke kraantikaari sangharsh ka chitran kiya.

October, san 1917 ki mahaan samaajavaadi kraanti ke baad ukreni saahitya ka vikaas aur bhi adhik hone laga. is kaal ke sabse prasiddh kavi paavalo ticheena aur maikseem rilski hain, evam nai peedhi ke kavi gonchaareinko, pervomaiski aadi hain. naatak ke kshetr mein sabse badi den aleksandr kornaichuk (janm 1905 E.) ki hai. upanyaasakaaron aur kahaaneekaaron mein nataan ribaak (janm 1913) evam vadim sobako (janm 1912) sabse adhik vikhyaat hain. is kaal mein ukreni saahitya samaajavaadi yathaarthavaad ke aadhaar par viksit hone laga. gadyakaar aur kavi aadhunik soviyt ukraaina ka aur veerataapoorn ateet itihaas ka chitran karte the.

san 1941-45 ke mahaan deshabhaktipoorn yuddh ke baad ukreni saahitya mein aur bhi adhik nae kavi aur lekhak paida hue. vartamaan ukreni kavi, jaise paavalo ticheena, maikseem rilski, mikola vajhaan, andrai malishko, sosyoora aadi apni kavitaaon mein majadooron aur kisaanon ke jeevan ka chitran karte tatha vishvashaanti ke liye sangharsh aur vibhinn deshon ki janta ki maitri ki bhaavanaaeain karte hain. ukreni naatakakaar, jaise kornaichuk, sobako, dmitreinko aadi saamaajik, aitihaasik aur vyangaatmak naatakon ki rachana karte hain. in naatakon ka pradarshan soviyt sangh ke bahusankhyak theateron mein kiya jaata hai. ukreni gadya ka vikaas bhi teji se ho raha hai. oles gonchaar, nataan ribaak, petron panch, stelamah aadi apne upanyaason aur kahaaniyon mein soviyt janta ki yuddhakaaleen bahaaduri ka aur saamyavaadi samaaj ke nirmaan ke liye majadooron, kisaanon aur buddhijeeviyon ke veerataapoorn parishram ka varnan karte hain. ukreni lekhak soviyt sangh ke saamaajik jeevan mein sakriya bhaag lete hain.

ukreni lekhakon ki anek krutiyaaain soviyt sangh ki anya anek bhaashaaon tatha videshi bhaashaaon mein anoodit ho rahi hain aur samast soviyt sangh tatha videshon mein lokapriya ho gayi hain. saath hi soviyt sangh ki anya bhaashaaon ke saahitya tatha videshi saahityon ki rachanaaeain ukreni bhaasha mein anoodit aur prakaashit ho rahi hain. inmein praacheen evam arvaacheen bhaarateeya saahitya ki anek krutiyaaain bhi sammilit hain.

baahari kadiyaaain