yooklid

यूक्लिड

yooklid (Euclid; 300 isa poorv), ya ukalaidis[1], praacheen yoonaan ka ek ganitjnya tha. use "jyaamiti ka janak" kaha jaata hai. usaki eliments (Elements) naamak pustak ganit ke itihaas mein safalatam pustak hai. is pustak mein kuchh gine-chune svayansiddhon (axioms) ke aadhaar par jyaamiti ke bahut se siddhaant nishpaadit (deduce) kiye gaye hain. inke naam par hi is tarah ki jyaamiti ka naam yooklideeya jyaamiti pada. hajaaron varshon baad bhi ganiteeya prameyon ko siddh karne ki yooklid ki vidhi sampoorn ganit ka reedh bani hui

yooklid ne shaankavon, goleeya jyaamiti aur sambhavat: dvighaateeya talon par bhi pustakein likheen.

anukram

parichay

yooklid (Euclid) greek ganitjnya the, jo isa se lagbhag 300 varsh poorv hue the. aisa kaha jaata hai ki pleto (Plato) ke shishyon se hi Athens mein inhonne apni praarambhik shiksha praapt ki thi. yeh tolemi pratham (Ptolemy 1) ke, jisne isa se 306 varsh poorv se 283 varsh poorv tak raajya kiya tha, samakaaleen the. yooklid ne [elekjeindriya]] mein ek paathashaala sthaapit ki thi. iske atirikt yooklid ke vishay mein kuchh pata naheen chalaata. kuchh log inhein galati se megaara (Megara) ka yooklid samajhte the, jo (Plato) ka samakaaleen tha, parantu yeh unka bhram tha, jisko ek lekhak ne 1572 i0 mein door kiya.

elements

yooklid ka sabse bada granth 'eleemeints' (Elements) hai, jo 13 bhaagon mein hai. isse pehle bhi bahut se ganitjnyaon ne jyaamitiyaaain likhi theen, parantu un sab ke baad jo jyaamiti yooklid ne likhi usaki baraabari aaj tak koi naheen kar saka hai aur na sansaar mein aajatak koi aisi pustak likhi gayi jisne kisi vigyaan ke kshetr mein bina badle hue lagbhag 2,000 varsho tak apna prabhutv jamaae rakha ho aur jo mool mein 19veen shataabdi ke ant tak padhaai jaati rahi ho. yooklid ne nai utpattiyaaain di. utpattiyon ke kram bhi badal diye, jisse puraani utpattiyaaain sab bekaar ho gayi. yeh maanana hi padega ki pustak ki abhiklpana usaki apni thi. usane us samay tak ke sabhi anusandhaanon ko apni pustak mein de diya tha. usane sabhi tathyon ko bade taarkik dhang se aise kram mein likha ki pratyek naya prameya uske pehle prameyon ke tathyon par aadhaarit tha. aisa karte karte yooklid aise tathyon par pahuainche jinke liye pramaan ki aavashyakta naheen thi. unhonne aise tathyon ko svayansiddh kaha. aise svayansiddhon ki sankhya kaheen chhah, ya kaheen baarah hai. antim svayansiddh is prakaar hai. yadi ek rekha do rekhaaon ko kaate aur ek or ant:konein ka yog do samakon se kam hai. bahut dinon tak to is svayansiddh ke vishay mein kisi ko aalochna karne ka saahas naheen hua, parantu log isko svayansiddh maanane mein aapatti karte rahe. yahaaain tak ki bahut anveshan hue. 19veen shataabdi mein hi log is nishkarsh par pahuainch paae ki uparyukt svayansiddh satya naheen hai, jisse unhonne ayooklideeya jyaamiti ka aavishkaar kiya. aj

anya granth

yooklid ne anya granth bhi likhe hain, jinmein kuchh mile hain aur kuchh naheen. jo granth mile hain, ve nimnalikhit hai

(1) data (Data) ismein 94 prameya hain, jo is baat se sambandh rakhate hain ki yadi kisi aakruti ke kuchh avayaya gyaat hon, to anya kaise nikaale jaaeain.

(2) bhaag (Division)- yeh pustak mool roop mein to naheen mili parantu pairis mein iska arabi bhaasha mein roopaantar mila. iska sanpaadan 1851 i0 mein Europeeya bhaashaaon mein hua. is pustak mein kisi aakruti ko baraabar bhaagon, ya kisi niyat anupaat kein baaaintane ke sambandh mein bahut se prameya diye hain.

(3) optiks (Optics)- is naam ki pustak greek mein hi vidyamaan hai.

(4) fenaumina (Phaenomena)- is granth mein gole ki jyaamiti ki vyaakhya ki hai, jo jyotish se sambandh rakhati hai.

gaan vidya par bhi ek pustak likhi kahi jaati hai, parantu yeh yooklid ki likhi naheen maaloom padti. anya granth, jinka pata naheen chala hai, nimnalikhit hai:

(1) nausikhiyon ko bhraantiyon se aagaah karne ke sambandh mein ek granth.

(2) porijm ; teen khandon mein.

(3) shaankav, chaar bhaagon mein.

(4) talapath (surface Loci), chaar bhaagon mein.

yooklid ke elimeints ka bahut si bhaashaaon mein anuvaad kiya gaya hai. iska sabse pehle laitin aur arabi mein anuvaad hua, jiska 1570 i0 mein angreji mein anuvaad hua.

1798 i0 mein is ganitjnya ki smruti mein yooklid naam ka shahar basaaya gaya, jo amareeka ke ohaayo praant mein hai.

yooklid ke astitv par sandeh

chandrakaant raajoo tatha kuchh anya vidvaanon ka vichaar hai ki yuklid ek mithk vyaktitv hai. unka tark hai ki yuklid ko jis 'elements' aadi ka rachanaakaar bataaya jaata hai ve pustakein bahut baad ki rachana hain. greek paandulipiyon mein yuklid ka naam naheen aata, balki sabhi paandulipiyaaain 'eliments ke lekhak' kehkar anaam vyakti ki or sanket karateen hain.[2]

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. http://www.wordsense.eu/Euclid/
  2. EUCLID AND JESUS - How and why the church changed mathematics and Christianity across two religious wars