yohaan vulfagaang faan gete

gete

yohaan vulfagaang faan gete (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) (28 August 1749 - 22 March 1832) Germany ke lekhak, daarshanik‎ aur vichaarak the. unhone kavita, naatak, dharm, maanavata aur vigyaan jaise vividh kshetron mein kaarya kiya. unka likha naatak faaust (Faust) vishv saahitya mein uchch sthaan rakhata hai. gothe ki doosari rachanaaon mein "sorau of yang vartar" shaamil hai. gothe Germany ke mahaanatam saahityik hastiyon mein se ek maane jaate hain, jinhonne athaarahaveen aur unneesaveen sadi mein vimr klaasisijm (Weimar Classicism) naam se vikhyaat aandolan ki shuruaat ki. vemar aandolan bodh, samvedna aur romaantijm ka milaajula roop hai.

johaan vulfagaang gete

unhone kaalidaas ke abhigyaan shaakuntalam ka jarman bhaasha mein anuvaad kiya. gete ne abhigyaan shaakuntalam ke baare mein kaha tha-

''yadi tum yuvaavastha ke fool praudhaavastha ke fal aur anya aisi saamagriyaan ek hi sthaan par khojana chaaho jinse aatma prabhaavit hota ho, trupt hota ho aur shaanti paata ho, arthaat yadi tum svarg aur martyalok ko ek hi sthaan par dekhna chaahate ho to mere mukh se sahasa ek hi naam nikal padta hai - shaakuntalam, mahaan kavi kaalidaas ki ek amar rachana !''

parichay

gete ka 82 varsh lamba jeevanakaal Europeeya itihaas ke aise yug se sambandhit hai jo badi badi kraantiyon tatha bhayankar uthal puthal ka samay maana gaya hai. uske yuvaavastha ke aarambh mein jarman saahitya mein kraanti ka udaya hua, jiske falasvaroop puraani maanyataaon tatha saahityik siddhaanton ka teevr virodh hua aur kavi tatha kalaakaar ki svatantrata tatha raashtreeya saahitya ke puraane gaurav ke punarooddhaar ka jordaar samarthan hua. is 'toofaani yug' mein kraanti ki bhaavana ek prachand aaaindhi ke samaan prakat hui, jisne puraane vichaaron tatha jarjar siddhaanton ke khandahar dharaashaayi kar diye. iske pashchaat uske jeevan ke madhyaahn mein France ki raajaneetik kraanti ka toofaan aaya jisne puraani vyavastha ki bhitti hila di aur laakhon vyaktiyon ke hrudaya mein svarnayug ke sundar svapn ka srujan kiya, yadyapi yeh svapn mrugamareechika ke samaan hi kshanik siddh hua, kyonki isi ke garbh se naipoliyn ka aavirbhaav hua, jiski drutagaami vijyavaahini ne Europe mein aasha ke sthaan par poorn nairaashya ka saamraajya sthaapit kiya. ant mein apne jeevan ke sandhyaakaal mein usane audyogik kraanti ke vyaapak parivrtanon ka poorn anubhav kiya aur us naveen aarthik vyavastha ka udaya bhi dekha jo samaaj ke puraane dhaaainche ko tod fodkar dheere dheere spasht ho rahi thi.

in sabhi anubhavon ki chhaap usaki krutiyon mein spasht hai, kyonki usaka samvedansheel hrudaya baahya paristhitiyon se tvarit prabhaavit hota tha. vah atyant bhaagyashaali puroosh tha. uske jeevan mein abhaav ki chhaaya kabhi naheen I. prakruti ne saundarya tatha svaasthya ke saath hi saath use bahumukhi pratibha ka varadaan diya tha jisne use vibhinn kaaryakshetron mein safal tatha pratishthin banaaya. vah keval kavi ya kalaakaar hi naheen tha, apitu ek safal vaigyaanik, saadhak tatha daarshanik bhi tha. usaka adhikaar Europe ki kai bhaashaaon par tha; usaki jnyaaanapipaasa aseem thi aur beemer riyaasat mein usane apne jeevan ka bahumulya bhaag raajashaasan tatha rangamanch sanchaalan jaise uttaradaayitvapoorn kaamon mein bitaaya tha. in baaton ko dhyaan mein rakhane par yeh samajhne mein kathinaai naheen hogi ki usane jarman saahitya ke sabhi angon ko sabal tatha susamruddh banaaya aur usapar itna gahra tatha vyaapak prabhaav daala ki uske pashchaat shaayad hi koi labdhapratishth jarman kavi ya kalaakaar usase achhoota bacha ho. usaki sabal lekhani ne geetakaavya, mahaakaavya, upanyaas, naatak, tatha aalochanaatmak prabandhon ka prachur maatra mein srujan kiya aur usane kisi bhi vishay ko sparsh karke apni shakti, naveenata tatha maulikta se aprabhaavit naheen chhoda.

gete ki vibhinn krutiyon mein uske vyaktigat anubhavon ka samaavesh hua hai aur un sabhi ko ek sootr mein baaaindhanevaala tatv usaka vyaktitv hai jo samay ke saath saath viksit hota raha. isliye yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki usaki vibhinnakaaleen krutiyon mein usaka naitik, bauddhik tatha aadhyaatmik charit nihit hai. jeevan ke vasant kaal mein usaki bhaavanaaeain teevr tatha saral theen aur usaka abhivyanjan saral kintu jordaar bhaasha mein hota tha jo bhaavuk hrudaya ka naisargik udgaar prateet hoti thi. parantu mastashk ki paripkvata ke saath hi saath bhaav ki garima tatha bhaasha ka parishkaar aur chhandon ki jatilta uttarottar badhne lagi aur ant mein uske shabd bhaavon se bojhil ho gaye evam hrudaya ke bhaav mastashk ke anushaasan se niyantrit hue. iska arth yeh hai ki usane apne vyaktitv ki virodhi pravruttiyon mein samanvaya sthaapit karne ka safal prayaas kiya aur usaka samast saahitya tatha darshan isi tarah se samanvaya ke puneet kartavya ka upadesh deta hai.

usane is baat par vishesh jor diya ki manushya ki antarmukhi pravruti haanikaarak hai aur ise bahirmukhi banaana atyaavashyak hai jisse vyakti tatha samaaj, aatma tatha baahya prakruti mein svasth saamanjasya ho sake. is tathya ka parichay usaki sabhi krutiyon mein milta hai. uske geetakaavya vyaktigat prem se aarambh hote hain parantu kaalaantar mein manushya tatha prakruti ka drudh sambandh unka mukhya vishay hota hai-vah prakruti jo brahmamaya hai aur jiske saath maanav ki aatma ka atoot sambandh hai kyonki srushti ke vividh praani ekta ke sootr mein baindhe hain.

uske teen pradhaan upanyaas bhi uske vikaas ke teen vibhinn pahaluon ke dyotak hain. unamein pratham tatha sarvaadhik prasiddhipraapt 'vardar' hain, jo 'romantic' kaaleen Europe ki aatma ka prabhaavashaali chitr hai. yeh aise navayuvak ka chitr hai jo jeevan se oob gaya hai kyonki baahya jagat mein uske liye koi ras ya saar naheen hai. usaka hrudaya vichitraniraasha se ot prot hai aur ant mein usaka ekaakeepan itna katu ho jaata hai ki usaka ant aatmahatya mein hi hota hai. gete ke baad ke likhe hue do upanyaas 'vilhem meestar' aur iska paravarti sanskaran shaili ke vikaas ke saath hi saath vyakti tatha samaaj ke saamanjasya ka maarg prashast karte hain aur aakhiri granth mein to lekhak ne audyogik yugeen samaaj vyavastha tatha usamein nihit samasyaaon ka safal tatha sajeev vishleshan kiya hai.

gete ki krutiyon mein naatakon ka vishesh sthaan hai aur unamein mukhya hain 'gotj', 'yagamaant', 'ifeenyajeeni', 'taaso' aur 'faaust'. yahaaain par itna kehna hi paryaapt hoga ki 'faaust' gete ki pratibha ka sarvottam prateek tatha vishvasaahitya ka amoolya ratn hai. iski rachana ka itihaas 'gete' ke vikaas ka itihaas hai aur naatak ke naayak ki jeevanakatha maanav aatma ke vikaas ki katha hai. 'faaust' madhyayugeen lokasaahitya ka poorvaparichit paatr hai jisko gete ne maanavata ka prateek maana hai. yeh vyakti aarambh mein vardar ke hi samaan ahanbhaav se aakraant hai parantu dheere dheere usaka man anya vyaktiyon tatha baahya sansaar ki or aakrusht hota hai. pehla charan ek abodh ladki se prem hai jiska ant du:khamaya siddh hota hai, fir usaka pravesh samaaj mein hota hai aur helen ke sampark mein aakar vah karm ki upaadeyata ka paath padhta hai aur ant mein ek vistrut bhookhand ka svaami hokar uske vikaas mein laga hua apni jeevanaleela samaapt karta hai. 'faaust' ka vyaakhyaasaahitya kaafi vistrut hai. gete ki paini drushti ne bahut se tatvon ka aavishkaar kiya jinka viksit roop kaalaantar mein bodhagamya hua. usaki krutiyon mein vikaasavaad tatha maarksavaad ke mool siddhaant nihit hain aur unamein us vichaaradhaara ke liye bhi paryaapt samarthan milta hai jisne hitlar jaise nirankush shaasakon tatha netaaon ko Germany mein lokapriya tatha janta ki shraddha tatha pooja ka paatr banaaya, yadyapi unki samast shakti vidhvans kaarya hi mein barbaad hui. angreji ke prasiddh kavi aarnald ne gete ko 'lauh yug ka chikitsak' bataaya hai, par gete ke vichaar aaj bhi naveen tatha sajeev hain. kaalidaas ke shaakuntal ke liye usane prashansa ke jin shabdon ka prayog kiya hai vahi usaki krutiyon ke liye bhi upayukt hai-kyonki unamein bhi vasant ka saurabh tatha shishir ka madhur ras poornaroop se mishrit hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh granth

  • ji. H. levisdevid nat : laaif aind varks ov gete (sajild), 1855;
  • William roj : aisej aan gete, kaisel aind ko. 1949;
  • bi. feyarali : A stadi ov gete, aaksaford, 1957;
  • L. A. viloovaai : yuniti aind kaanteenuiti in gete, klereindan press, aaksaford, 1947.