yati

yati
(nikrusht himmaanav
migoi, meh-teh itiyaadi.)
Yetiscalp.JPG

khumjung math mein kathit yati khopadi
praani
samooheekaran rahasyamaya, oreing-utain
up samoohan maanavanuma
aaainkade
desh Nepal, cheen, Bhaarat, mangoliya
kshetr himaalaya
aavaas pravarteeya

yati (yeti) ya ghrunit himmaanav (abominebal snomain) ek pauraanik praani aur ek vaanar jaisa kriptid hai jo kathit taur par Nepal aur Tibet ke himaalaya kshetr mein nivaas karta hai. yati aur meh-teh naamon ka upayog aam taur par kshetr ke mool nivaasi karte hain,[1] aur yeh unke itihaas evam pauraanik kathaaon ka hissa hai. yati ki kahaaniyon ka udbhav sabse pehle 19veen sadi mein pashchimi lokapriya sanskruti ke ek pahaloo ke roop mein hua.

vaigyaanik samudaaya adhikaansh taur par saakshya ke abhaav ko dekhte hue yati ko ek kinvadanti ke roop mein mahatva dete hain,[2] fir bhi yeh kriptojoolauji ke sabse prasiddh praaniyon mein se ek ke roop mein kaayam hai. yati ko uttari America ke bigfut kinvadanti ki tarah ka hi ek prakaar maana ja sakta hai.

anukram

shabd vyutpatti aur vaikalpik naam

yati shabd tibbati: གaཡaའa་aདaྲaེaདa་; vaayali: g.ya' dred se vyutpann hai jo tibbati: གaཡaའa་; vaayali: g.ya' "rauki" arthaat "chattaani", "rauki place" arthaat "chattaani jagah" aur (tibbati: དaྲaེaདa་; vaayali: dred) "ber" arthaat "bhaaloo" shabdon ka ek mel hai.[3][4][5][6][7] pranavaanand[3] bataate hain ki "ti" (ti), "te" (te) aur "teh" (teh) shabdon ki vyutpatti bole jaane vaale shabd 'tre' (tre) (vartani "dred" (dred)) se hui hai jo ber (bhaaloo) ka tibbati shabd-roop hai, jiske 'r' ka uchchaaran itni dheemi aavaaj mein kiya jaata hai ki yeh lagbhag sunaai hi naheen deta, is prakaar yeh "te" (te) ya "teh" (teh) ban jaata hai.[3][7][8]

himaalaya ke logon dvaara istemaal kiye jaane vaale anya shabdon ka anuvaad bilkul usi roop mein naheen hota hai, balki ye shabd pauraanik aur mool nivaasi vanya jeevan ko sandarbhit karte hain:

  • meh-teh (tibbati: མaིa་aདaྲaེaདa་; vaayali: mi dred) ka anuvaad "maanav-bhaaloo" ke roop mein hota hai.[4][7][9]
  • dju-teh - 'dju' shabd ka arth "maveshi" aur sampoorn shabd ka arth "maveshi bhaaloo" hai aur yeh ek tarah ka himaalayan brown ber (himaalaya mein rahane wala bhoore rang ka bhaaloo) hai.[4][8][10][11]
  • migoi ya mi-go (tibbati: མaིa་aརaྒaོaདa་; vaayali: mi rgod) ka anuvaad "jangali maanav" ke roop mein hota hai.[5][11]
  • mirka - "jangali-maanav" ka ek doosra naam, haalaanki sthaaneeya kinvadanti ke anusaar "koi jo kisi ko marata hua dekhta hai ya maar diya jaata hai". baad vaale ko 1937 mein Frank smeeth ke sherapaaon ki ek likhit bayaan se liya gaya hai.[12]
  • kaang aadmi - "him maanav".[11]
  • jobraan (JoBran) - "aadamakhor".[11]

nepaaliyon ke paas yati ke liye vibhinn naam hain, jaise - "ban-manche" jiska arth "vanamaanush"[krupaya uddharan jodein] hai ya "kaangacheinjunga raachees" jiska arth "kanchanajunga ka daanav" hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

"ghrunit himmaanav"

"ghrunit himmaanav" padavi ko 1921 tak naheen gadha gaya tha, usi varsh lieutenant Colonel Charles hauvard-bari ne alpaain club aur royal jiyograafikl society ke sanyukt "evarest rikaunisns eksapidishn"[13][14] (evarest tohi abhiyaan) ka netrutv kiya jiska vruttaant unhonne mount evarest the rikaunisns, 1921 mein likha.[15] is pustak mein hauvard-bari 21,000 fut (6,400 mi) mein "lhaakpa-la" ko paar karne ka ek vivran shaamil karte hain jahaan unhein kuchh aise padachihn mile jise dekhkar unhein laga ki ye "shaayad kisi bade se lambi Doug bharne vaale shikaari bhediye ke padachihn the jisne naram barf mein dohare padachihn-maarg ka roop dhaaran kar liya tha jo kuchh-kuchh nange pairon vaale aadmi ke pairon ke nishaan lag rahe the". ve yeh bhi kehte hain ki unke sherapa pathapradarshakon ne unhein turant bataaya ki ye padachihn jaroor kisi "barfon ke jangali maanav" ke honge jise unhonne "metoh-kaangami" naam diya.[15] "metoh" ka anuvaad "maanav-bhaaloo" aur "kaang-mi" ka anuvaad "himmaanav" ke roop mein hota hai.[3][5][11][16]

hauvard-bari dvaara "metoh-kaangami"[13][15] shabd ke anuvaad aur bill tilmain ki pustak mount evarest, 1938[17] mein istemaal kiye gaye shabd ke beech abhi bhi bhram vidyamaan hai jahaan tilmain ne "ghrunit himmaanav" shabd ke gadhne ka varnan karte samay "metch", jo tibbati bhaasha[18] mein vidyamaan naheen ho sakta aur "kaangami" shabdon ka istemaal kiya tha.[5][17][19] ek mithya naam ke roop mein "metch" ka ek aur saboot landan vishvavidyaalaya (1956 ke aaspaas) mein school of oriyental end afrikn stadeej ke tibbati bhaasha ke adhikaari profesar David snelagrov ne diya hai, jinhonne "metch" shabd ko asambhav shabd maanate hue ise asveekaar kar diya kyonki "t-c-h" vyanjan varnon ko tibbati bhaasha mein ekasaath joda naheen ja sakta hai.[18] dastaavejon se pata chalta hai ki "metch-kaangami" shabd ki vyutpatti (varsh 1921 ke) ek srot se hui hai.[17] aisa sujhaav mila hai ki "metch" bas "metoh" ki galat vartani hai.

"ghrunit himmaanav" shabd ki utpatti nishchaya hi rangeen hai. iski shuruaat tab hui jab shri henari nyoomain, jinhonne "kim"[6] upanaam ka istemaal karke Kolkata mein the stetsamain mein ek lambe samay tak apna yogadaan diya, ne Darjiling lautane par "evarest rikaunisns eksapidishn" ke kuliyon ka saakshaatkaar liya.[17][20][21][22] nyoomain ne shaayad kalaatmak anujnyaapti ke kaaran "ghrunit" shabd ki jagah "metoh" shabd ko "ghinaune" ya "gande" shabdaarthon ke roop mein galat anuvaad kiya.[23] jaisa ki lekhak bill tilmain varnan karte hain, "[nyoomain] ne lambe arase ke baad the times ke liye ek patra mein likha: poori kahaani ek aisi aanandamaya rachana lagi ki mainne ise ek ya do samaachaarapatron ko bhej diya".[17]

itihaas

yati ki kalaatmak vyaakhya

19veen sadi

1832 mein, James prinsep ke journal of the eshiyaatik society of Bengal ne parvataarohi bi.H. haujasan ke uttari Nepal mein unke anubhav ke vivran ko prakaashit kiya. unke sthaaneeya pathapradarshakon ne ek lambe, do pairon vaale praani dekha jo lambe kaale baalon se dhanka tha jo dar se bhaagata hua prateet hua. haujasan ne yeh nishkarsh nikaala ki yeh ek vanamaanush tha.

soochit padachihnon ka ek praarambhik record 1889 mein Lawrence vaadel ke amang the himaalayaaj mein dikhaai diya. vaadel ne apne pathapradarshak dvaara di gayi nishaan chhodkar jaane vaale ek vishaal vaanar jaise praani ke vivran ki soochana di jise vaadel ne kisi bhaaloo ke pairon ka nishaan samjha. vaadel ne do pairon vaale vaanar jaise praaniyon ki kahaaniyaan suni thi lekin unhonne likha ki poochh-taachh kiye gaye kai gavaahon mein se kisi ne bhi "kabhi koi ... ek bhi praamaanik vivran naheen de saka. sarvaadhik oopari jaanch mein hamesha kuchh-na-kuchh aisa hi samaadhaan niklata jiske baare mein kisi ne suna hota tha."[24]

20veen sadi

20veen sadi ke dauraan khabaron ki aavrutti mein vruddhi hui jab pashchimeevaasiyon ne iske baare mein kai parvaton ki khaak chhaanane ka drudh prayaas karna shuroo kar diya aur samay-samay par ajeebogareeb praaniyon ya ajeeb tarah ke padachihnon ko dekhne ki soochana di.

san 1925 mein N. A. tombaaji, jo ek photographer aur royal jiyograafikl society ke sadasya hain, likhte hain ki unhonne jemoo gleshiyr ke paas lagbhag 15,000 fut (4,600 mi) par ek praani dekha. tombaaji ne baad mein likha ki unhonne lagbhag ek minute tak lagbhag 200 se 300 gaj (180 se 270 mi) se us praani ko dekha. "ismein koi sandeh naheen ki usaki kad-kaathi bilkul ek insaan ki tarah thi jo seedha chal raha tha aur kuchh bauni burush (rodadendran) jhaadiyon ko todne ke liye kabhi-kabhi beech-beech mein rook raha tha. yeh barf ki tulana mein kaala dikhaai diya aur jahaan tak main samajh sakta tha, isne kapde naheen pahane the." lagbhag do ghante baad, tombaaji aur unke saathi pahaad par se utare aur us praani ke nishaan dekhe jiska varnan unhonne is roop mein kiya "in padachihnon ki rachana ek aadmi ke pairon ke nishaan ki tarah hi thi lekin fark sirf itna tha ki ye padachihn chh: se saat inch lambe aur chaar inch tak chaude the[25] ... ismein koi shak naheen tha ki ye nishaan kisi do pairon vaale praani ke the."

yati mein pashchimi logo ki ruchi mein 1950 ke dashak mein naatakeeya roop se vruddhi hui. 1951 mein mount evarest par chadhne ka prayaas karte samay erik shiptan ne saagar tal se lagbhag 6,000 mi (20,000 fut) oopar barf mein anginat bade-bade nishaanon ki tasveerein li. ye tasveerein gahan jaanch aur bahas ka vishay rahi hain. kuchh log tark dete hain ki ve yati ke astitv ke sabse achhe saboot hain, jabki anya log daave ke saath kehte hain ki ye nishaan ek saansaarik praani ke nishaan hain jo barf ke pighlane se vikrut ho gaye hain. is baat par bhi dhyaan diya jaana chaahiye ki erik shiptan ek kukhyaat vyaavahaarik jokar[26] the.

1953 mein sar edamand Hillary aur tenajing norge ne mount evarest par chadhne ke samay bade-bade padachihnon ko dekhne ki khabar di. apni pehli aatmakatha mein tenajing ne kaha ki unka maanana tha ki yati ek vishaal vaanar tha aur haalaanki ise unhonne khud kabhi naheen dekha tha, unke pitaaji ne do baar ise dekha tha, lekin apne doosari aatmakatha mein unhonne kaha ve iske astitv ko lekar bahut jyaada ulajhan mein pad gaye the.[27]

daily mel ke 1954[28] ke snomain eksapidishn ke dauraan parvataarohan neta John Angelo Jackson ne evarest se kanchanajunga tak pehli baar paidal yaatra ki jiske maarg mein padne vaale teingaboche gompa mein unhonne yati ke prateekaatmak chitron ki tasveerein li.[29] Jackson ne barf mein kai padachihnon ko dhoondh nikaala aur unki tasveerein li jinmein se adhikaansh pahachaanayogya the. haalaanki, aise bhi kai vishaal padachihn the jinki pehchaan naheen ki ja saki. in chapate padachihn jaise nishaanon ke banane ke peechhe hava aur kanon dvaara mool padachihn ka kataav aur uske baad usaka failaav jimmedaar tha.

19 March 1954 ko daily mel mein ek lekh chhapi jismein kathit taur par abhiyaan dalon dvaara paingaboche math mein paae gaye yati ki khopadi ki khaal se baalon ke namoonon ko praapt karne ka varnan tha. mand prakaash mein ye baal kaale rang se lekar gahre bhoore rang ke lagte the aur dhoop mein lomadi ke baalon ki tarah laal lagte the. baal ka vishleshan maanav evam tulanaatmak shaareerik rachana ke ek visheshagya profesar fredarik vood jons[30][31] ne ki. adhyayan ke dauraan, baalon ko nikhaara gaya, kai bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya aur sookshmataapoorvak iska vishleshan kiya gaya. anusandhaan mein baalon ki sookshm tasveerein lena aur unki tulana gyaat jaanvaron, jaise - bhaalooon aur vanamaanushon, ke baalon se karna shaamil tha. jons ne nishkarsh nikaala ki ye baal vaastav mein kisi khopadi ki khaal ke naheen the. unhonne tark diya ki jabki kuchh jaanvaron mein sir ke oopari sire se lekar peechhe tak baalon ki ek shreni hoti hai, lekin kisi bhi jaanavar mein lalaat ke aadhaar se hote hue sir ke oopari sire tak jaati hui aur gardan ke pichhle bhaag mein khtm hoti hui baalon ki shreni naheen hoti hai (jaisa paingaboche mein paae gaye "khopadi ki khaal" mein mila tha). jons us jaanavar ka ekdam sahi pata lagaane mein asamarth the jisse paingaboche mein paae gaye baal ko liya gaya tha. haalaanki unhein vishvaas tha ki ye baal kisi bhaaloo ya maanavaakaar vaanar ke naheen the. unhonne sujhaav diya ki ye baal kisi mote baalon vaale aur khur vaale jaanavar ke kandhe ke baal the.[32]

slaavomir raavikj ne 1956 mein prakaashit apni pustak the laaaing vauk mein daava kiya ki jis samay vah aur kuchh anya log 1940 ke jaade mein himaalaya paar kar rahe the, us samay unka maarg do pairon vaale jaanvaron dvaara kai ghanton tak avaruddh ho gaya tha jo dekhne mein barf mein idhar-udhar pair ghaseet kar chalne ke sivaaya kuchh naheen kar rahe the. uske baad se raavikj ka poora byaura kaalpanik maana jaata raha hai.

1957 ke aarambh mein America ke ek dhanavaan teli Tom slik ne yati ke sambandh mein praapt soochanaaon ki jaanch karne vaale kuchh missiono ko vittaposhit kiya. 1959 mein slik ke abhiyaan dalon mein se ek ne yati ke kalpit mukhaakrutiyon ko sangrah kiya; maleeya vishleshan mein ek parajeevi paaya gaya jise vargeekrut naheen kiya ja saka. kriptojoolaujist barnaard hyoovelamains ne likha, "choonki pratyek jaanavar mein unke khud ke parajeevi hote hain, isne sanket diya ki yeh mejabaan jaanavar samaan roop se ek agyaat jaanavar hai."[33]

1959 mein, abhineta James steevart ne Bhaarat ke daure ke samay kathit taur par ek tathaakathit yati ke avashesh ki taskari ki jise kathit taur par paingaboche haind ke naam se jaana jaata hai jise unhonne Bhaarat se landan jaate samay apne saamaan mein chhipa liya tha.[34]

1960 mein Hillary ne yati ke bhautik saakshya ko ikaththa karne aur usaka vishleshan karne ke liye ek abhiyaan ka shubhaarambh kiya. unhonne khumajung math se pashchim mein pareekshan ke liye ek tathaakathit yati "khopadi ki khaal" bheji, jiske parinaamon ka sanket tha ki us khopadi ki khaal ko sero naamak bakari jaisi dikhne waali himaalaya ki ek hirn ke tvacha se banaaya gaya tha. maanav vigyaani maayara shaikle is aadhaar par is nishkarsh se asahamat the ki "khopadi ki khaal se liye gaye baal dekhne mein spasht roop se bandar jaise the aur yeh bhi ki ismein ek aisi prajaati ke parajeevi ansh hain jo sero se praapt anshon se bhinn hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

1970 mein british parvataarohi Don hvilans ne annapoorna par chadhte samay ek praani ko dekhne ka daava kiya.[35] hvilans ke mutaabik, ek shivir-sthal ki khoj karte samay unhonne kuchh ajeeb si aavaajein suni jise unke sherapa pathapradarshak ne yati ki aavaaj bataaya. us raat, unhonne apne shivir ke paas ek kaali aakruti ko ghoomate hue dekha. agale din, unhonne barf mein kuchh maanav jaise padachihn dekhe aur us shaam, unhonne doorabeen se 20 minute tak ek do pairon vaale vaanar jaise dikhne vaale praani ko dekha jo jaahir taur par unke shivir se kuchh doori par bhojan ki talaash mein tha.[tathya vaanchhit]

ek prasiddh yati chhal hai jise sno vaukar film ke naam se jaana jaata hai. footage ko pairaamaaunt ke yoopeeen (UPN) kaaryakram, pairaanaurmal baurdaralaind, ke liye nirmit kiya gaya tha jise prakat roop se kaaryakram ke nirmaataaon ne banaaya tha. yeh kaaryakram 12 March se 6 August 1996 tak chala. fauks ne is footage ko khareed liya aur the varlds gretest hokses par apne paravarti kaaryakram mein is footage ka istemaal kiya.[36]

21veen sadi

2004 mein pratishthit journal nechar ke sampaadak henari gi ne yeh likhte hue yati ka ullekh ek kinvadanti ke ek udaaharan ke roop mein kiya jo aur adhik adhyayan ke laayak hai, "khoj ki itne haal ke samay tak homo floresiyensis bach gaye, bhoovijnyaaan ki drushti se, ise bahut kuchh anya pauraanik maanav tulya praaniyon ki kahaaniyon ki tarah banaati hai, jaise yati ki kahaaniyon ki sthaapana satya ke ann par hui hai... ab, kriptojoolauji, aise shaanadaar praaniyon ka adhyayan, thande pradesh se pravesh kar sakta hai.[37]

varsh 2007 ke December ke aarambh mein ameriki TV prastutakarta joshuaa Gates aur unki team (destineshan truth) ne Nepal ke evarest kshetr mein padachihnon ki ek shrrunkhala dhoondhane ki khabar di jo yati ke vivran ke sadrush tha.[38] un padachihnon mein se pratyek ki lambaai 33 semi (13 inch) thi jiske pair ki anguliyon ki sankhya paanch thi jiski maap kul milaakar 25 semi (9.8 inch) thi. saanchon ko aage ke anusandhaan ke liye chhaape se banaaya gaya tha. in padachihnon ki jaanch idaaho state university ke jefre meldram ne ki jinhein vishvaas tha ki ve aakruti vigyaan ki drushti se itne sateek the ki unhein nakali ya maanav nirmit naheen kaha ja sakta.[krupaya uddharan jodein] meldram ne yeh bhi bataaya ki ve bahut kuchh doosare kshetr mein paae jaane vaale bigfut ke ek jodi padachihnon ki tarah the.[krupaya uddharan jodein] uske baad bhootaan ke truteeya satr madhya samaapan yaatra ke dauraan Gates ki team ko ek ped par baalon ka ek namoona mila jiska vishleshan karne ke liye unhein ve vaapas le aae. iska pareekshan karne ke baad yeh nishkarsh nikaala gaya ki baal kisi agyaat nar vaanar ke the.

25 July 2008 ko BBC (BBC) ne khabar di ki deepoo maarak dvaara uttar-poorv Bhaarat ke sudoor gaaro hills kshetr mein sangrahit baalon ka vishleshan praaimaitolaujist anna nekaaris aur sookshmadarshiki visheshagya jon vels ne Britain ke Oxford brookes vishvavidyaalaya mein ki thi. ye praarambhik pareekshan anirnaayak the aur vaanar sanrakshan visheshagya Ian redamand ne BBC (BBC) ko bataaya ki 1950 ke dashak mein himaalaya ke abhiyaanon ke dauraan edamand Hillary dvaara sangrahit in baalon aur namoonon ke upatvacha dhaanche mein samaanata thi aur Oxford university myoojiym of naicharal history ko daan kar diya aur DNA (DNA) ke yojanaabaddh vishleshan ki ghoshana ki.[39] uske uparaant is vishleshan ne is baat ka khulaasa kiya hai ki baal himaalayan goral se praapt hua.[40]

20 October 2008 ko saat Japani jaanbaajon ki ek team ne padachihnon ki tasveerein li jo sanbhavat: kisi yati ke pairon ke nishaan the. team ke neta yoshiteroo taakaahaashi ka daava hai ki unhonne 2003 ke ek abhiyaan mein ek yati ko dekha tha aur ab vah us praani ka film utaarane ke liye drudh sankalp hai.[41]

sanbhaavya spashteekaran

himaalaya ke vanya jeevan ke kuchh drushyon ko yati ke drushyon ke spashteekaran ke roop mein galat tareeke se prastaavit kiya gaya hai, jismein chu-teh, jo kam oonchaai par nivaas karne wala ek langoor bandar[42] hai, tibetan blue ber, himaalayan brown ber ya dju-teh, jise himaalayan red ber ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, shaamil hai.[42] kuchh logon ne yeh bhi sujhaav diya hai ki yati vaastav mein ek maanav aranyavaasi ho sakta hai.

bhootaan ke ek suprachaarit abhiyaan se khabar mili ki baalon ka ek namoona praapt hua tha jiska, profesar Brian saaikes ke DNA (DNA) vishleshan ke baad, kisi gyaat jaanavar se Milan naheen kiya ja sakta.[43] haalaanki, media release ke baad paripoorn vishleshan ne saaf taur par saabit kar diya ki ye namoone brown ber (ursus aarktos) aur eshiyaatik black ber (ursus tibetaanus) ke the.[44]

1986 mein, south taayaraul ke parvataarohi renahold mesanar ne ek yati ke saath aamana-saamana hone ka daava kiya. uske uparaant unhonne maai kvest for the yeti naamak ek pustak ki rachana ki hai aur aise hi kisi ek yati ki sachmuch mein hatya karna ka daava karte hain. mesanar ke anusaar, yati vaastav mein luptapraay: himaalayan brown ber, ursus aarktos isaabelinus, hai jo seedha khada hokar ya sabhi chaar haath-pairon par chal sakta hai.[45]

2003 mein, Japan ke parvataarohi makoto nebuka ne apne baarah varsheeya bhaashaavijnyaaan sambandhi adhyayan ke parinaamon ko prakaashit kiya jismein unhonne daava kiya ki "yati" shabd vaastav mein "mati" shabd ka ek bigda hua roop hai, jo kshetreeya bhaasha mein "bhaaloo" shabd ka hi ek shabd-roop hai. nebuka daava karte hain ki sajaateeya tibbati is bhaaloo se darate hain aur ise ek alaukik praani ke roop mein poojate hain.[46] nebuka ke daave lagbhag tatkaal aalochna ka vishay the aur un par bhaashaai laaparavaahi ka aarop lagaaya gaya tha. dau॰ raaj Kumar Pande, jinhonne yati aur parvateeya bhaashaaoain donon par shodh kiya hai, ne kaha "shabdon ke aadhaar par himaalaya ke rahasyamayi jaanavar ki kahaaniyon par doshaaropan karna kaafi naheen hai jiska tuk to milta hai lekin arth alag hai."[47]

kuchh[kaun?] ka andaaj hai ki ye kathit praani vilupt daityaakaar vaanar jaaiganatopithekas ke aadhunik namoone ho sakte hain. haalaanki, jabki yati ko aam taur par dvipaad ke roop mein varnit kiya jaata hai, adhikaansh vaigyaaniko ka vishvaas hai ki jaaiganatopithekas chaupaaya tha aur itna vishaal tha ki, jab tak yeh vishesh roop se ek dvipd vaanar (oriyopithekas aur hominids ki tarah) ke roop mein viksit naheen hua, inki tarah seedha khada hokar chalana ab vilupt ho chuke nar vaanar ke liye bhi bahut jyaada mushkil tha lekin iske vidyamaan chaupaaya rishtedaar, vanamaanush ke liye aisa karna sambhav hai.

lokapriya sanskruti mein

filmon, saahitya, sangeet aur video gemon mein dikhne ke baad yati ek saanskrutik prateek ban gaya hai.

film

mukhyat: the sno kriyechar (1954), the abominebal snomain (1957), maunstars, ink. (2001) aur The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor (2008) naamak filmon mein iski upasthiti ullekhaneeya hai.

teleevijn

yati vaarshik American christmas prasaaran vishesh rudolf the red-nojd renadiyr sahit, kuchh teleevijn kaaryakramon mein; looni tyoons ke vibhinn kaartoonon mein; the ilektrik company se spaaidar-main ki ek kahaani mein; british science fikshan teleevijn shrrunkhala Doctor hoo mein chh: kadiyon vaale ek dhaaraavaahik, the abominebal snomen mein robot ke samaan dikhne vaale yati ke roop mein (the web of fiyr, the five dauktars aur daaunataaim mein unhonne vaapasi ki); Power Rangers: Operation Overdrive mein; aur the seekret saitaradej mein mahatvapoorn bhoomikaaen nibhaata hai.

saahitya

saahitya mein yati ko harj ki tintin in Tibet mein, aar. L. staain ke goojbamps frainchaaij ki 38veen pustak, the abominebal snomain of pesaadena mein aur chooj yor on aidaveinchar shrrunkhala ki ek gemabuk mein dekha gaya hai. abominebal snomain maarval comics universe ka ek paatr hai aur snomain deesi comics universe ka ek paatr hai. yati ko bhaarateeya kaumik super commando dhruv mein dikhaaya gaya tha. H. pi. lavakraaft ki "chulhoo mithos" aur anya, jaise - lavakraaft ki kahaani "the hvisparar in daarkanes" mein mi-go naam ka prayog bhi kiya gaya hai.

sangeet

ameriki hevi metal band haai on fire ne apne doosare elbam saraaunded baai theevs mein apne "the yeti" gaane ko shaamil kiya.

theem park

vault dijni world ka aakarshan eksapidishn evarest ki vishay-vastu yati ki lokakathaaon ke ird-gird ghoomti hai jismein jhoole ki savaari ke dauraan ek 25 foot lamba audio enimetronik yati ko prakat hota hua dikhaaya jaata hai.[48] dijneelaind mein maitarahorn bobasleds naamak isi tarah ke ek jhoole par teen audio-enimetronik abominebal snomen dikhaai dete hain.

video game

yati kai video game mein dikhaai diya hai, jismein roonaskep (RuneScape), daayablo II, kaibela's deinjaras hants 2, joo taaikoon, world of vaurakraaft, The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, The Legend of Kyrandia: Hand of Fate, kings kvest V, taumb redar 2, maipalastori (MapleStory), skeefri (SkiFree), Uncharted 2: Among Thieves, poksanora (PoxNora), final faintasi VI, final faintasi XII, Baldur's Gate: Dark Alliance, tintin in Tibet, enabeee street (NBA Street), plaants varsas jombeej (Plants vs. Zombies), Castlevania: Dawn of Sorrow, pokeemon daayamand end parl, title kvest aur Carnivores: Ice Age shaamil hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kriptid ki soochi
  • kahaavati praaniyon ki soochi
  • loordes prabhaav
isi tarah ke kathit praani
  • almaas - mangoliya
  • amomongo - fileepeens
  • ban-maanush - Bangladesh
  • barmaanoo - Afghanistan aur Pakistan
  • batutat - viytanaam
  • bigfut - uttari America
  • chuchunya - saaiberiya
  • fiyr liyaath - Scotland
  • fauk maunstar - America
  • graasamain - America
  • hibaagon - Japan
  • mande baarung - Bhaarat
  • maipiguaari - dakshin America
  • momo the maunstar - America
  • nuk-luk - Canada
  • orang maavas - Malaysia
  • orang peindek - Indonesia
  • skank ep - America
  • yeren - cheen
  • yovi - Australia

sandarbh

paad-tippaniyaan

  1. Charles Stonor (1955 Daily Mail). The Sherpa and the Snowman. Hollis and Carter.
  2. John Napier (2005). Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality. London: N. Abbot. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-525-06658-6. .
  3. a aa i E Rev. Swami Pranavananda (1957). "The Abominable Snowman". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 54.
  4. a aa i Stonor, Charles (January 30, 1954). The Statesman in Calcutta.
  5. a aa i E Swan, Lawrence W., (April 18, 1958). "Abominable Snowman". Science New Series: 882–884.
  6. a aa Ralph Izzard (1955). chapter 2. "The Abominable Snowman Adventure". Hodder and Stoughton: 21–22.
  7. a aa i Bernard Heuvelmans (1958). On the Track of Unknown Animals. Rupert Hart-Davis. pp. 164.
  8. a aa Ralph Izzard (1955). chapter2. "The Abominable Snowman Adventure". Hodder and Stoughton: 199.
  9. Ralph Izzard (1955). chapter2. "The Abominable Snowman Adventure". Hodder and Staoughton: 22.
  10. Rev, Swami Pranavananda (1955). Indian Geographical Journal, July-Sept 30: 99.
  11. a aa i E u John A. Jackson (1955). More than Mountains. George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd).
  12. Tilman H.W, (1938). Mount Everest 1938. Pilgrim Publishing. pp. 131. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7769-175-9.
  13. a aa Charles Howard-Bury (February 1921). "Some Observations on the Approaches to Mount Everest". The Geographical Journal 57 (no. 2): 121–124. doi:10.2307/1781561.
  14. Francis Yourghusband; H. Norman Collie; A. Gatine (February 1922). "Mount Everest" The reconnaissance: Discussion". The Geographical Journal 59 (no. 2): 109–112. doi:10.2307/1781388.
  15. a aa i Charles Howard-Bury (1921). "19". Mount Everest The Reconnaissance, 1921. Edward Arnold. pp. 141. ISBN=1-135-39935-2.
  16. Ralph Izzard (1955). chapter2. "The Abominable Snowman Adventure". Hodder and Staoughton: 21.
  17. a aa i E u Tilman H.W, (1938). Mount Everest 1938. Pilgrim Publishing. pp. 127–137. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7769-175-9.
  18. a aa Ralph Izzard (1955). chapter2. "The Abominable Snowman Adventure". Hodder and Staoughton: 24.
  19. William L. Straus Jnr., (June 8, 1956). "Abominable Snowman". Science, New Series 123 (No. 3206): 1024–1025.
  20. Bacil F. Kirtley (April 1964). "Unknown Hominids and New World legends". Western Folklore 23 (No. 1304): 77–90. doi:10.2307/1498256.
  21. John Masters (January 1959). The Abominable Snowman. CCXVIII. Harpers. pp. 31.
  22. Bernard Heuvelmans (1958). On the Track of Unknown Animals. Rupert Hart-Davis. pp. 129.
  23. Ralph Izzard (1955). chapter2. "The Abominable Snowman Adventure". Hodder and Stoughton: 23.
  24. yeh-teh: "dait thing der"
  25. 6 se 7 inch (150 se 180 mimi), 4 inch (100 mimi)
  26. vels, si. 2008. hoo'za hoo in british klaaimbing the klaaimbing company limited
  27. Tenzing Norgay (told to and written by James Ramsey Ullman) (1955). Man of Everest - The Autobiography of Tenzing. George Harrap & Co, Ltd.
  28. daily mel ki team himmaanav ki talaash kareinge
  29. John Angelo Jackson (pp136) (2005). "Chapter 17". Adventure Travels in the Himalaya (pp135-152). New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co.. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7387-175-2.
  30. Jessie Dobson (June 1956). "Obituary: 79, Frederic Wood-Jones, F.R.S.: 1879-1954". Man 56: 82–83.
  31. Wilfred E. le Gros Clark (November 1955). "Frederic Wood-Jones, 1879-1954". Biographical memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 1: 118–134. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1955.0009.
  32. Ralph Izzard (1955). The Abominable Snowman Adventure. Hodder and Staoughton.
  33. loren kolamain, Tom slik end the sarch for yeti, febar end febar, 1989, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-571-12900-5; loren kolamain, Tom slik: tru life enakaauntars in kriptojoolauji, fresno, California: linden press, 2002, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-941936-74-0
  34. maailastons -- Jimmy steevart
  35. jim perin, the vilan: the life of Don hvilans . the maaunteniyrs books, 2005, peepi. 261-2
  36. sno vaukar film
  37. nechar pablishing group (2004). flors, gaud end kriptojoolauji (keval abhidaan ke saath upalabdh).
  38. Charles Haviland (2007-12-01). "'Yeti prints' found near Everest". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/7122705.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-01.
  39. yati ke baal DNA (DNA) vishleshan
  40. 'yati ke baal' ka sambandh ek bakari se hai, elestar lausan ki ek report - BBC news (BBC News) - 11:20 jeeemati (GMT), somvaar, 13 October 2008
  41. http://web.archive.org/web/20081025011515/news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20081020/wl_sthasia_afp/nepaljapanwildlifeyetioffbeat
  42. a aa evarest se kanchanajunga 1954 » pradarshan 7.book-beedablyoo se yati
  43. the stetsamen -- mistri praaimet
  44. Chandler, H.C. (2003). Using Ancient DNA to Link Culture and Biology in Human Populations. Unpublished D.Phil. thesis. University of Oxford, Oxford.
  45. yati ke baare mein pareshaan kar dene wala satya -- ghrunit him-bhaaloo ki chhaanabeen
  46. Tibet: rahasyavaadi saamaanya tathya
  47. BBC news (BBC News) -- yati ka 'gair-astitv' asahya
  48. "Engineering Expedition Everest,complete with a yeti". Machine Design. 2009-05-03. http://machinedesign.com/ContentItem/58140/EngineeringExpeditionEverestcompletewithayeti.aspx.

saamaanya sandarbh

  • John nepiyr (emaaaraseees (MRCS), aaiaaraseees (IRCS), deeesasi (DSC)) bigfut: the yati end saisakvaatch in mith end reality 1972 aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-525-06658-6.
  • sar Francis yangahajband the epik of mount evarest, 1926, Edward arnold end kan. abhiyaan jisne anajaane mein "abominebal snomain" (ghrunit himmaanav) shabd gadha
  • Charles hauvard-bari, mount evarest the rikaunisns, 1921, Edward arnold, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 1-135-39935-2.
  • bill tilmain (H. dablyoo. tilmain), mount evarest 1938, parishisht bi, peepi. 127–137, pilgrim pablishing. aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 81-7769-175-9.
  • John Angelo Jackson, mor dain maauntens, adhyaaya 10 (peepi 92) evam 11, preelyood tu the snomain eksapidishn end the snomain eksapidishn, George hairap end kan, 1954
  • raalf ijrd, the abominebal snomain edaveinchar, yeh "snomain" (himmaanav) ko dhoondh nikaalne ke 1954 ke abhiyaan par daily mel ke samvaadadaata ka vistrut vivran hai, hodar aur staufatan, 1955.
  • Charles stonar, the sherapa end the snomain, vaigyaanik abhiyaan adhikaari ke 1955 ke daily mel ke "abominebal snomain eksapidishn" ki yaad dilaata hai, yeh keval "snomain" (himmaanav) ka hi naheen balki himaalaya aur iske logon ki vanaspatiyon aur pashuvarg ka bhi ek bahut vistrut vishleshan hai. holis aur Carter, 1955.
  • John Angelo Jackson, edaveinchar traivals in the himaalaya adhyaaya 17, evarest end the iloosiv snomain, 1954 adyatit saamagri, indas pablishining company, 2005, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 81-7387-175-2.
  • barnaard hyoovelamains, on the track of ananaun enimls, hil end vaaaing, 1958
  • renahold mesanar, maai kvest for the yeti: kaunfraunting himaalayaas' deepest mistri, New York: seint Martin press, 2000, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-312-20394-2
  • gaardanar saul, trel of the abominebal snomain, New York: ji. pi. putnaams sons, 1966, aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-399-6064
  • dainiyl Taylor-aaid, samathing hidn bihaaind the reinjs: A himaalayan kvest, sain Francisco (kailif.) : markari house, 1995

saaaincha:Cryptozoology