yashapaal


yashapaal
Yashpal kathakar.jpg
janm: 3 December, 1903 E.
firojapur chhaavani, Punjab, Bhaarat
mrutyu: 26 December, 1976 E.
Bhaarat
kaaryakshetr: upanyaasakaar, lekhak, nibandhakaar
bhaasha: hindi
vishay: janajaagaran
vo duniya, divya, deshdrohi, foolon ka kurta, pinjare ki udaan, jnyaaanadaan


yashapaal (3 December 1903 - 26 December 1976) ka naam aadhunik hindi saahitya ke kathaakaaron mein pramukh hai. ye ek saath hi kraantikaari evam lekhak donon roopon mein jaane jaate hai. premachand ke baad hindi ke suprasiddh pragatisheel kathaakaaron mein inka naam liya jaata hai. apne vidyaarthi jeevan se hi yashapaal kraantikaari aandolan se jude, iske parinaamasvarup lambi faraari aur jail mein vyateet karna pada. iske baad inhone saahitya ko apna jeevan banaaya, jo kaam kabhi inhone bandook ke maadhyam se kiya tha, ab vahi kaam inhone buletin ke maadhyam se janajaagaran ka kaam shuru kiya. yashapaal ko saahitya evam shiksha ke kshetr mein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara san 1970 mein padm bhooshan se sammaanit kiya gaya tha.

anukram

jeevani

yashapaal ka janm 3 December 1903 ko Punjab mein, feerojpur chhaavani mein ek saadhaaran khatri parivaar mein hua tha. unki maaain shreemati premadevi vahaaain anaathaalaya ke ek school mein adhyaapika theen. yashapaal ke pita heeraalaal ek saadhaaran kaarobaari vyakti the. unka Patrick gaaainv ranghaad tha, jahaaain kabhi unke poorvaj hameerapur se aakar bas gaye the. pita ki ek chhoti-si dukaan thi aur unke vyavasaaya ke kaaran hi log unhein 'laala' kehte-pukaarate the. beech-beech mein ve ghode par saamaan laadakar feri ke liye aas-paas ke gaaainvon mein bhi jaate the. apne vyavasaaya se jo thoda-bahut paisa unhonne ikattha kiya tha use ve, bina kisi pukhta likha-padhi ke, hath udhaaroo taur par sood par uthaaya karte the. apne parivaar ke prati unka dhyaan naheen tha. iseeliye yashapaal ki maaain apne do beton—ayashapaal aur dharmapaala—aako lekar firojpur chhaavani mein aarya samaaj ke ek school mein padhaate hue apne bachchon ki shiksha-deeksha ke baare mein kuchh adhik hi sajag theen. yashapaal ke vikaas mein greebi ke prati teekhi ghruna aarya samaaj aur svaadheenata aandolan ke prati upaje aakarshan ke mool mein unki maaain aur is parivesh ki ek nirnaayak bhoomika rahi hai. yashapaal ke rachanaatmak vikaas mein unke bachapan mein bhogi gayi greebi ki ek vishisht bhoomika thi.

angreji raaj aur yashapaal ji

apne bachapan mein yashapaal ne angrejon ke aatank aur vichitr vyavahaar ki anek kahaaniyaaain suni theen. barasaat ya dhoop se bachane ke liye koi hindustaani angrejon ke saamane chhaata lagaae naheen gujr sakta tha. bade shaharon aur pahaadon par mukhya sadkein unheen ke liye theen, hindustaani in sadkon ke neeche bani kachchi sadak par chalte the. yashapaal ne apne hosh mein in baaton ko sirf suna, dekha naheen, kyonki tab tak angrejon ki prabhuta ko asveekaar karanevaale kraantikaari aandolan ki chingaariyaaain jagah-jagah footane lagi theen. lekin fir bhi apne bachapan mein yashapaal ne jo bhi kuchh dekha, vah angrejon ke prati ghruna bhar dene ko kaafi tha. ve likhte hain, ''mainne angrejon ko sadak par sarv saadhaaran janta se salaami lete dekha hai. hindustaaniyon ko unke saamane gidgidaate dekha hai, isse apna apamaan anumaan kiya hai aur uske prati virodh anubhav kiya...' (sinhaavalokan-1, sanskaran 1956, pru. 42)

angrejon aur prakaaraantar se british saamraajyavaad ke viruddh apni ghruna ke sandarbh mein yashapaal apne bachapan ki do ghatnaaon ka ullekh vishesh roop se karte hain. inmein se pehli ghatna unke chaar-paaainch varsh ki aayu ki hai. tab unke ek sambandhi yuktapraant ke kisi ksbe mein kapaas otane ke kaarakhaane mein manager the. kaarakhaana station ke paas hi kaam karne vaale angrejon ke do-chaar baingale the. aas-paas hi in logon ka khoob aatank tha. inmein se ek baingale mein murgiyaaain pali theen, jo aas-paas ki sadak par ghoomti-firti theen. ek shaam yashapaal un murgiyon se chhedkhaani karne lage. baingale mein rahanevaali mem saahiba ne is harakt par bachchon ke fatkaar diya. shaayad 'gadha' ya 'ulloo' jaisi koi gaali bhi di. chaar-paaainch varsh ke baalak yashapaal ne bhi usaki gaali ka pratyuttar gaali se hi diya. jab us stri ne unhein maarane ki dhamaki di, to unhonne bhi use vaise hi dhamakaate hue javaab diya aur fir bhaagakar kaarakhaane mein chhip gaye. lekin ghatna yooain hi taal di jaanevaali naheen thi. iski shikaayat unke sambandhi se ki gayi. unhonne yashapaal ki maaain se shikaayat ki aur anek aashankaaon aur aatank ke beech yeh bhi bataaya ki isse poore kaarakhaane ke logon par kaisa sankat aa sakta hai. fir iske parinaam ka ullekh karte hue yashapaal likhte hain, 'meri maaain ne ek chhadi lekar mujhe khoob peeta main jameen par lot-pot gaya parantu pitaai jaari rahi. is ghatna ke parinaam se mere man mein angrejon ke prati kaisi bhaavana utpann hui hogi, yeh bhaaainp lena kathin naheen hai....' (vahi, pru.43)

doosari ghatna kuchh iske baad ki hai. tab yashapaal ki maaain yuktapraant mein hi naineetaal jile mein tiraai ke ksbe kaasheepur mein aarya kanya paathashaala mein mukhyaadhyaapika theen. shahar se kaafi door, kaarakhaane se hi sambandhi ko bada-sa aavaas mila tha aur yashapaal ki maaain bhi vaheen rahati thi. ghar ke paas hi 'dron saagar' naamak ek taalaab tha. ghar ki striyaaain praay: hi vahaaain dopahar mein ghoomane chali jaati theen. ek din ve striyaaain vahaaain naha rahi theen ki uske doosari or do angrej shaayad fauji gore, achaanak dikhaai diye. striyaaain unhein dekhkar bhaya se cheekhne lageen aur aatmaraksha mein ek-doosare se liptate hue, bhayabheet hokar usi avastha mein apne kapadeuthaakar bhaagane lageen. yashapaal bhi unke saath bhaage. ghatit kuchh vishesh naheen hua lekin angrejon se is tarah darakar bhaagane ka drushya sthaayi roop se unki baal-smruti mein taink gaya...'angrej se vah bhaya aisa hi tha jaise bakariyon ke jhund ko baagh dekh lene se bhaya lagta hoga arthaat angrej kuchh bhi kar sakta tha. usase darakar rone aur cheekhne ke sivaaya doosra koi upaaya naheen tha...' (vahi, pru.44)

aarya samaaj aur Congress ve padaav the jinhein paar karke yashapaal antat: kraantikaari sangathan ki or aae. unki maaain unhein svaami dayaanand ke aadarshon ka ek tejasvi prachaarak banaana chaahati theen. isi uddeshya se unki aaranbhik shiksha gurukul kaangadi mein hui. aarya samaaji daman ke viruddh ugr pratikriya ke beej unke man ki dharati par yaheen pade. yaheen unhein punarutthaanavaadi pravruttiyon ko bhi nikat se dekhne-samajhne ka avsar mila. apni nirdhanata ka kachot-bhara anubhav bhi unhein yaheen hua. apne bachapan mein bhi greeb hone ke aparaadh ke prati ve apne ko kisi prakaar uttaradaayi naheen samajh paate. inheen sanskaaron ke kaaran ve greeb ke apamaan ke prati kabhi udaaseen naheen ho sake.

Congress yashapaal ka doosra padaav thi. apne daur ke anek doosare logon ki tarah ve bhi Congress ke maadhyam se hi raajaneeti mein aae. raajanaitik drushti se firojpur chhaavani ek shaant jagah thi. chhaavani se teen meal door shahar ke lekchar aur jalase hote rahate the. khaddar ka prachaar bhi hota tha. 1921 mein, asahayog aandolan ke samay yashapaal athaarah varsh ke navayuvak the—adesh-seva aur raashtrabhakti ke utsaah se bharpoor, videshi kapadon ki holi ke saath ve Congress ke prachaar-abhiyaan mein bhi bhaag lete the. ghar ke hi luggad se bane khaddar ke kurtta-paayajaama aur Gandhi topi pahanate the. isi khaddar ka ek kot bhi unhonne banavaaya tha. baar-baar maila ho jaane se oobakar unhonne use laal raingava liya tha. is kaal mein apne bhaashanon mein, british saamraajyavaad virodhi aaainkadon ke srot ke roop mein, ve desh-darshan naamak jis pustak ka ullekh karte hain vah sanbhavat: 1904 mein prakaashit sakhaaraam ganesh deuskar ki baaङala pustak desherakatha hai, bhaarateeya jan-maanas par jiski chhaap vyaapak pratikriya aur lokapriyta ke kaaran british sarkaar ne jis par paabandi laga di thi.

mahaatma gaaaindhi aur gaaaindheevaad se yashapaal ke taatkaalik mohabhang ka kaaran bhale hi 12 fravari san 22 ko, chaura-chauri kaand ke baad mahaatma gaaaindhi dvaara aandolan ke sthagan ki ghoshana raha ho, lekin iski shuruaat aur pehle ho chuki thi. yashapaal aur unke kraantikaari saathiyon ka sashastr kraanti ka jo agenda tha, gaaaindhi ka ahinsa ka siddhaant uske virodh mein jaata tha. mahaatma gaaaindhi dvaara dharm aur raajaneeti ka ghaal-mel unhein kaheen buniyaadi roop se glat lagta tha. maitrik ke baad Lahore aane par yashapaal national college mein bhagatasinh, sukhadev aur bhagavateecharan bohara ke sampark mein aae. naujavaan Bhaarat sabha ki gatividhiyon mein unki vyaapak aur sakriya hissedaari vastut: gaaaindhi aur gaaaindheevaad se unke mohabhang ki ek anivaarya parinaam thi. naujavaan Bhaarat sabha ke mukhya sootraadhaar bhagavateecharan aur bhagat Singh the.

sake lakshyon par tappani karte hue yashapaal likhte hain, 'naujavaan Bhaarat sabha ka kaaryakram gaaaindheevaadi Congress ki samajhautaavaadi neeti ki aalochna karke janta ko us raajanaitik kaaryakram ki prerana dena aur janta mein kraantikaariyon aur mahaatma gaaaindhi tatha gaaaindheevaadiyon ke beech ek buniyaadi antar ki or sanket karna upayogi hoga. laala laajapataraaya ki hindoovaadi neetiyon se ghor virodh ke baavajood unapar hue laathi chaarj ke kaaran, jisse hi antat: unki mrutyu hui, bhagatasinh aur unke saathiyon ne saandars ki hatya ki. is ghatna ko unhonne ek raashtreeya apamaan ke roop mein dekha jiske pratirodh ke liye aapasi matabhedon ko bhula dena jaroori tha. bhagatasinh dvaara assembly mein bam-kaand isi soch ki ek taarkik parinti thi, lekin bhagatasinh, sukhadev aur raajaguru ki faaainsi ke virodh mein mahaatma gaaaindhi ne janta ki or se vyaapak dabaav ke baavajood, koi aupachaarik appeal tak jaari naheen ki.

apne kraantikaari jeevan ke jo sansmaran yashapaal ne sinhaavalokan mein likhe, unamein apni drushti se unhonne us aandolan aur apne saathiyon ka moolyaankan kiya. taarkikta, vaastavikta aur vishvasaneeyata par unhonne hamesha jor diya hai. yeh sambhav hai ki us moolyaankan se bahuton ko asahamati ho ya yashapaal par tathyon ko tod-marodkar prastut karne ka aarop ho. aaj bhi kuchh log aise hain, jo yashapaal ko bahut achha kraantikaari naheen maanate. unke kraantikaari jeevan ke prasang mein unke charitrahanan ki durabhasandhiyon ko hi ve poori tarah sach maankar chalte hain aur shaayad iseeliye yashapaal ki or meri nirantar aur baar-baar vaapasi ko ve 'ret ki moorti' gadhne-jaisa kuchh maanate hain.

'kraanti' ko bhi ve bam-pistaulavaali raajaneeti kraanti tak hi seemit karke dekhte hain. raajaneetik kraanti yashapaal ke liye saamaajik vyavastha mein kraantikaari parivartan ka hi ek hissa thi. saamraajyavaad ko ve ek shoshanakaari vyavastha ke roop mein dekhte the, jo bhagatasinh ke shabdon mein, 'manushya ke haathon manushya ke aur raashtra ke haathon raashtra ke shoshan ka charam roop hai'..(bhagatasinh aur unke saathiyon ke dastaavej (san.) jagamohan aur chamanalaal, sanskaran '19, pru.321) is vyavastha ke aadhaar stambh-jaageeradaari aur jmeendaari vyavastha bhi usi tarah unke virodh ke mukhya agende ke antargat aate the. desh mein jis roop mein svaadheenata I aur bahuton ki tarah, ve bhi santusht naheen the. svaadheenata se adhik ve ise satta ka hastaantaran maanate the. aur yeh lagbhag vaisa hi tha jise kabhi premachand ne John ki jagah govind ko gaddi par baith jaane ke roop mein apni aashanka vyakt ki thi.

kraantikaari rashtr bhakti aur balidaan ki bhaavana se prerit-sanchaalit yuvak the. avsar aane par unhonne hamesha balidaan se ise pramaanit bhi kiya. lekin yashapaal apne saathiyon ko irshya-dvesh, spardha-aakaankshaavaale saadhaaran manushyon ke roop mein dekhe jaane par bal dete hain. apne sansmaranon mein aaj Rajendra Yadav jise aadarsh ghoshit karte hain—'ve devata naheen hain'—ausaki shuruaat hindi mein vastut: yashapaal ke inheen sansmaranon se hoti hai. ye kraantikaari saamaanya manushyon se kuchh alag, vishishth aur apne lakshyon ke liye ekaantik roop se samarpit hone par bhi saamaanya maanaveeya anubhootiyon se achhoote naheen the. ho bhi sakte the. sharatachandr ne patheradaavi mein kraantikaariyon ka jo aadarsh roop prastut kiya, yashapaal use aavaastavik maanate the, jisse raashtrabhakti ki prerana milti ho, use kraantikaari aandolan aur us jeevan ko vaastavikta ka ek pratinidhi aur praamaanik chitr naheen maana ja sakta. subodhachandr sen gupt patheradaavi mein bijli paaneevaali jhanjhaavaati raat mein savyasaachi ke nishkraman ko bhaavi mahaanaayak subhaashachandr Bose ke palaayan ke ek roopak ke taur par dekhte hain, jabki yashapaal savyasaachi ke atimaanaveeya se lagne vaale kaarya-kalaapon aur khoh-khandaharon mein bitaae jaanevaale jeevan ko vaastavik aur praamaanik naheen maanate. kraantikaari jeevan ke apne lambe anubhavon ko hi ve apni is aalochna ke mukhya aadhaar ke roop mein istemaal karte hain.

2, March san 38 ko jail se rihaai ke baad, jab usi varsh November mein yashapaal ne viplav ka prakaashan-sanpaadan shuroo kiya to apne is kaam ko unhonne 'bulet buletin' ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya. jis ahinsak aur samataamoolak samaaj ka nirmaan ve raajaneetik kraantikaari ke maadhyam se karna chaahate the, usi adhoore kaam ko aage badhaane ke liye unhonne lekhan ko apna aadhaar banaaya. apne samay ki saamaajik-raajaneetik samasyaaon ke kendra mein rakhakar likhe gaye saahitya ko praay: hamesha hi vichaaravaadi kehkar laanchhit kiya jaata hai. nand dulaare Vajpayee ka premachand ke viruddh bada aarop yahi tha. apne oopar lagaae gaye prachaar ke aarop ka yashapaal ne uttar bhi lagbhag premachand ki hi tarah diya.

apne pehle upanyaas daada kaumared ki bhoomika mein unhonne likha, 'kala ke premiyon ko ek shikaayat mere prati hai ki (main) kala ko gaun aur prachaar ko pramukh sthaan deta hooain. mere prati diye gaye is faisale ke viruddh mujhe appeal naheen karni. santosh hai apna abhipraaya spasht kar paata hoon...(daada kaumared, sanskaran' 59, pru.4) apne lekhakeeya sarokaaron par aur vistaar se tippani karte hue baad mein unhonne likha, 'manushya ke poorn vikaas aur mukti ke liye sangharsh karna hi lekhak ki saarthakata hai. jab lekhak apni kala ke maadhyam se manushya ki mukti ke liye puraani vyavastha aur vichaaron mein antarvirodh dikhaata hai aur nae aadarsh saamane rakhata hai to us par aadarshaheen aur bhautikvaadi hone ka laanchhan lagaaya jaata hai. aaj ke lekhak ki jadein vaastavikta mein hain, isliye vah bhautikvaadi to hai hi parantu vah aadarshaheen bhi naheen hai. uske aadarsh adhik yathaarth hain. aaj ka lekhak jab apni kala dvaara nae aadarshon ka samarthan karta hai to us par prachaarak hone ka laanchhan lagaaya jaata hai. lekhak sada hi apni kala se kisi vichaar ya aadarsh ke prati sahaanubhooti ya virodh paida karta hai. saahitya vichaarapoorn hoga.

saahitya aur yashapaal ji

yashapaal ke lekhan ki pramukh vidha upanyaas hai, lekin apne lekhan ki shurooaat unhone kahaaniyon se hi ki. unki kahaaniyaaain apne samay ki raajaneeti se us roop mein aakraant naheen hain, jaise unke upanyaas. nai kahaani ke daur mein stri ke deh aur man ke krutrim vibhaajan ke viruddh ek sampoorn stri ki jis chhavi par jor diya gaya, usaki vaastavik shurooaat yashapaal se hi hoti hai. aaj ki kahaani ke soch ki jo disha hai, usamein yashapaal ki kitni hi kahaaniyaaain bataur khaad istemaal hui hai. vartamaan aur aagat katha-paridrushya ki sambhaavnaaon ki drushti se unki saarthakata asandigdh hai. unke kahaani-sangrahon mein pinjare ki udaan, jnyaaanadaan, bhasmaavrutt chingaari, foolon ka kurta, dharmayuddh, tumane kyon kaha tha main sundar hooain aur uttami ki maaain pramukh hain.

jo aur jaisi duniya banaane ke liye yashapaal sakriya raajaneeti se saahitya ki or aae the, usaka naksha unke aage shuroo se bahut kuchh spasht tha. unhonne kisi yutopiya ki jagah vyavastha ki vaastavik upalabdhiyon ko hi apna aadhaar banaaya tha. yashapaal ki vaichaarik yaatra mein yeh sootr shuroo se ant tak sakriya dikhaai deta hai ki janta ka vyaapak sahayog aur sakriya bhaageedaari hi kisi raashtra ke nirmaan aur vikaas ke mukhya kaarak hain. yashapaal har jagah janta ke vyaapak hiton ke samarthak aur sanrakshak lekhak hain. apni patrakaarita aur lekhan-karm ko jab yashapaal 'bulet ki jagah buletin' ke roop mein paribhaashit karte hain to ek tarah se ve apne rachanaatmak sarokaaron par hi tippani kar rahe hote hain. aise durdharsh lekhak ke pratinidhi rachanaakarm ka yeh sanchayan use sanpoornata mein jaanane-samajhne ke liye prerit karega, aisa hamaara vishvaas hai. varshon 'viplav' patra ka sanpaadan-sanchaalan. samaaj ke shoshit, utpeedit tatha saamaajik badlaav ke liye sangharsharat vyaktiyon ke prati rachanaaon mein gahari aatmeeyata. dhaarmik dhong aur samaaj ki jhoothi naitiktaaon par karaari chot. anek rachanaaon ke deshi-videshi bhaashaaon mein anuvaad. 'meri teri usaki baat' naamak upanyaas par saahitya academy puraskaar.

puraskaar

  • 'Dave puraskaar' (1955)
  • 'soviyt land Nehru puraskaar' (1970)
  • 'mangala prasaad paaritoshik' (1971)
  • 'padm bhooshan'
  • saahitya academy puraskaar

pramukh prakaashit krutiyaaain

divya, deshdrohi, jhootha sach, daada kaamared, amita, manushya ke roop, meri teri usaki baat (upanyaas), pinjade ki udaana, foolon ka kurta, bhasmaavrut chingaari, dharmayuddh, sach bolne ki bhool (kahaani-sangrah) tatha chakkar club (vyangya-sangrah).

upanyaas

  • divya
  • deshdrohi
  • jkji
  • jhootha sach
  • daada kaamared
  • amita
  • manushya ke roop
  • teri meri usaki baat

kahaani sangrah

  • pinjare ki udaan
  • foolon ka kurta
  • dharmayuddh
  • sach bolne ki bhool
  • bhasmaavrut chingaari

vyangya sangrah

  • chakkar club

== yeh bhi dekhein == kutte ki poonchh

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