yakrut

yakrut ki sthiti (4)

yakrut ya jigr ya kaleja (Liver) shareer ki sabse badi granthi hai, jo pitt (Bile) ka nirmaan karti hai. pitt, yakruti vaahini upatantr (Hepatic duct system) tatha pittavaahini (Bile duct) dvaara grahani (Duodenum), tatha pittaashaya (Gall bladder) mein chala jaata hai. paachan kshetr mein avashoshit aantraras ke upaapachaya (metabolism) ka yeh mukhya sthaan hai.

anukram

svaabhaavit lakshan evam sthiti

yeh laalapan liye bhoore rang ka bada mrudu, suchoorn evam rakt se bhara ang hai. mrudu hone se anya angon ke daab chinh is par padte hain, fir bhi yeh apna aakaar banaae rakhata hai. yeh shvaasochhavaas ke saath hilta rahata hai. yakrut ke do khand hote hai, inmein dakshin khand bada hota hai. yakrut peritoniym (peritoneum) guha ke baahar rahata hai. yakrut udaraguha mein sabse oopar daayaafraam (diaphragm) ke theek neeche, vishesh roop se daahini or rahate hue, baain or chala jaata hai. svaabhaavik avastha mein parshakaaon (ribs) ke neeche ise sparsh naheen kiya ja sakta.

aakaar
yakrut ka svaroop

yeh paaainch talavaale nukeela bhaag vaam or rahata hai. anya chaar tal oordhv, adh:, poorv tatha pashch kahalaate hain. iska adh: tal chaaron or patale kinaare se ghira rahata hai tatha udar guha ke anya ang is tal se sambaddh rahate hain.

maap evam bhaar

iski dakshin-baam lanbaai 17.5 seinmee0, adh: ooainchaai 16 seinmee0 tatha poorv-pashch chaudaai 15 seinmee0 hoti hai. iska bhaar shareer ke bhaar ka 1/50 bhaag ke lagbhag, praaya: 1,500 gram se 2,000 gram tak hota hain. shareer ke bhaar se iske bhaar ka anupaat stri purooshon mein ek hi hota hai, parantu vaya ke anusaar badalta hai. baalakon mein iska bhaar shareer ke bhaar ka 1/20 bhaag hota hai.

prushth bhaag (Surface)

dakshin prusht uttal aur chaukor hota hai. yeh daayaafraum se sambaddh rahata hai, jo ise dakshin fupfusaavaran aur chhah nichli parshukaaon se vilg karta hai.

urdhv prushth (Superior surface)

yeh donon or uttal tatha madhya mein avatal hota hai. yeh daayaafraum dvaara donon fuffas, fupfusaavaran tatha hradayaavaran se vilg ho jaata hai.

agr prushth (Anterior surface)

yeh tribhujaakaar hota hai. tribhuj ka aadhaar daahine hota hai. iske saamane udareeya riju papeshiyaaain (Rectus abdominus), unka aavaran udar seevani (Linea alba) tatha hainsiyaakaar snaayu (Falci form-ligament) rahate hain.

adh
prushth (Inferior surface)

yeh uttalaavatal hota hai. yeh (1) dakshin vrukk, (2) dakshin upavrukk, (3) vruhadaantr dakshin bank (Right flexure), (4) pakvaashaya ka dviteeya bhaag, (5) pittaashaya tatha (6) aamaashaya se sambaddh rahata hai. ye ang praaya: is par apna khaata sa bana lete hain.

nirvaahika yakrut (portal hepatics)

yeh anuprasth disha mein 5 seinmee0 lamba khaata hai. yeh yakrut ke adh: tal par rahata hai. iske donon oshth par laghuta sanlagn rahata hai. ismein ye yakrut dhamani, nirvaahika shira (portal vein) evam naadiyaaain yakrut mein pravesh karti hain sanyukt yakrut vaahini aur lasika vaahiniyaaain baahar niklati hain.

pashch prushth (psurface osterior)

yeh saamane vakr banaate hue rahata hai. daahine daayaafraam dvaara dakshin parshukaaaan, dakshin fupfus aur uske fupfusaavaran (pleura) se vilg kiya jaata hai tatha dakshin adhivrukk (supra renal) se sambaddh rakhata hai. adh: mahaashira (inferior venacava) ismein lambi khaat banaate hue jaati hai. is khaat ke vaam bhaag mein dakshin yakrut khand ka ek aur khand hai, jise puchhil (caudate) khand kehte hain, jo mahaadhamani (aorta) ke vaksheeya bhaag daayaafraam dvaara vilg kiya jaata hai. puchhil khand vaam khand se ek vidr dvaara alag kiya jaata hai, jismein shinra snaayu (ligamentum venosum) rahata hai. is snaayu vidr ke vaam aur vaam khand ke pashchim prushth par grasika (oesophagus) khaata rahata hai.

peritoniym ke dvigunit part iske snaayu (ligament) banaate hain. ye snaayu hain:

(1) chakreeya (coronary), (2) hainsiyaakaar (falciform), (3) gol (teres), (4) sira,

(5) vaam evam dakshin trikon (triangular) snaayu tatha (6) laghuvapa (lesser omentum).

puchhil khand

yeh kaam or shira snaayu ke vidaar, dakshin aur adh: mahaashira vidaar or nirvaahika yakrut ke madhya se hota hua dakshin khand se juda rahata hai, puchhil pravardh (Caudatte process) kehte hain. iske vaam aur puchhil khand ka nukeela bhaag ankurak pravardh kahalaata (Papillary process) hain.

chaturastr khand

yakrut adh:prushth par dikhaai deta hai. iske vaam aur tantr snaayu vidr tatha dakshin or pittaashaya khula rahata hai.

yakrut snaayuon, udareeya ant: daab, rakt vaahiniyon tatha vaayumandaleeya daab ke kaaran apne sthaan par sthit rahata hai.

raktavaahiniyaaain evam naadiyaaain

1. yakrut dhamani udaraguha (coeliac) dhamani ki shaakha hai.

nirvaahika shira- paachan tantr se paachit annarasayukt rakt laati hai.

yakrut shiraaeain (Hepatic veins)- rakt ko adh: mahaashiraaeain le jaati hai.

lasikaavaahiniyaaain- ye yakrut shiraaon aur nirvaahika shira ke saath jaati hain. yakrut ki anunpi (sympathetic) tatha paraanukanpi (parasympathetic) tantrikaaeain seelak jaati tatha vegas tantrika se aati hain.

kaarya

  1. glookoj se banane vaale glaaikojan (shareer k liye indhan) ko sangrahit karna. aavashyakta hone par, glaaikojan glookos mein parivrtit hokar raktadhaara mein pravaahit ho jaata hai.
  2. pache hue bhojan se vasaaon aur proteenon ko sansaaidht karne mein madad karna.
  3. rakt ka thakka banaane ke liye aavashak proteen ko banaana.
  4. vishharan (deetaukseefikeshan)
  5. bhruniya avastha me yeh rakt (khoon) banaane ka kaam bhi karta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain