yaantrik anuvaad

computer saaftaveyar ki sahaayata se ek praakrutik bhaasha ke tekst ya kahi gayi baat (speech) ko doosari praakrutik bhaasha ke tekst ya vaak mein anuvaad karne ko masheeni anuvaad ya yaantrik anuvaad kehte hain.

anukram

itihaas

yaantrik anuvaad ka mool vichaar san 1946 mein vaaren veevar aur e0 dee0 booth ke beech svachaalit ank pariklan yantr automatic digital computers ke vishay mein paricharcha ke samay utha. booth aur dau0 echa0 bee0 britn ne 1947 mein instityoot for edavaansd stadi, prinstan mein svachaalit computer se kosh ka anuvaad karne ke liye, ek vistrut "code" taiyaar kiya. 1948 mein aara0 echa0 richnas (R.H Richens) ne kore shabdaanuvaad ke saath-saath byaakaranik roopon ka yaantrik anuvaad kar sakane ki sambhaavana prakat ki. America mein yaantrik anuvaad par mahatvapoorn kaarya July san 1946 mein vaarain veevar ke anuvaad naamak gyaapan ke prakaashit hone par shuroo hua. anek vishv vidyaalayon aur tekanaulauji sansthaanon ne is kaarya ko apne haath mein liya. 1950 mein refalar (Reifler) ne Studies in Mechanical Translation naamak granth likha, jismein anuvaad par poorv sanpaadan aur anuvaadottar sanpaadan ka prastaav rakha. fir yaantrik anuvaad par atararaashtreeya sammelan hone lage, patrapatrikaaeain nikleen or roosi se aaingreji mein anuvaad hone lage.

masheeni anuvaad ki vibhinn vidhiyaaain

masheeni anuvaad ki mukhya vidhiyaan hain-

  • shabdakoshaanuvaad (Dictionary based translation)
  • niymaadhaarit masheeni anuvaad (Rule based machine translation ya transfer-based machine translation)
  • drushtaantaanuvaad (Example-based machine translation)
  • saankhyikeeya masheeni anuvaad (Statistical machine translation / SMT)

niymaadhaarit masheeni anuvaad is aadhaar par kaam karta hai ki bhaashaaen kaafi kam mool niyamon ke aadhaar par kaam karateen hain; isse kuchh adhik inke apavaad hote hain; aur inka ek shabdakosh hota hai.

yaantrik anuvaad ke laabh

  • atyant alp samay mein anuvaad - isse turant paath ka aashay saamane aa jaata hai. adhikaansh sthitiyon mein itna hi kaafi hota hai.
  • har samay (chaubeeso ghanta) upalabdh hai. har jagah upalabdh hai.
  • kam ya shoonya kharch
  • gopaneeyata evam nijtv (praaivesi) ki raksha
  • ek hi program anekon bhaashaaon se anekon bhaashaaon mein anuvaad kar deta hai jabki anuvaad karne wala kisi ek bhaasha se kisi doosari bhaasha mein hi anuvaad kar sakta hai.
  • kisi paath ko machine dvaara anuvaad karke usako kisi vyakti dvaara sudhaar lena ek sasta evam vyaavahaarik upaaya hai.
  • bichauliye ke hat jaane se vishv mein karodon logon ke beech seedhe samvaad banega. iske raajaneetik, saamaajik aur vaanijyik laabh kalpanaateet hoga.
  • masheeni anuvaad ke uparokt gunon ke kaaran sheegra hi videshi bhaasha seekhane ki aavashyakta hi samaapt hone waali hai.

masheeni anuvaad se hone vaale laabh ka sahi pata tab chalta hai jab ham kisi aisi bhaasha aur lipi se anuvaad karte hain jiska ek akshar bhi samajh mein naheen aa raha ho. jab anuvaad karne par vah 'kuchh arth dene' lagta hai tab masheeni anuvaad ka mahatva ka anubhav hota hai. yeh ek bahut badi khidki kholata hai.

jab manushya badi mehnat se bhaasha seekhane ke baad bhi sahi tarah se bolne mein galati karta hi to masheeni anuvaad ka majaak udaane ka koi auchitya naheen hai.

yaantrik anuvaad ki kamiyaaain

  • kam shuddh
  • sandigdh shabdon evam muhaavaron ka anuvaad karne par arth ka anarth ho jaata hai.
  • saanskrutik tatvon se bharpoor tekst (jaise kavita) ka anuvaad neeras hoga.

masheeni anuvaad aur videshi bhaasha adhyayan

bahut se vichaarakon ka mat hai ki masheeni anuvaad is star par pahunch gaya hai aur is gati se pragati kar raha hai ki ab vaishvik vichaar vinimay ke liye kisi 'sarvanisht bhaasha' (kaaman laingvej) ki aavashyakta ka aadhaar hi naheen rahega. masheeni anuvaad bhinn-bhinn maatrubhaasha vaale logon ke beech setu ka kaarya karega. masheeni anuvaad ki gunavatta mein thoda aur sudhaar ho jaayega to angreji ko videshi bhaasha ke roop mein seekhane vaalon ki sankhya ghat jaayegi. sarkaarein apni videshi bhaasha sikhaane vaale yojanaaon ko dheere-dheere vaapas lena aarambh kar deingi. aashcharyajanak roop se, jis elektraanik kraanti ne angreji ko 'vishvabhaasha' banaaya vahi ise neeche bhi le aane ka kaam bhi poora karega.

inhein bhi dekhein

masheeni anuvaad ke liye muktasrot program

  • apartiam (Apertium)
  • moses (Moses)

baahari kadiyaaain

hindi anuvaad ke upakaran

  • Google anuvaad (online)
  • bing
  • bebeelon - ismein hindi evam anya bhaashaaon ke beech anuvaad ki suvidha upalabdh ho gayi hai.
  • varldalingo (aanalaain anuvaad suvidha)
  • StarDict : Cross-Platform and international dictionary Software.
puraane/link toote hue

lekh

anya