yaajnyaavalkya

bhagavati sarasvati yaajnyaavalkya ke sammukh prakat huin
raaja janak ko brahmavidya ki shiksha dete hue rishi yaajnyaavakya

yaajnyaavalkya (isaapoorv 7veen shataabdi)[1], Bhaarat ke vaidik kaal ke ek rishi tatha daarshanik the. ve vaidik saahitya mein shukl yajurved ki vaajasaneyi shaakha ke drashta hain. inko apne kaal ka sarvopari vaidik jnyaaata maana jaata hai.

yaajnyaavalkya ka doosra mahatvapoorn kaarya shatapath braahman ki rachana hai - bruhadaaranyak upanishd jo bahut mahatvapoorn upanishd hai, isi ka bhaag hai.[2] inka kaal lagbhag 1800-700 E poo ke beech maana jaata hai. in granthon mein inko raaja janak ke darbaar mein hue shaastraarth ke liye jaana jaata hai. shaastraarth aur darshan ki parampara mein bhi inse pehle kisi rishi ka naam naheen liya ja sakta. inko neti neti (yeh naheen, yeh bhi naheen) ke vyavahaar ka pravartak bhi kaha jaata hai.

anukram

vyakti aur kaal

anek sanskrut pranthon se kai yaajnyaavalkyon ka vivran milta hai -

  1. vashishth kul ke gotrakaar jinko yaajnyaadatt naam bhi diya jaata hai (matsya puraan, 200.6)
  2. ek aachaarya jo vyaas ki rik parampara mein se vaashkal naamak rishi ke shishya. (vaayu puraan, 60.12.15)
  3. vishnupuraan mein inhein brahmaraat ka putr aur vaishanpaayan ka shishya kaha gaya hai. (3.5.2)

sabse sanrankshit jo vivran milta hai vo shatapath braahman se milta hai. ye uddaalak aaruni naamak aachaarya ke shishya the. yahaaain par unako vaajasaneya bhi kaha gaya hai.

rachanaaeain aur sankalan

shukl yajurved

is sanhita mein 40 adhyaayon ke an‍aatargat 1975 kan‍aadi‍aka ji‍an‍aahe prachali‍at s‍aavaroop mein man‍aatr ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. gadyaat‍aamako man‍aatran yaju: evam sheshe yaju: shab‍aad: is prakaar ke iske lakshan praaya: dekhne mein aate hain. iske pratipaadya vishay kramash: ye hain- darshapaurnamaas ishti (1-2 a0); agnyaadhaan (3 a0); somayajnya (4-8 a0); vaajapeya (9 a.); raajasooya (9-10 a.); agnichyan (11-18 a.) sautraamani (19-21 a.); ashvamegh (22-29 a.); sarvamedh (32-33 a.); shivsankalp upanishd (34 a.); pitruyajnya (35 a.); pravagrya yagya ya dharmayajnya (36-39 a.); ishopanisht (40 a.). is prakaar yajnyaeeya karmakaand ka sampoorn vishay yajurved ke antargat aata hai.

shaakhaayein

ab tak iski do shaakhaayein praap‍aat hoti hai jo ki‍ poorv mein 15 hua karti thi. praap‍aat shaakhaaaaein mein pratham hai maadh‍aayan‍aadi‍an tatha dvi‍ateeya hai kaan‍aav.

maadh‍aayan‍aadi‍an shaakha

is shaakha ka prachaar prasaar sam‍aprati‍ ut‍aatar Bhaarat mein praayash: sarvatr dekhne mein aata hai. is shaakha ki sanhi‍ata par aachaarya maheedhar, aachaarya uv‍aavat, s‍aavaami dayaanan‍aad saras‍aavati, pooj‍aayapaad shri karapaatr s‍aavaami tatha shreepaadadaamodar saatavalekar ki v‍aayaakh‍aaya mahat‍aavapoorn hai.

shatapath braahman

kintu yaajnyaavalkya ka doosra mahatvapoorn kaarya shatapath braahman ki rachana hai. is granth mein 100 adhyaaya hain jo 14 kaandon mein bainte hain. pehle do kaandon mein darsh aur paurnamaas ishtiyon ka varnan hai. pehle do kaandon mein darsh aur paurnamaas ishtiyon ka varnan hai. kaand 3, 4, 5 mein pashubandh aur somayajnyaon ka varnan hai. kaand 6, 9, 8, 9 ka sambandh agnichyan se hai. in 9 kaandon ke 60 adhyaaya kisi samay shati path ke naam se prasiddh the. dasham kaand agnirhasya kahalaata hai jismein agnichyan vaale 4 adhyaayon ka rahasya niroopan hai. kaand 6 se 10 tak mein shaandilya ko vishesh roop se pramaan maana gaya hai. gyaarahavein kaand ka naam sangrah hai jismein poorvardisht karmakaand ka sangrah hai. kaand 12, 13, 14 parishisht kahalaate hain aur unamein futakar vishay hain. solahavein kaand mein ve anek aadhyaatm vishay hain jinke kendra mein brahmavaadi yaajnyaavalkya ka mahaan vyaktitv pratishthit hai. usase gyaat hota hai ki yaajnyaavalkya aapane yug ke daarshanikon mein sabse tejasvi the. mithila ke raaja janak unako apna guru maanate the. vahaaain jo brahmavidya ki parishad bulaai gayi jismein kuru, paanchaal desh ke vidvaan bhi sammilit hue usamein yaajnyaavalkya ka sthaan sarvopari raha.

bruhadaaran‍aayakopanishd

bruhadaaranayakopanishd mein yaajnyaavalkya ka yeh siddhaant pratipaadit hai ki brahm hi sarvopari tatv hai aur amrutv us akshar brahm ka svaroop hai. is vidya ka upadesh yaajnyaavalkya ne apni maitreyi naamak prajnyaaashaalini patni ko diya tha. shareer tyaagane par aatma ki gati ki vyaakhya yaajnyaavalkya ne janak se ki. yeh bhi vruhadaarajhayakopanishd ka vishay hai. janak ke us bahudakshin yagya mein ek sahasr gauon ki dakshina niyat thi jo brahmanishth yaajnyaavalkya ne praapt ki. shaantiprv ke mokshadharm parv mein yaajnyaavalkya aur janak (inka naam daivaraati hai) ka avyaya akshar brahtatv ke vishay mein ek mahatvapoorn samvaad surakshit hai (a. 198-306, poona sanskaran). usamein nitya abhayaatmak guhya aksharatatv tha vedapratipaadya brahmatatv ka atyant spasht aur sudar vivechan hai. uske ant mein yaajnyaavalkya ne janak se kaha-he raajan, kshetrajnya ko jaanakar tum is gyaan ki upaasana karoge to tum bhi rirshi ho jaaoge. karmaparak yajnyaon ki apeksha gyaan hi shreshth hai (jnyaaanan vishishtan na tathaahi yajnyaa:, jnyaaanen durg tarate na yajnyaai:, shaanti. 306. 105).

yaajnyaavalkya ke guru aachaarya vaishanpaayan the jinse vaidik vishay mein unka bhaari matabhed ho gaya tha. Bhagwat aur vishnu puraan ke anusaar yaajnyaavalkya ne soorya ki upaasana ki thi aur sooryariyi vidya evam pranaavatmak akshar tatv in donon ki ekta yahi unke darshan ka mool sootr tha. viraat vishv mein jo sahasraatmak soorya hai usi mahaan aaditya ki ek kala ya akshar pranav roop se maanav ke kandr ki sanchaalak gatishkti hai. yaajnyaavalkya ka yeh adhyaatm darshan ati mahatvapoorn hai. ek vyaktitv ka paajush yagya sada viraat yagya ke saath mila rahata hai. isse maanav bhi amrut ka hi ek ansh hai. yahi yaajnyaavalkya ka ayaatayaam arthaat kabhi baasi na padnevaala gyaan hai. Bhagwat ke anusaar yaajnyaavalkya ne shukl yajurved ki 15 shaakhaaon ko janm diya, jo vaajasaneya shaakha ke naam se prasiddh hui. ve hi unke shishyon dvaara kaanav, maadhyandineeya aadi shakhaaon ke roop mein pasiddh hui (bha. 12. 6. 93-74).

yaajnyaavalkya brahmanakaaleen praacheen aachaarya the jo vaishanpaayan, shaakataayan aadi ki parampara mein hue aur kaatyaayan ne ek vaartik mein un rirshiyon ko tulyakaal ya samakaaleen kaha hai. (sootr 4. 3. 105 par vaartik).

yaajnyaavalkya smruti

ek drushti se yaajnyaavalkya smruti prasiddh hai. is smruti mein 1003 shlok hain. ispar vishvaroop krut baalakreeda (800-825), aparaark krut yaajnyaavalkeeya dharmashaastr nibandh (12veen shati) aur vijnyaaaneshvar krut mitaakshra (1070-1100) teekaaeain prasiddh hain. kaarane ka mat hai ki iski rachana lagbhag vikram poorv pehli shati se lekar teesari shati ke beech mein hui. smruti ke ant:saakshya ismein pramaan hai. is smruti ka sambandh shukl yajurved ki parampara se hi tha. jaise maanav dharmashaastr ki rachana praacheen dharmasootr yug ki saamageen se hui, aise hi yaajnyaavalkya smruti mein bhi praacheen saamagri ka upayog karte hue saamagri ko bhi sthaan diya gaya. kautilya arthashaastr ki saamagri se bhi yaakjnyaavalkya ke arthashaastr ka vishesh saamya paya jaata hai. ismein teen kaand hain aachaar, vyavahaar aur praayashchit. iski vishay-niroopan-paddhati atyant sugrathit hai. ispar virchit mitaakshara teeka hindu dharmashaastr ke vishay mein bhaarateeya nyaayaalayon mein pramaan maani jaati rahi hai.

sandarbh

  1. H. C. Raychaudhuri (1972), Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp.41–52
  2. Scharfstein (1998)

inhein bhi dekhein