vyavasaaya

vyavasaaya (Business) vidhik roop se maanya sanstha hai jo upabhoktaaon ko koi utpaad ya seva pradaan karne ke lakshya se nirmit ki jaati hai. vyavasaaya ko 'company', 'intarapraaij' ya 'farm' bhi kehte hain. pooainjeevaadi arthavyavasthaaon mein vyaapaar ka pramukh sthaan hai jo adhikaanshat: niji haathon mein hote hain aur laabh kamaane ke dhyeya se kaam karte hain tatha saath-saath swayam vyaapaar ki bhi vruddhi karte hain. kintu sahakaari sansthaaeain tatha sarkaar dvaara chalaayi jaani waali sansthaaen praaya: laabh ke bajaay anya uddeshyon ki poorti ke liye banaayi gayi hoti hain.

ham vyaavasaayik vaataavaran mein rahate hain. yeh samaaj ka ek anivaarya ang hai. yeh vyaavasaayik kriyaaon ke vistrut network ke maadhyam se vibhinn prakaar ki vastuen tatha sevaaen upalabdh karaakar hamaari aashyakataaon ki poorti karta hai.

anya shabd - vyaapaar, vyavasaaya-pratish‍aathaan, farm, dhandha, vyavasaaya, kaarabaar, kaarobaar, kaam-kaaj, kaam-dhandha, udyam

anukram

vyavasaaya ki prakruti tatha kshetr

jab ham apne aaspaas dhyaan dete hain to dekhte hain ki jyaadaatar log kisi na kisi kaam mein sanlagn hain. adhyaapak vidyaalayon mein padhaate hain, kisaan kheton mein kaam karte hain, majadoor kaarkhaanon mein kaam karte hain, chaalak gaadiyaaain chalaate hain, dukaanadaar saamaan bechate hain, chikitsak rogiyon ko dekhte hain aadi. is tarah baarahon maheene har aadmi din bhar, ya kabhi-kabhi raat bhar, kisi na kisi kaam mein vyast rahata hai. lekin ab prashn yeh uthata hai ki ham sab is tarah kisi na kisi kaam mein apne aapko itna vyast kyon rakhate hain? iska sirf ek hi uttar hai - 'apni aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye'. is tarah kaam karke ya to ham apne vibhinn uttaradaayitvon ki poorti karte hain ya dhan arjit karte hain, jisse ki ham apni aavashyakta ki vastueain tatha sevaaeain khareed sakein.

maanaveeya kriyaaeain

manushya dvaara ki jaane waali vibhinn kriyaaeain maanaveeya kriyaaeain kahalaati hain. in sabhi kriyaaon ko ham do vargo mein baaaint sakte hain-

  • aarthik kriyaaeain, aur
  • anaarthik kriyaaeain.

aarthik kriyaaeain

jo kriyaaeain dhan arjit karne ke uddeshya se ki jaati hain, unhein aarthik kriyaaeain kehte hain. udaaharan ke liye, kisaan khet mein hal chalaakar fasal ugaata hai aur use bechakar dhan arjit karta hai, kaarkhaane athva kaaryaalaya ka karmachaari apne kaam ke badle vetan ya majadoori praapt karta hai, vyaapaari vastuon ke kraya vikraya se laabh arjit karta hai. ye sabhi kriyaaeain aarthik hain.

anaarthik kriyaaeain

jo kriyaaeain dhan arjit karne ki apeksha, santushti praapt karne ke uddeshya se ki jaati hain unhein anaarthik kriyaaeain kehte hain. is tarah ki kriyaaeain, saamaajik uttaradaayitvon ki poorti, manoranjan ya svaasthya laabh ke liye ki jaati hain. log pooja sthalon par jaate hain, baadh athva bhookamp raahat kosh mein daan dete hain, svaasthya laabh ke liye swayam ko khelakood mein vyast rakhate hain, baagavaani karte hain, radio sunate hain, television dekhte hain ya isi tarah ki anya kriyaaeain karte hain. ye kuchh udaaharan anaarthik kriyaaon ke hain.

aarthik kriyaaon ke prakaar

aamtaur par aarthik kriyaaeain dhan arjit karne ke uddeshyon se ki jaati hai. saadharanataya log is tarah ki kriyaaon mein niyamit roop mein sanlagn hote hain, jise aarthik kriya kaha jaata hai.

  • vyavasaaya : vyavasaaya ka arth hai ek aisa dhandha, jismein dhan ke badle vastuon athva sevaaon ka utpaadan, vikraya aur vinimay hota hai. yeh niyamit roop se kiya jaata hai tatha ise laabh kamaane ke uddeshya se kiya jaata hai. khanan, utpaadan, vyaapaar, parivhan, bhandaaran, banking tatha beema aadi vyaavasaayik kriyaaon ke udaaharan hain.
  • pesha : koi bhi vyakti har kshetr ka visheshagya naheen ho sakta. isliye hamein doosare kshetron mein visheshagya vyaktiyon ki sevaaon ki aavashyakta padti hai. udaaharan ke liye, hamein apne ilaaj ke liye Doctor ki aur kaanooni salaah ke liye vakeel ke sahayog ki aavashyakta padti hai. ye sabhi vyakti peshe se jude log hain. is prakaar peshe ka abhipraaya aise dhandhe se hai, jismein us peshe ke vishesh gyaan aur prashikshan ki aavashyakta hoti hai tatha pratyek peshe ka mukhya uddeshya seva pradaan karna hota hai. ek peshevar nikaaya pratyek peshe ka niyman karti hai. in peshevaron ki aachaar sanhita hoti hai, jise sambandhti peshevar ikaai dvaara viksit kiya jaata hai.
  • naukri : naukri ka arth, ek aise dhandhe se hai jismein vyakti niyamit roop se doosaron ke liye kaarya karta hai aur uske badle mein vetan athva majadoori praapt karta hai. sarkaari karmachaari, companiyon ke kaaryakaari, adhkiri, bank karmachaari, paifaktari majadoor aadi naukri mein sanlagn maane jaate hain. naukri mein kaam ke ghante majadoori/vetan ki raashi tatha anya suvidhaaeain yadi hain, ke sambandh mein shartein hoti hai. saamaanyat: niyokta in sharton ko tay karta hai. koi bhi vyakti jo naukri chaahata hai, use tabhi kaarya karna aarambh karna chaahiye jabki vah sharton se santusht ho. karmachaari ka pratifl nishchit hota hai tatha usaka bhugataan majadoori athva vetan ke roop mein kiya jaata hai.

vyavasaaya ki visheshataaeain

vyavasaaya ko is prakaar paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai :

''vyavasaaya ek aisi kriya hai, jismein laabh kamaane ke uddeshya se vastuon athva sevaaon ka niyamit utpaadan kraya-vikraya tatha vinimay sammilit hai''.

vyavasaaya ki nimnalikhit visheshataaeain hoti hain :

  • vastuon tatha sevaaon ka len-den : vyavasaaya mein log vastuon athva sevaaon ke utpaadan tatha vitran kaaryon mein sanlagn hote hain. in vastuon mein bred, makkhan, doodh, chai aadi jaisi upabhokta vastuen bhi ho sakti hain aur sanyantra, machinery, upakaran aadi jaisi poonjeegat vastueain bhi. sevaaeain- parivhan, banking, beema, vigyaapan aadi roopon mein ho sakti hain.
  • vastuon tatha sevaaon ka vikraya athva vinimay : yadi koi vyakti apne upayog ke liye ya kisi vyakti ko upahaar dene ke liye koi vastu khareedata ya utpaadit karta hai to vah kisi prakaar ke vyavasaaya mein sanlagn naheen hai. lekin jab vah kisi doosare vyakti ko bechne ke liye kisi vastu ka utpaadan karta hai athva khareedata hai to vah vyavasaaya mein sanlagn hota hai. is prakaar vyavasaaya mein kreta aur vikreta ke beech vastuon athva sevaaon ke utpaadan athva kraya mein dhan athva vastu (vastu vinimay pranaali mein) ka vinimay aavashyak hota hai. bina vikraya athva vinimay ke kisi bhi kriya ko vyavasaaya ki sanjnyaa naheen di ja sakti.
  • vastuon athva sevaaon ka niyamit vinimay : ismein vastuon ka niyamit utpaadan athva kraya-vikraya hona aavashyak hota hai. saamaanyataya ekaaki saude ko vyavasaaya ki sanjnyaa naheen di ja sakti. udaaharan ke liye, yadi raajoo apni puraani car hari ko bechata hai to ise vyavasaaya naheen kaha jaaega, jab tak ki vah niyamit roop se kaaron ke kraya-vikraya mein sanlagn na ho.
  • nivesh ki aavashyakta : pratyek vyavasaaya mein bhoomi, shram athva poonji ke roop mein kuchh na kuchh nivesh ki aavashyakta hoti hai. in sansaadhanon ka upayog vividh prakaar ki vastuon athva sevaaon ke utpaadan, vitran aur upabhog ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • laabh kamaane ka uddeshya : vyaavasaayik kriyaaon ka praathamik uddeshya laabh ke maadhyam se aay arjit karna hai. bina laabh ke koi bhi vyavasaaya adhik samay tak chaaloo naheen rah sakta. laabh kamaana vyavasaaya ke vikaas aur vistaar ki drushti se bhi aavashyak hota hai.
  • aay ki anishchitta aur jokhim : pratyek vyavasaaya ka uddeshya laabh kamaana hai. jab koi vyavasaayi vibhinn sansaadhnon ka nivesh karta hai to vah uske badle mein kuchh na kuchh aay praapt karna chaahata hai. lekin uske shreshthatam prayaason ke baavajood vyavasaaya mein aay ki anishchitta bani rahati hai. kai baar use bahut laabh hota hai aur kai baar aisa bhi samay aata hai, jab use bhaari haani uthaani padti hai. aisa isliye hota hai kyonki bhavishya anishchit hai. vyavasaayi ka aay ko prabhaavit karne vaale tatvon par koi niyantraan naheen hota.

vyavasaaya vikaas

Bhaarat ki saanskrutik dhrohar bahut samruddh hai. lekin shaayad yeh bahut kam log jaante honge ki praacheen kaal mein Bhaarat, arthavyavastha tatha vyavasaaya ke star par bahut hi viksit desh tha. yeh baat aitihaasik saakshyon, khudaai se praapt pramaanon, saahitya va likhit dastaavejon se sidhi hoti hain. in sabse adhki Bhaarat ki aseem dhan sampatti se aakarshit hokar vibhinn videshi aakramanakaariyon dvaara samay-samay par hue aakraman bhi is tathya ko pramaanit karte hain. praacheen bhaarateeya sabhyata na keval vrufashi aadhaarit thi, balki iske aantarik va baahya vyaapaar va vaanijya bhi kaafi unnat the. vyaavasaayik jagat ke vibhinn kshetron mein Bhaarat ka aseem yogadaan hai. us samay ke anya deshon mein prachalit vyavasaayon se tulana karne par ham paate hain ki bhaarateeya vyavasaaya apni vilkshanata, gatisheelata ;gatyaatmakataaddh va gunaatmakata mein in sabse kaheen aage tha.

shuroo ke dinon mein bhaarateeya arthavyavastha poornat: krushi aadharit thi. log apne upabhog ki vastuon ka utpaadan swayam karte the. vastuon ko bechne athva vinimay ki aavashyakta hi naheen thi. lekin vikaas ke saath-saath logon ki aavashyakataaeain badhne lagi. jiske kaaran vastuon ke utpaadan mein bhi vrudhi hone lagi. logon ne dainik upayog tatha vilaasita sambandhi vibhinn vastuon ke utpaadan mein visheshajnyaata arjit karni shuroo kar di aur is tarah se unke paas apne upayog ki anya vastuon ke utpaadan ke liye dakshataaaur samay ka vyavasaaya ki prakruti tatha kshetr abhaav hona shuroo ho gaya. is prakaar inki kushalata mein vrudhi hone lagi aur ye apni aavashyakta se adhki vastuon ka utpaadan karne mein saksham ho gaye. at: apni anya aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye apni adhki utpaadit vastuon ke vinimay ki pranaali viksit ho gayi. yeh vyaapaar ki shurooaat thi.

aaj jyaadaatar log yeh maanate hain ki Bhaarat mein vyavasaaya va vyaapaar ke kshetr mein itna vikaas svatantraata praapti ke pashchaat hi hua hai. Bhaarat, aaj audyogik utpaadan mein itna saksham ho gaya hai ki ham sabhi vastuon ka utpaadan deshi takaneek ke prayog se kar sakte hain. lekin isse yeh parinaam naheen nikaal lena chaahiye ki bhoot kaal mein bhaarateeya sabhyata viksit ya unnat naheen thi. jabki hamein aaj bhi Bhaarat ki samrudhi vyaapaarik va vaanijyik dhrohar par garv hai.

aap yeh jaanakar hairaan honge ki Bhaarat ne vyaapaar va vaanijya ke kshetr mein apni yaatra 5000 varsh E.poo. shuroo kar di thi. kai aitihaasik saakshyon se yeh pramaanit hota hai ki us samay Bhaarat mein suniyojit shahar the. bhaarateeya kapadon, aabhooshanon aur itra ityaadi ke prati poore vishv mein aakarshan tha. yeh bhi pramaan mile hain ki kaafi samay se bhaarateeya vyaapaariyon mein vyavasaaya ke liye mudra ke prayog ka chalan tha. vyaapaariyon, shilpakaaron va utpaadakon ke hiton ki raksha ke liye sanghon ;hanapasakaddh ka prachalan tha. yeh Bhaarat mein vyaapaar va vaanijya ke jatil vikaas ki or sanket karta hai. us samay Bhaarat ke vyaapaariyon ne na keval sudrudh aantarik vyavasaayik raaston ka jaal buna tha, balki unke vyaavasaayik sambandh arab, madhya va dakshin poorv Asia ke vyaapaariyon se bhi the.

Bhaarat vibhinn prakaar ki dhatu saamagri ke utpaadan mein bhi sakriya tha, jaise taanba, peetal ki vastuen, bartan, gahane tatha sajaavati saamaan aadi. bhaarateeya vyaapaari vishv ke vibhinn bhaagon mein apne utpaadon ka niryaat karte the aur vahaan se unke utpaadon ka aayaat karte the. yeh ek sarvavidit tathya hai ki angrej sarvapratham Bhaarat mein vyaapaar karne ke liye hi aae the, jinhonne baad mein yahaan apna raajya sthaapit kar liya.

Bhaarat ne kai prakaar se vishv vyaapaar va vaanijya mein yogadaan diya hai. ganana ke liye ank pranaali, jiska ham aaj bhi upayog karte hain, Bhaarat mein pehle se viksit thi. sanyukt parivaar pratha tatha vyavasaaya mein shram vibhaajan ka vikaas bhi yaheen hua, jo aaj tak prachalit hai. aaj aadhunik samay mein prayog ki jaane waali upabhokta keindrit vyavasaaya takaneek puraane samay se bhaarateeya vyavasaaya ka ek abhinn ang rahi hai.

isliye ham kah sakte hain ki Bhaarat ki apni samrudhi vyaavasaayik dhrohar hai, jisne iski unnati mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya hai.

vyavasaaya ke uddeshya

sabhi vyaavasaayik kriyaaeain kuchh uddeshyon ki poorti ke liye ki jaati hain. vyavasaaya ke uddeshyon ko nimn prakaar vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai :

aarthik uddeshya

vyavasaaya ke aarthik uddeshyon ke antargat laabh kamaane ke uddeshya ke saath ve samast aavashyak kriyaaeain bhi aati hain, jinke dvaara laabh kamaane ke uddeshya ki poorti ki jaati hai, jaise graahak banaana, niyamit nav pravartan tatha upalabdh sansaadhanon ka behtar upayog aadi.

laabh kamaana

laabh, vyavasaaya ke liye jeevan daayini shakti ka kaarya karta hai. iske bina koi bhi vyavasaaya pratiyogita ke baajaar mein tika naheen rah sakta. vaastav mein kisi bhi vyaavasaayik ikaai ke astitv mein aane ka uddeshya hota hai- laabh kamaana. laabh, vyavasaayi ko na keval usaki aajeevika arjit karne mein sahaayata karta hai, apitu laabh ka ek bhaag vyavasaaya mein pun: viniyojit kar vyaavasaayik gatividhyin ke vistaar mein bhi sahaayak hota hai.

laabh kamaane ke praathamik uddeshya ko praapt karne ke liye vyavasaaya ke kuchh anya uddeshya nimnalikhit hain :

  • graahak banaana : jab tak utpaad ko aur sevaaon ko khareedne vaale graahak na hon, tab tak kisi bhi vyavasaaya ka astitv mein bane rahana sambhav naheen hai. koi bhi vyavasaayi tabhi laabh arjit kar sakta hai jabki vah laabh ke badle mein apne graahakon ko achhi gunavatta ki vastueain aur sevaaeain upalabdh karaae. iske liye yeh aavashyak hai vah apni vidyamaan vastuon ke liye graahakon ko aakarshit kare tatha adhki se adhki graahak banaae aur nae-nae utpaad baajaar mein laae. vibhinn vipnan kriyaaon ke dvaara ise praapt kiya ja sakta hai.
  • niyamit nav-pravartan : vyavasaaya atyant gatisheel hai tatha ek upakram apne vaataavaran mein hue parivrtanon ko apnaakar hi nirantar safal ho sakta hai. nav pravartan ka arth hai- naya parivartan. aisa parivartan, jisse utpaad ki gunaatmakata, prakriya aur vitran mein sanshodhn ho. keematon mein kami aur bikri mein vrudhi se vyavasaayi ko adhki laabh praapt hota hai. hathakaraghon ke sthaan par paavaraloom aur vrufashi mein hal athva haath se chalne vaale yantron ke sthaan par traiktar ka upayog aadi nav-pravartan ke hi parinaam hain.
  • sansaadhanon ka shreshthatam upayog : kisi bhi vyavasaaya ko chalaane ke liye paryaapt pooainji athva kosh ki aavashyakta hoti hai. is pooainji ko masheenein khareedne, kachcha maal tatha karmachaariyon ko kaam par rakhane aur pratidin ke kharchon ki poorti ke liye prayog mein laaya jaata hai. is prakaar vyaavasaayik kriyaaon mein vibhinn sansaadhnon jaise masheenein, aadmi, maal, mudra aadi ki aavashyakta hoti hai. kushal karmachaariyon ki niyukti dvaara, masheenon ka kshamata poorn upayog karke tatha kachche maal ke apavyaya ko kam karke in uddeshyon ki praapti ki ja sakti hai.

saamaajik uddeshya

saamaajik uddeshya vyavasaaya ke ve uddeshya hote hain, jinhein samaaj ke hiton ke liye praapt karna aavashyak hota hai. at: har vyavasaaya ka uddeshya hona chaahiye ki vah kisi bhi prakaar se samaaj ko haani na pahuainchaae. vyavasaaya ke saamaajik uddeshyon ke antargat achhi gunavatta waali vastuon tatha sevaaon ka utpaadan tatha poorti, uchit vyaapaarik prathaaeain apanaana, samaaj ke saamaanya kalyaanakaari kaaryon mein yogadaan tatha kalyaanakaari suvidhaaon mein yogadaan karna sammilit hai.

  • achhi gunavatta waali vastuon aur sevaaon ka utpaadan tatha poorti : choonki vyavasaaya samaaj ke vividh sansaadhnon ka upayog karta hai. isliye samaaj ki apeksha hoti hai ki vyavasaaya use gunavatta waali vastuon tatha sevaaon ki aapoorti kare. isliye vyavasaaya ka uddeshya hona chaahiye ki vah achhi gunavatta waali vastuon tatha sevaaon ka utpaadan kare tatha uchit keemat par aur uchit samay par unki poorti karein. vyavasaayi dvaara samaaj ko aapoorti ki jaane waali vastuon tatha sevaaon ki gunavatta ke anusaar unka moolya vasool karna chaahiye.
  • uchit vyaapaarik prathaaeain apanaana : pratyek samaaj mein jamaakhori kaalaabajaari, adhik keemat vasoolana aadi kriyaaeain avaanchhit maani jaati hain. iske alaava gumaraah karne vaale vigyaapan, vastuon ki gunavatta ke baare mein galat chhaap chhodte hain. vyaavasaayik ikaaiyon ko adhik laabh kamaane ke liye aavashyak vastuon ki vrufatrim kami athva keematon mein vruddhi naheen karni chaahiye. aisi kriyaaon se vyavasaayi ki badanaami hoti hai aur kabhi-kabhi use dand athva kaanoonan jail ki saja bhi bhugatani padti hai. is prakaar upabhokta aur samaaj ke kalyaan ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue, vyavasaayi ko uddeshya tatha uchit vyaapaarik prathaaon ko apanaana chaahiye.
  • samaaj ke saamaanya kalyaan kaaryon mein yogadaan : vyaavasaayik ikaayon ko samaaj ke saamaanya kalyaan tatha utthaan ke liye kaarya karna chaahiye. yeh achhi shiksha ke liye school tatha college banaakar, logon ko aajeevika kamaane ke liye vyaavasaayik prashikshan kendra kholkar, chikitsa ki suvidh ke liye aspataalon ki sthaapana kar, aam janta ke manoranjan ke liye park tatha khel parisaron aadi ki suvidheain pradaan karke sambhav hai.

maanaveeya uddeshya

maanaveeya uddeshyon se abhipraaya un uddeshyon se hai, jinmein samaaj ke aksham tatha viklaang, shiksha athva prashikshan se vanchit logon ke kalyaan tatha karmachaariyon ki apekshaaon ki poorti ke lakshya nihit hote hain. is prakaar vyavasaaya ke maanaveeya uddeshyon ke antargat karmachaariyon ki aarthik suraksha, saamaajik tatha manovaigyaanik santushti aur maanav sansaadhanon ka vikaas nihit hai.

  • karmachaariyon ka aarthik kalyaan : vyavasaaya mein karmachaariyon ko uchit vetan, kaarya-nishpaadan ke liye abhipreranaaen, bhavishyanidhi ;provideint panfadaddh ke laabh, painshan tatha anya anulaabh jaise chikitsa suvidh, aavaaseeya suvidh aadi upalabdh karaae jaane chaahiye. isse kaarya kshetr mein vyakti adhik santushti ka anubhav kareinge aur vyavasaaya ke liye adhik yogadaan de sakeinge.
  • karmachaariyon ki saamaajik tatha maanasik santushti : yeh har vyaavasaayik ikaai ka kartavya banta hai ki vah apne karmachaariyon ko saamaajik tatha maanasik santushti pradaan karein aur aisa ve unke kaam ko rochak aur chunauteepoorn banaakar, sahi kaarya ke liye sahi vyakti ko niyukt kar tatha kaarya ki neerasata ko samaapt karke sambhav bana sakte hain. saath hi nirnaya lete samay karmachaariyon ki shikaayaton tatha unke sujhaavon par ganbheerataapoorvak vichaar kiya jaana chaahiye. yadi karmachaari khush aur santusht hain to ve apne kaarya bhi achhe dhang se kar sakeinge.
  • maanaveeya sansaadhanon ka vikaas : karmachaari manushya hain aur isliye sadaiv apne peshaagat vruddhi ke liye tatpar rahate hain. iske liye upayukt prashikshan tatha vikaas ki aavashyakta hoti hai. vyavasaaya tabhi unnati ki or agrasar ho sakta hai jab samay ke anusaar uske karmachaari apni kshamataaon, kaarya-kushalataaon tatha dakshataaon mein sudhar karte rahein. at: vyavasaaya ke liye yeh mahatvapoorn hai ki vah apne karmachaariyon ke liye prashikshan tatha vikaas ke kaaryakram aayojit karte rahein.
  • saamaajik tatha aarthik roop se pichhde logon ka aarthik kalyaan : vyaavasaayik ikaaiyaaain samaaj ke pichhde tatha shaareerik aur maanasik roop se viklaang logon ki madad karke samaaj ke liye ek prerana srot ban sakti hain. aisa ve vibhinn prakaar se kar sakti hain. udaaharan ke liye vyavasaayik prashikshan kaaryakramon ka aayojan karke samaaj ke pichhde samudaaya ke logon ki aay arjan kshamata badhaai ja sakti hai. iske alaava vyavasaayik ikaaiyaaain medhavi vidyaarthiyon ko uchch shiksha ke liye chhaatraavrutti pradaan karke bhi aisa kar sakti hai.

raashtreeya uddeshya

vyavasaaya, desh ka ek mahatvapoorn ang hota hai at: raashtreeya lakshyon aur aakaankshaaon ki praapti pratyek vyavasaaya ka uddeshya hona chaahiye. vyavasaaya ke raashtreeya uddeshya nimnalikhit hain:

  • rojagaar ke avsar upalabdh karaana - vyavasaaya ke mahatvapoorn raashtreeya lakshya hai, logon ko laabhapoorn rojagaar ke avsar upalabdh karaana. is lakshya ki poorti nai vyaavasaayik ikaaiyaaain sthaapit karke, baajaar ka vistaar karke tatha vitran pranaali ko aur adhik vyaapak banaakar ki ja sakti hai.
  • saamaajik nyaaya ko badhaava dena -ek jimmedaar naagrik ke roop mein ek vyavasaayi se yeh aasha ki jaati hai ki jin logon ke saath vah lenaden karta hai un sabhi ko samaan avsar pradaan kare. yeh bhi aasha ki jaati hai ki vah sabhi karmachaariyon ko kaarya karne tatha unnati karne ke samaan avsar upalabdh karaae. is uddeshya ke antargat vah samaaj ke pichhde tatha kamjor vargo ke logon par vishesh dhyaan dein.
  • raashtreeya praathamikta ke anusaar utpaadan karna -vyaavasaayik ikaaiyon ko sarkaar ki neetiyon tatha yojanaaon ki praathamikta ko dekhte hue unheen ke anusaar vastuon ka utpaadan tatha aapoorti karni chaahiye. hamaare desh mein vyavasaaya ke raashtreeya uddeshyon mein se ek uddeshya aavashyak vastuon ke utpaadan ko badhaakar uchit dar par upalabdh karaana hona chaahiye.
  • desh ke raajasv mein yogadaan vyavasaaya ke svaamiyon ko karon aur bakaaya raashi ka bhugataan imaandaari ke saath karna chaahiye. isse sarkaar ka raajasv badhta hai, jiska upayog raashtra ke vikaas ke liye kiya ja sakta hai.
  • aatmanirbharata tatha niryaat ko badhaava -desh ko aatmanirbhar banane mein sahaayata karne ke liye vyaavasaayik ikaaiyon ki ek atirikt jimmedaari hai ki ve vastuon ke aayaat ko rokein. iske atirikt pratyek vyaavasaayik ikaai ko niryaat badhaane tatha adhik se adhik videshi mudra desh ke kosh mein laane ko apna lakshya banaana chaahiye.

vaishvik uddeshya

pehle Bhaarat ke anya deshon ke saath bahut hi seemit vyaapaarik sambandh the. tab vastuon ki aayaat aur niryaat sambandhi neetiyaaain bahut kathor theen, lekin aajkal udaaravaadi aarthik neetiyon ke kaaran kaafi had tak videshi nivesh par pratibandh samaapt ho chuka hai, tatha aayaatit vastuon par lagne wala shulk bhi kaafi kam ho gaya hai. in parivrtanon se baajaar mein pratiyogita kaafi badh gayi hai. aaj vaishveekaran ke kaaran poori duniya ek bade baajaar ke roop mein parivrtit ho chuki hai. aaj ek desh mein taiyaar maal doosare desh mein aasaani se upalabdh hai. is prakaar vishv baajaar mein pratispardha badhne se pratyek vyavasaaya apne mastishk mein kuchh uddeshya rakhakar kaam karne laga hai, jise vaishvik uddeshya kaha ja sakta hai.

  • saamaanya jeevan star mein vruddhi : vyaavasaayik gatividhyin ke vikaas ke kaaran ab duniya bhar mein uchit moolya par achhi gunavatta waali vastueain aasaani se upalabdh hain. is prakaar ek desh ka vyakti doosare desh ke vyakti dvaara upayog kiye ja rahe usi prakaar ke saamaan ka upayog kar sakta hai. isse logon ke saamaanya jeevan star mein vruddhi hoti hai.
  • vibhinn deshon ke beech asamaanataaon ko kam karna : vyavasaaya ko apni gatividhyin ka vistaar kar ameer aur gareeb raashtron ke beech ki asamaanata ko kam karna chaahiye. vikaasasheel tatha aviksit deshon mein pooainji viniyojit karke ye audyogik tatha aarthik vruddhi ko protsaahit kar sakte hain.
  • vishv star par pratispardh vastuon tatha sevaaon ki upalabdhata : vyavasaaya ko un vastuon tatha sevaaon ke utpaadan mein vruddhi karni chaahiye, jinki vishv baajaar mein maaaing tatha pratispardh adhik hai. isse niryaatak desh ki chhavi mein sudhaar aata hai aur desh ko adhik videshi mudra ki praapti hoti hai.

vyavasaaya ke saamaajik uttaradaayitv

log laabh arjit karne ke uddeshya se vyavasaaya chalaate hain. lekin keval laabh arjit karna hi vyavasaaya ka ekamaatra uddeshya naheen hota. samaaj ka ek ang hone ke naate ise bahut se saamaajik kaarya bhi karne hote hain. yeh vishesh roop se apne astitv ki suraksha mein sanlagn svaamiyon, niveshakon, karmachaariyon tatha saamaanya roop se samaaj vyavasaaya ki prakruti tatha kshetr va samudaaya ki dekharekh ki jimmedaari bhi nibhaata hai. at: pratyek vyavasaaya ko kisi na kisi roop mein inke prati jimmedaariyon ka nirvaah karna chaahiye. udaaharan ke liye, niveshakon ko uchit pratifl ki dar ka aashvaasan dena, apne karmachaariyon ko achha vetan, suraksha, uchit kaarya dashaaeain upalabdh karaana, apne graahakon ko achhi gunavatta waali vastueain uchit moolyon par ulabdh karaana, paryaavaran ki suraksha karna tatha isi prakaar ke anya bahut se kaarya karne chaahiye.

haalaanki aise kaarya karte samay vyavasaaya ke saamaajik uttaaradaayitvon ke nirvaah ke liye do baaton ka vishesh roop se dhyaan rakhana chaahiye. pehli to yeh ki aisi pratyek kriya rdhmaarth kriya naheen hoti. iska arth yeh hai ki yadi koi vyavasaaya kisi aspataal athva mandir ya kisi school athva college ko kuchh dhanaraashi daan mein deta hai to yeh usaka saamaajik uttaradaayitv naheen kahalaaega, kyonki daan dene se saamaajik uttaradaayitvon ka nirvaah naheen hota. doosari baat yeh hai ki, is tarah ki kriyaaeain kuchh logon ke liye achhi aur kuchh logon ke liye buri naheen honi chaahiye. maan leejiye ek vyaapaari taskari karke ya apne graahakon ko dhekha dekar bahut sa dhan arjit kar leta hai aur gareebon ke mufrat ilaaj ke liye aspataal chalaata hai to usaka yeh kaarya saamaajik roop se nyaayochit naheen hai. saamaajik uttaradaayitv ka arth hai ki ek vyavasaayi saamaajik kriyaaon ko sampann karte samay aisa kuchh bhi na kare, jo samaaj ke liye haanikaarak ho.

is prakaar saamaajik uttaradaayitv ki avadharana vyavasaayi ko jamaakhori va kaalaabaajaari, kar chori, milaavat, graahakon ko dhekha dena jaisi anuchit vyaaparik kriyaaon ke badle vyavasaayi ko vivekapoorn prabandhn ke dvaara laabh arjit karne ke liye protsaahit karti hai. yeh karmachaariyon ko uchit kaarya tatha aavaaseeya suvidheain pradaan karke, graahakon ko utpaad vikraya uparaant uchit sevaaeain pradaan karke, paryaavaran pradooshan ko niyantrit karke tatha praakrutik sansaadhnon ki suraksha dvaara sambhav hai.

vibhinn hit samoohon ke prati uttaradaayitv

vyavasaaya ke saamaajik uttaradaayitv ki avadharana tatha iske mahatva ke baare mein jaankaari praapt kar lene ke baad aaie jaanein ki vyavasaaya ka iske vibhinn hit-samoohon, jin par yeh aashrit hai, ke prati kya uttaradaayitv hain. vyavasaaya praay: svaamiyon, viniveshakon, karmachaariyon, poortikrtaaon, graahakon tatha upabhoktaaon, pratiyogiyon, sarkaar tatha samaaj par aashrit hai. inhein hit-samooh isliye kaha jaata hai, kyonki vyavasaaya ki pratyek kriya se in samoohon ka hit, pratyaksh ya apratyaksh roop se prabhaavit hota hai.

svaamiyon tatha niveshakon ke prati uttaradaayitv

vyavasaaya ke apne svaamiyon ke prati uttaradaayitv hain :

  • vyavasaaya ko prabhaavi dhang se chalaana,
  • pooainji tatha anya sansaadhnon ka uchit prayog karna,
  • pooainji ki vruddhi evam moolya vruddhi karna,
  • viniveshit pooainji par niyamit tatha uchit pratifl sunishchit karna,
  • unke nivesh ki suraksha ka aashvaasan dena,
  • byaaj ka niyamit bhugataan karna,
  • mooladhn ki, samay par vaapasi karna.

lenadaaron ke prati uttaradaayitv

vyavasaaya ke apne lenadaaron ke prati uttaradaayitv hai:

  • samay par bhugataan karna,
  • unke dvaara diye gaye udhar ki suraksha sunishchit karna,
  • anya vyavasaayon ki bhaaainti vyavasaaya ke maanakon ka paalan karna.

karmachaariyon ke prati uttaradaayitv

vyavasaaya ke apne karmachaariyon ke prati nimnalikhit uttaradaayitv hain :

  • vetan athva majadoori ka niyamit tatha samay par bhugataan,
  • uchit kaarya dashaaeain tatha kalyaanakaari suvidheain,
  • bhaavi jeevika ka shreshth avsar,
  • naukri ki suraksha, saamaajik suraksha jaise bhavishya nidhi ki suvidheain, saamoohik beema, peinshan, avakaash praapti ke baad ki suvidheain, muaavaja aadi,
  • shreshth rahan-sahan jaise- gruh, yaatayaat, jalapaan gruh, shikshu sanrakshan gruh upalabdh karaana.
  • samayaanusaar prashikshan tatha vikaas.

aapoortikrtaaon ke prati uttaradaayitv

vyavasaaya ke apne aapoortikrttaaon ke prati uttaradaayitv nimnalikhit hain :

  • vastuon ke kraya ke liye niyamit aadesh dena,
  • uchit niyamon tatha sharton ke aadhar par len-den karna,
  • uchit udhar avadhi ka laabh uthaana,
  • bakaaya raashi ka samay par bhugataan karna.

graahakon ke prati uttaradaayitv

graahakon ke prati vyavasaaya ke uttaradaayitv nimnalikhit hain :

  • vastuon tatha sevaaen aisi honi chaahiyeain ki upabhoktaaon ki aavashyakataaon ko dhyaan mein rakh sakein,
  • vastuon tatha sevaaon ki gunavatta shreshth honi chaahiye,
  • vastuon tatha sevaaon ki aapoorti mein niymitta honi chaahiye,
  • vastuon tatha sevaaon ke moolya uchit tatha saamarthya kshamata ke anukool hone chaahiyeain,
  • vastuon ke har gun tatha dosh tatha unke upabhog ke baare mein upabhokta ko uchit soochana di jaani chaahiye,
  • vikraya-uparaant uchit sevaaeain honi chaahiye,
  • yadi upabhoktaaon ki koi shikaayat hai, to use turant door kiya jaana chaahiye,
  • vyavasaaya ko kam vajan, milaavat aadi anuchit vyaapaarik prathaaon se bachana chaahiye.

pratiyogiyon ke prati uttaradaayitv

vyavasaaya ke apne pratiyogiyon ke prati nimnalikhit uttaradaayitv hain :

  • atyadhki vikraya commission ka prastaav na dein,
  • pratyek bikri par ooainchi chhoot dar ya pratyek vastu ke saath mufrat vastueain na dein,
  • jhoothe aur abhadr vigyaapan ke dvaara apne pratiyogiyon ko badnaam karne ki koshish na karein.

sarkaar ke prati uttaradaayitv

sarkaar ke prati vyavasaaya ke vibhinn uttaradaayitv nimnalikhit hain :

  • sarkaar ke nirdeshon ke anusaar hi vyaavasaayik ikaaiyon ki sthaapana karna,
  • fees, kar, adhbhir aadi ka niyamit tatha imaandaari ke saath bhugataan karna,
  • pratibandhti tatha ekaadhkiri vyaavasaayik gatividhyin mein sanlagn na hona,
  • sarkaar dvaara sthaapit pradooshan niyantraan maan dandon ka paalan karna,
  • rishvat tatha gair kaanooni kriyaaon dvaara bhrashtaachaar mein lipt na hona.

samaaj ke prati uttaradaayitv

ek samaaj, vyaktiyon, samoohon, sangathanon, parivaaron aadi se milkar banta hai. ye sabhi samaaj ke sadasya hote hain. ye sabhi ek doosare ke saath milte-julate hain tatha apni lagbhag sabhi gatividhiyon ke liye ek doosare par nirbhar hote hain. in sabhi ke beech ek sambandh hota hai, chaahe vah pratyaksh ho ya apratyaksh. samaaj ka ek ang hone ke naate, samaaj ke sadasyon ke beech sambandh banaae rakhane mein vyavasaaya ko bhi madad karni chaahiye. iske liye use samaaj ke prati kuchh nishchit uttaradaayitvon ka nirvaah karna aavashyak hai. ye uttaradaayitv nimnalikhit hain :

  • samaaj ke pichhde tatha kamjor vargon ki sahaayata karna,
  • saamaajik tatha saanskrutik moolyon ki raksha karna,
  • rojagaar ke avsar jutaana,
  • paryaavaran ki suraksha karna,
  • praakrutik sansaadhnon tatha vanya jeevan ka sanrakshan karna,
  • khelon tatha saanskrutik kaaryakramon ko badhaava dena,
  • shiksha, chikitsa, vigyaan prodyaugiki aadi ke kshetron mein sahaayak tatha vikaasaatmak shodhein ko badhaava dene mein sahaayata karna.

baahari kadiyaaain