vruhad Bhaarat

vruhad Bhaarat : kesariya - bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ; halka kesariya : ve kshetr jahaaain hindu dharm faila; peela - ve kshetr jinmein bauddh dharm ka prasaar hua

vruhad Bhaarat (Greater India) se abhipraaya Bhaarat sahit un anya deshon se hai jinmein aitihaasik roop se bhaarateeya sanskruti ka prabhaav hai. ismein dakshinpoorv Asia ke bhaarateekrut raajya mukhya roop se shaamil hai jinmein 5veen se 15veen sadi tak hindu dharm ka prasaar hua tha. vruhad Bhaarat mein madhya Asia evam cheen ke ve ve bhoobhaag bhi sammilit kiye ja sakte hain jinme Bhaarat mein udbhoot bauddh dharm ka prasaar hua tha. is prakaar pashchim mein vruhad Bhaarat ki seema vruhad faaras ki seema mein hindukush evam paameer parvaton tak jaayegi.

Bhaarat ka saanskrutik prabhaav kshetr

anukram

parichay

praay: teen sahasraabdi isa poorv ke madhya se Bhaarat baahya vishv se vyaapaarik star par sampark mein raha hai jabki Bhaarat teen or se samudra se ghira hai aur iske uttar mein himaalaya parvatashreni hai. lekin ye vishv ke anya deshon se Bhaarat ke najadeeki sambandh banaane mein kabhi baadhak naheen bane. bhaarateeya logon ne sudoor deshon ki yaatraaen ki aur ve jahaan bhi gaye, vahaan unhonne bhaarateeya sanskruti ki amit chhaap chhodi. iske saath, ye sudoor deshon ke vichaar, prabhaav, reeti-rivaaj aur paranparaaon ko bhi saath le aaye. tathaapi is sandarbh mein sabse badi vilkshanata yeh thi ki isse bhaarateeya sanskruti aur sabhyata ka prasaar vishv ke vibhinn bhaagon mein hua, vishesharoop se madhya Asia, dakshinpoorv Asia, cheen, Japan, Korea aadi mein. is prasaar ki sarvaadhik vilkshanata yeh hai ki is prachaar ka uddeshya kisi samaaj ya vyakti ko jeetna ya daraana naheen balki Bhaarat ki aadhyaatmik tatha saanskrutik moolyon ko svechha se sveekaar karavaana tha.

vyaapaariyon, shikshakon, raajadooton aur dharm prachaarakon ke maadhyam se bhaarateeya sanskruti ka prasaar

praacheen kaal mein bhaarateeya vyaapaari vyaapaar ke nae avsaron ki khoj mein anek deshon mein gaye the. ve pashchim mein rom tak aur samudri maargon se hote hue poorv mein cheen tak pahunche the. hamaare desh ke vyaapaari sone ki khoj mein pratham shataabdi mein indoneshiya aur kambodiya aadi deshon mein gaye. unki jaava, sumaatra tatha malaaya dveepon ki yaatraaon ke vishesh varnan milte hain. yahi kaaran hai ki in kshetron ko praacheen kaal mein 'suvarn dweep' kaha gaya tha. suvarn ka arth 'sona' aur dweep milkar bana 'sone ka dweep'. vaastav mein vyaapaariyon ne sanskruti-doot ki bhoomika nibhaayi tatha baahari duniya ke deshon ke saath vyaapaarik sambandh sthaapit kiye. isa-poorv pehli shataabdi mein vyaapaari ujjain, Mathura, kaashi, prayaag, paataleeputr aadi nagaron se aur poorvi tat ke maamallapuram, taamralipti, Cuttack, puri, raameshvaram tatha kaavereepattanam se videsh ke liye chalte the. samraat ashok ke kaal mein kaling raajya ka Sri Lanka ke saath vyaapaarik sambandh tha. jahaan kaheen bhi vyaapaari gaye vaheen unke saanskrutik sambandh sthaapit ho gaye the. is prakaar vyaapaariyon ne saanskrutik raajadooton ki bhoomika ka nirvaah kiya aur baahari duniya se vyaapaarik sambandh banaae.

poorvi tat ke samaan hi pashchimi tat par bhi anek saanskrutik sthal bane. inmein ajanta, elora, kaarle, bhaaja, kanheri aadi ka naam vishesh roop se liya jaata hai. inmein se jyaadaatar kendron par bauddh dhaarmik math hain.

saanskrutik aadaan-pradaan mein yahaan ke praacheen vishvavidyaalayon ki bhoomika sabse jyaada mahattvapoorn rahi hai. inhonne badi sankhya mein vidvaanon aur chhaatron ko aakarshit kiya. videsh se aane vaale vidvaan aksar naalanda vishvavidyaalaya ke pustakaalaya mein jaate the. kaha jaata hai ki yeh vishvavidyaalaya saat manjila tha. in vishvavidyaalayon ke shikshak aur chhaatr dharm aur vidya ke saath-saath bhaarateeya sanskruti ko bhi videsh mein le gaye. prasiddh cheeni yaatri hnen-saang ne Bhaarat ke un sabhi vishvavidyaalayon ka vistaar se varnan kiya hai jinmein vah gaye athva jahaan rah kar inhonne adhyayan kiya. udaaharan ke liye, inmein se do vishvavidyaalayon ka vishesh roop se ullekh kiya ja sakta hai - poorv mein naalanda or pashchim mein vallabhi. ganga ke poorvi tat par ek anya vishvavidyaalaya tha -vikramashila. tibbati vidvaan taaraanaath ne iska vistrut varnan kiya hai. yahaan ke shikshak aur vidvaan Tibet mein itne prasiddh the ki kaha jaata hai ek baar Tibet ke raaja ne is vishvavidyaalaya ke pradhaan ko Tibet mein aamantrit karne ke liye doot bheje the taaki svadeshi gyaan or jan-saamaanya ki sanskruti mein ruchi jagaai ja sake. Bihar mein ek anya prasiddh vishvavidyaalaya tha- odantapuri. paalavansh ke raajaaon ke sanrakshan mein iski pratishtha badhi. is vishvavidyaalaya se bahut saare bauddh bhikshu Tibet mein jaakar bas gaye the.

san 67 isavi mein cheeni samraat ke nimantran par sabse pehle jo do bhaarateeya aachaarya cheen gaye unke naam hai-kaashyap maantag aur dharmarakshit. iske baad lagaataar naalanda, takshashila, vikramashila aur odantapuri aadi vishvavidyaalayon ke shikshakon ne unka anusaran kiya. jab aachaarya kumaarajeev cheen pahunche to cheeni samraat ne unase sanskrut granthon ko cheeni mein anoodit karne ke liye anurodh kiya. ek anya aachaarya bodhidhrm the jo yogadarshan ke visheshagya maane jaate the. inko cheen aur Japan mein abhi bhi sammaan praapt hai. naalanda vishvavidyaalaya ke aachaarya kamalasheel ko Tibet ke raaja ne nimantrit kiya tha. unki mrutyu ke baad unke shareer par vishesh lep laga kar use lhaasa ke vihaar mein surakshit rakha gaya tha. jnyaaanabhadr, ek anya prakaand vidvaan the. ve apne donon beton ke saath dharm prachaar ke liye Tibet gaye. Bihar ke odantapuri vishvavidyaalaya ke samaan Tibet mein ek naye bauddh vihaar ki sthaapana ki gayi thi.

aachaarya ateesh vikramashila vishvavidyaalaya ke pradhaan the. unhein deepankar shreejnyaaan ke naam se bhi jaana jaata tha. ve gyaarahaveen shataabdi mein Tibet gaye aur vahaan bauddh dharm ki sashakt neenv daali. thonami sanbhota ek tibbati mantri tha jo cheeni yaatri hnenasaang ke naalanda aagaman ke samay, naalanda vishvavidyaalaya ka chhaatr tha. yahaan se adhyayan ke baad vah Tibet lauta aur vahaan usane bauddh dharm ka prachaar-prasaar kiya. tibbatiyon ki badi sankhya ne bauddh dharm ko sveekaar kiya yahaan tak ki Tibet ka raaja bhi bauddh ban gaya tha. usane bauddh dharm ko raajadharm ghoshit kiya tha. prasiddh shikshakon mein se ek kumaarajeev 5veen shataabdi mein sakriya the.

anya maadhyamon se bhaarateeya sanskruti ka prasaar

rom ya jipsi

bahut se bhaarateeya ghoomate-ghoomate sansaar ke anek deshon mein pahunche. ve swayam ko 'rom' kehte the aur unki bhaasha romaani thi, parantu Europe mein unhein 'jipsi' kaha jaata tha. ve vartamaan samay ke Pakistan aur Afghanistan aadi ko paar kar pashchim ki or nikal gaye the. vahaan se, Iran aur iraak hote hue ve Turkey pahunche. faaras, tauras ki pahaadi aur kustuntuniya hote hue ve Europe ke anek deshon mein fail gaye. aaj ve grees, bulgaariya, roomaaniya, poorv yoogoslaaviya ke raajyon, Poland, Switzerland, France, sveedan, chekoslovaakiya, roos, Hungary aur England mein base hue hain. is poori yaatra mein unhein lagbhag chaar sau varsh ka samay laga. is avadhi mein ve log yeh to bhool gaye ki ve kahaan ke nivaasi hain parantu unhonne apni bhaasha, rahan-sahan ke dhang, reeti-rivaaj aur vyavasaaya aadi ko naheen chhoda.

rom logon ko unke nrutya aur sangeet ke liye jaana jaata hai. kaha jaata hai ki har ek rom gaayak aur adbhut kalaakaar hota hai.

madhya Asia mein bhaarateeya sanskruti

isa poorv doosari shataabdi se Bhaarat ne cheen, madhya Asia, pashchim Asia aur roman saamraajya ke saath vyaapaarik sambandh banaae the. madhya Asia Tibet, Bhaarat, Afghanistan, cheen, roos aur mangoliya se ghira hua kshetr hai. cheen se aane-jaane vaale vyaapaariyon ko bahut kathinaaiyon ke baavajood is kshetr se hokar jaana padta tha. jo maarg unhonne banaaya vah aage chalakar 'resham-maarg' (silk root) ke naam se prasiddh hua. ise is naam se isliye bulaaya jaane laga kyonki cheen se resham ka vyaapaar kiya jaata tha. aage chalakar cheen aane jaane vaale vidvaanon, bhikshuon, aachaaryon aur dharmaachaaryon aadi ne isi maarg ka prayog kiya. is maarg ne us samay ke parichit vishv mein sanskrutiyon ke prachaar-prasaar mein ek mahaan shrunkhala ka kaarya kiya. bhaarateeya sanskruti ka prabhaav madhya Asia mein bhi drudhta se anubhav kiya gaya.

madhya Asia ke saamraajyon mein kuchi ek aisa raajya tha jahaan bhaarateeya sanskruti apne poorv vaibhav par thi. is saamraajya se resham maarg do bhaagon mein bant jaata hai aur cheen mein dun huvaang ki gufaaon par jaakar ye maarg pun: mil jaate hain. is tarah ek uttari 'resham-maarg' tha tatha doosra, dakshini resham-maarg. uttari resham maarg samarakand, kaashagadh, tumshuk, aaksu kaara shahar, tuparfaan aur haami se hokar gujarata tha aur dakshini resham maarg yaarakand, khotaan, keriya, cherachen aur meeraan se hokar jaata tha. gyaan ki khoj mein aur bauddh darshan ka prachaar karne ke liye anek cheeni aur bhaarateeya vidvaan in maargon se gaye.

Bhaarat aur madhya Asia ke deshon ke beech jo saanskrutik aadaan-pradaan hua, usaka pramaan in sabhi deshon mein praapt praacheen stoopon, mandiron, mathon, moortiyon aur chitron se praapt hota hai.

is maarg par kai sthaan hai jahaaain bhikshu aur dharmaachaarya, vyaapaari aur teerthayaatri sabhi yaatra ke beech mein ruka karte the. ye aage chalakar bauddh shiksha ke mahattvapoorn kendra bane. yaheen se hokar resham ke saath-saath Z naamak bahumoolya patthar, ghode tatha anya mahattvapoorn vastuon ka vyaapaar hua karta tha. parantu is maarg se hokar jaane wala sabse adhik prabhaavashaali tattv tha-bauddh dharm. at: kaha ja sakta hai ki is vyaapaar maarg se dharm aur darshan ka aastha aur vishvaas ka, bhaasha aur saahitya ka kala aur sanskruti ka prasaar hua. khotaan ek bahut hi mahattvapoorn padaav tha. yeh dakshini resham maarg par sthit tha.

Bhaarat ke saath iske sambandhon ka itihaas do hajaar varsh puraana hai. marubhoomi ke beech hari-bhari dharati par basa yeh khotaan raajya reshami kapda udyog, nrutya aur sangeet, saahityik aur vyaapaarik gatividhiyon aur sone tatha Z ke vyaapaar ke liye prasiddh tha.

itihaas mein, Bhaarat aur khotaan ke beech sambandh ka ek pramaan yeh hai ki bhikshuon aur shikshakon ka aavaagaman nirantar chalta raha. vahaan se praapt pehli shataabdi ke sikkon par ek or cheeni bhaasha mein likha hua hai to doosari or praakrut bhaasha mein kharoshti lipi mein. yeh khotaan ki mishrit sanskruti ko pramaanit karta hai. yahaan ret ke andar dabe mathon ki khudaai karne par badi sankhya mein sanskrut mein bauddh darshan ki paandulipiyaan, unke lipyantar aur anuvaad upalabdh hue hain.

poorvi Asia mein bhaarateeya sanskruti

cheen

Bhaarat aur cheen ke aapasi sampark doosari shataabdi isavi mein aarambh hue. bhaarateeya sanskruti ne sarvapratham do bhaarateeya aachaaryon-dharmarakshit aur kashyap maantag ke maadhyam se cheen mein pravesh kiya jo cheeni samraat ming ti ke nimantran par san 67 mein cheen gaye the.

aachaarya-dharmarakshit aur kashyap maatang ke pashchaat cheen aur Bhaarat ke beech vidvaanon ka aana-jaana nirantar nirbaadh gati se chalta raha. cheeni bahut hi sabhya log the. un sabhi ne buddh ki bhaavapoorn kahaaniyon ko bahut dhyaan se suna. jo bhi cheeni yaatri gyaan ki khoj mein Bhaarat aaye, unhonne apne yaatra vrutaant mein Bhaarat aur bhaarateeya sanskruti ki itne vistaar se charcha ki ki aaj vah vrutaant aitihaasik drushti se hamaare liye bahut hi mahattvapoorn ban gaye hain. bhaarateeya vishvavidyaalayon aur vihaaron ke anek shikshak cheen mein prasiddh hue the jaise-kaanyacheepuram ke bodhidhrm. ve adhyayan ke liye naalanda vishvavidyaalaya gaye aur vahaan se ve cheen chale gaye the. ve apne saath yog ka darshan le gaye. cheen mein unhonne 'dhyaan' (manan) ka prachaar kiya. jise baad mein cheen mein 'chaan' kaha jaata hai. bodhidhrm vahaan itne prasiddh ho gaye ki cheen aur Japan mein unki pooja ki jaane lagi.

bauddh darshan ne cheeni vidvaanon ko aakrusht kiya kyonki unke paas pehle se hi 'kanfrayooshiynijm' naamak viksit darshan tha.

chauthi shataabdi mein 'vei' vansh ke raajaaon ne satta sambhaali. is vansh ke pehle samraat ne bauddh dharm ko raaj dharm ghoshit kar diya. isse bauddh darshan ke prachaar ko gati mili. is kaal mein hajaaron sanskrut kitaabon ka cheeni bhaasha mein anuvaad hua tha. sankatamaya, bhayaanak aur lambi yaatra ko bahaaduri se tay karte hue ve buddh ki bhoomi par aae. Bhaarat mein rahakar unhonne bauddhon ke shav-avashesh tatha bauddhadharm par hastalikhit pustakon ko ikattha kiya. vibhinn shaikshik kendron mein rahakar inke vishay mein padhaai ki.

bauddh dharm ke prasaar ke saath cheen mein bahut hi bade star par gufaaon ki khudaai tatha mandiron aur vihaaron ke nirmaan ka kaarya aarambh hua. in gufaaon mein kaheen chattaanein kaat kar vishaalakaaya moorttiyaan banaai gain to kaheen unke andar adbhut chitrakaari ki gayi. inmein se dun-huvaang, yun-kaang aur lung-main duniya ke prasiddh gufa parisar mein se hain. inmein bhaarateeya prabhaav kaafi spasht roop se dekha ja sakta hai.

is saanskrutik sambandh tatha vichaaron ke aadaan-pradaan ka uttaradaayitv aachaaryon aur bhikshuon ke do tarafa aavaagaman par nirbhar hai.

Korea

Korea cheen ke uttar-poorv mein sthit hai. Korea ko bhaarateeya sanskruti ke tattv cheen se praapt hue the. sabse pehle sundo naamak ek bauddh bhikshu, buddh ki moorti aur sootr lekar san 352 E. mein Korea pahuncha. uske uparaant san 384 mein aachaarya mallaanand Korea gaye. Korea ke pyongayaang nagar mein ek bhaarateeya bhikshu ne san 404 E. mein do mandiron ka nirmaan karavaaya tha. uske baad anek bhaarateeya shikshak Korea jaate rahe. ve Bhaarat se dharm, darshan, moorti banaane ki kala, chitrakala, dhaatuvijnyaaan, aadi vishyon ka gyaan apne saath laae. gyaan ki khoj karte-karte Korea se bhi bahut se vidvaan Bhaarat aaye. yahaan par unhonne vishesh roop se jyotish, khagol vigyaan, aayurved aur gyaan ke anya kai kshetron mein prashikshan praapt kiya. Korea mein bane ye mandir aur bauddh vihaar dharm ke saath-saath gyaan ke kendra bhi ban gaye. badi sankhya mein bauddh granthon ka Korea ki bhaasha mein anuvaad kiya gaya.

aathaveen-naveen shataabdi mein Bhaarat se dhyaan yog ka darshan Korea pahuncha. raaja, raani, Rajkumar, mantri yahaan tak ki vahaan ke sainikon ne bhi veerata aur nirbhayata seekhane ke liye yog ka prashikshan praapt karna aarambh kar diya. gyaan ke prati samarpan ki bhaavana se Korea ke logon ne chh: hajaar khandon mein bauddh granthon ka prakaashan kiya. isi tarah bhaarateeya lipiyaaain bhi Korea pahuncheen.

Japan

Bhaarat aur Japan ke saanskrutik sambandhon ka itihaas pandrah sau varsh puraana maana jaata hai lekin bhaarateeya sanskruti ke Japan mein pravesh ke likhit pramaan san 552 se hain. us samay Korea ke samraat ne Japani samraat ke liye anek prakaar ki bheint bheji jinmein bauddh moorttiyaan, sootr, pooja mein prayog hone waali vastuen aur unke saath moorttikaar, kalaakaar, vaastukaar aadi sammilit the.

jaldi hi bauddh dharm ko raajadharm ghoshit kar diya gaya. hajaaron ki sankhya mein log bhikshu tatha bhikshuni ban gaye.

Japan mein sanskrut ko pavitra bhaasha ka sthaan praapt hua. bhikshu sanskrut varnon aur mantron ko likhne ke liye vishesh prashikshan praapt karne lage. jis lipi mein sanskrut mantra likhe jaate the use Japani mein 'shittan' kaha jaata hai. 'shittan' 'siddham' ka hi doosra roop hai, 'siddham' ka arth hai aisi lipi jo siddhi deti hai.

aaj bhi Japani vidvaan sanskrut ke adhyayan ke liye utsuk rahate hain. vaastav mein bauddh granthon ki bhaasha hone ke kaaran, sanskrut Bhaarat aur Japan ke madhya ek mahattvapoorn kadi ka kaarya kar rahi hai. saataveen shataabdi mein Rajkumar shotokutaaishi ke samay cheeni bhaasha mein anoodit bauddh granth Japan pahunche the. vah in granthon ke darshan se bahut prabhaavit hue.

Tibet

Tibet himaalaya ke uttar mein bahut hi oonche pathaar par basa hai. Tibet ke log bauddh hai. maana jaata hai ki Tibet ke raaja naradev ne apne ek mantri thonmi sambhot ke saath solah shreshth vidvaanon ko magadh bheja. in vidvaanon ne bhaarateeya shikshakon se gyaan praapt kiya. kuchh samay ke pashchaat thonmi sambhot Kashmir chale gaye the. aisa kaha jaata hai ki unhonne bhaarateeya lipi ke aadhaar par Tibet ke liye ek nayi lipi ka aavishkaar kiya. aaj tak Tibet mein isi lipi ka prayog kiya jaata hai. isne mangoliya aur manchooriya ki lipi ko bhi prabhaavit kiya tha.

aisa maaloom padta hai ki thonmi sambhot apne saath Bhaarat se anekon pustakein le gaye. Tibet laut kar thonmi sambhot ne tibbati logon ke liye naye vyaakaran ki rachana ki. yeh paanini dvaara likhe sanskrut vyaakaran par aadhaarit maani jaati hai. sanmot ke maadhyam se aaye saahitya ke prati raaja itna aakarshit hua ki usane is saahitya ke adhyayan mein chaar saal bita diye. usane sanskrut se tibbati bhaasha mein anuvaad ki neenv daali. iske parinaamasvaroop saataveen se satrahaveen shataabdi tak nirantar anuvaad kaarya chalta raha. is prakaar chhiyaanave hajaar sanskrut granthon ka tibbati bhaasha mein anuvaad hua.

Sri Lanka aur dakshin-poorv Asia mein bhaarateeya sanskruti

Sri Lanka

raamaayan mein varnit hai ki ayodhya ke raaja Bhagwan Ram, seetaaji ko vaapas lene Sri Lanka gaye the. yeh sambhav hai ki us samay ki lanka aur Sri Lanka alag alag hon. mahaaraaja ashok ne Bhaarat ke baahar bauddh-dharm ke prachaar ke liye athak prayaas kiye. unhonne apne putr Mahendra aur putri sanghamitra ko buddh ke sandeshon ke prachaar kaarya ke liye Sri Lanka bheja. unke saath anya kai vidvaan bhi gaye. aisa kaha jaata hai ki ve apne saath bodhagaya se bodhivruksh ki ek shaakha bhi kaat kar le gaye jo vahaaain lagaai gayi. us samay Sri Lanka mein devaanaampiya tiss naamak raaja tha. Bhaarat se jo log gaye, unhonne maukhik roop se hi buddh ki shikshaaon ka prachaar kiya. praay: do sau varshon tak Sri Lanka mein logon ne Mahendra dvaara sikhaae gaye shaastron ke uchchaaran ko sanbhaal rakha. sabse pehle mahaavihaar aur abhayagiri naamak bauddh vihaaron ka nirmaan hua.

us samay se aaj tak Sri Lanka bauddh dharm ka ek sashakt kendra raha hai. Sri Lanka ke log paali bhaasha ka saahityik bhaasha ke roop mein prayog karne lage. Sri Lanka ki sanskruti ko sundar banaane mein bauddh dharm ka mahattvapoorn yogadaan hai. Sri Lanka mein deepavansh aur mahaavansh bauddhadharm ke vikhyaat srot hain.

bauddh dharm ke saath-saath bhaarateeya kala bhi Sri Lanka pahunchi, bhaarateeya vishay, nrutya chitrakala ki takaneek shaili aur tareeke, lok geet aur kala ki shaili aur vaastukala ki vidhi bhi yaheen se vahaaain pahunchi. Sri Lanka ki chitrakala ka sabse sundar nidrshan 'sigeeriya' naamak gufa vihaar mein milta hai. aisa vishvaas kiya jaata hai ki raaja kashyap ne 5veen shataabdi mein ise ek majaboot kile ke roop mein parivrtit kar diya. iski bhittiyon par banaaye gaye chitron ka aakaar prakaar Bhaarat ki amaraavati ki kala shaili mein hai.

myaanmaar (barma)

isa sanvat ke praarambh mein bhaarateeya sanskruti aur bhaarateeya log barma pahunchane lage the. myaanmaar cheen jaane vaale raaste mein padta tha. amaraavati aur taamralipti se aane vaale logon ne doosari sadi ke baad myaanmaar mein basana aarambh kar diya. myaanmaar mein aakar basane vaale logon mein vyaapaari, braahman, kalaakaar, shilpi aur anya log shaamil the.

barma mein, pagaan 11veen se 13veen sadi tak bauddh-sanskruti ka mahaan kendra bana raha. yahaan ke ek prataapi raaja ka naam aniruddh hai. inhonne khejegon paigoda tatha hajaaron ki sankhya mein mandir banavaaye. unhonne paali bhaasha ko viksit kiya tatha bauddh evam hindu dharmagranthon ka apni paali bhaasha mein anuvaad karavaaya.

barma ke raajadarabaar par bhi bhaarateeya parampara aur ka gahra prabhaav raha. haal ke dinon tak yahaan raaj-jyotishi, bhavishyavakta tatha aachaarya braahman hua karte the. inhein barma mein ponna kaha jaata hai. inmein adhikaansh Bhaarat ke manipur pradesh ke the. maana jaata hai ki barma mein ye pandit atyant sakriya rahe. pandit gan ki prasiddhi vigyaan, chikitsa tatha jyotish mein unke achhe gyaan ke kaaran thi.

Thailand

san 1939 E. tak Thailand ko 'syaam' naam se hi jaana jaata tha. is desh mein bhaarateeya sanskruti ka pravesh isa ki pratham shataabdi mein hona shuroo hua. sabse pehle yeh kaarya vyaapaariyon ne kiya tatha unke pashchaat prachaarakon aur dharmaachaaryon ne ise aage badhaaya. bhaarateeya sanskruti anek prakaar se vahaan pahunchi. vahaan ke raajyon ke naam sanskrut mein rakhe gaye jaise- dvaaraavati, shreevijya, ayodhya aur sukhodaya aadi. Thailand mein nagaron ke naam bhi bhaarateeyata ke dyotak hain jaise-kanchanapuri ke tarj par kaanchanaburi, raajapuri ke samaan raajaburi aur lavapuri ke samaan lobapuri. yahaan shaharon ke praacheenaburi, sihburi jaise naam milte hai jo sanskrut bhaasha ke prabhaav ko darshaate hain. yahaan tak ki raajaaraam, raaja-raani, mahaajaya aur chakravansh jaise galiyon ke naam yahaan raamaayan ki lokapriyta ka saakshya dete hain.

braahmanon ki moorttiyaaain aur bauddh mandiron ka vahaan par nirmaan teesari-chauthi shataabdi mein aarambh ho gaya tha. vahaan ke mandiron se praapt hone waali sabse praacheen moortiyaan Bhagwan vishnu ki hain.

vibhinn samay par Thailand ki rajdhani kai baar parivrtit hui. jahaan bhi nai rajdhani banti thi vahaan bhavya mandiron ka nirmaan kiya jaata thaan ayodhya jise 'ayutthiya' kehte hain unheen mein se ek hai. yahaan bahut bade-bade mandir the par aaj ve sab khandaharon ke roop mein khade hain parantu vartamaan rajdhani baikaank mein aaj bhi 400 mandir hain.

kambodiya

champa (annam) aur kamboj (kambodiya) saamraajyon par bhaarateeya mool ke raajaaon ne shaasan kiya. Bhaarat aur kambodiya ke gahre saanskrutik sambandh ka itihaas pehli aur doosari shataabdi E. pashchaat tak jaata hai. pratham shataabdi se kamboj mein bhaarateeya mool ke shaasak kaundinya raajavansh ne shaasan kiya. asankhya sanskrut abhilekh tatha saahitya se ham unke itihaas ka anumaan laga sakte hain. ham shaanadaar mandiron ko dekhkar unka vaibhav gyaat kar sakte hain.

kambodiya ke logon ne bade-bade smaarak banaae aur unako bhaarateeya mahaakaavyon aur puraanon se lekar Shiv, vishnu, buddh aur anek devi-devataaon ki moortiyon se sajaaya. raajaaon ke dvaara in granthon ke aitihaasik ghatnaaon ko pradarshit karne ke liye kathaanakon se anek ansh chune gaye. chaudahaveen shataabdi tak sanskrut raajabhaasha ke pad par aaseen rahi.

raajaaon ne sanskrut mein apni upaadhiyaaain khudavaain. braahmanon ko sabse oonche padon par niyukt kiya gaya. shaasan ka saara kaarya hindu niyamon aur braahman granthon ke anusaar chalaaya jaane laga. mandiron ke saath gyaan kendra ke roop mein aashram khole gaye. taamrapur, vikramapur, dhruvapur aadi nagaron ke sanskrut naam rakhe gaye. aaj tak yahaan bhaarateeya maheenon ke naam-chet, bisaak, jesh, aasaadh aadi chalte hain. ye bhaarateeya naamon ke hi apabhrasht uchchaaran hain. isi prakaar thode se uchchaaran bhed ke saath ham aaj bhi unki bhaasha mein hajaaron shabd dekh sakte hain.

kambodiya mein sthit aankoravaat ka mandir sansaar ka sabse bada vishnu mandir hai. is mandir ke paanch shikhar sumeru parvat ke paanch shikhar maane jaate hain. is mandir mein vahaan ke ek raaja sooryavarman ko vishnu ke roop mein moorttimaan kiya gaya hai. maana jaata hai ki vah apne punya-kaaryon ke kaaran vishnulok chala gaya. yeh mandir ek vargameel mein faila hua hai. iske chaaron or ki khaai sada paani se bhari rahati hai jo iski shobha ki chaar chaand lagaati hai. iski deevaaron par raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat ke chitr khode gaye hain. inmein sabse bada drushya samudramanthan arthaat samudra ke mathane ka hai.

kambodiya mein yashodharapur mein ek aur bhavya mandir hai- baafuon. yeh gyaarahaveen shataabdi mein banaaya gaya tha. iski deevaaron par mahaakaavyon ke chitr khude hue hain jaise Ram-raavan ke yuddh ke drushya, Kailash-parvat par adhishthit Shiv-paarvati ke drushya tatha kaamadev ke bhasm hone ka drushya.

viytanaam (champa)

champaadesh mein bhaarateeya sanskruti ke prasaar ka kaarya Bhaarat ke vyaapaariyon aur raajakumaaron ne kiya. vahaan ja kar unhonne raajaneeti aur arthashaastr ke agrani ke roop mein apne ko siddh kiya. donon drushtiyon se unhonne vahaan ke nagaron ke naam indrapur, amaraavati, vijay, kauthaar, paandurang aadi rakhe.

champa ke log cham kahalaate hain. cham logon ne badi sankhya mein hindu aur bauddh mandiron ka nirmaan kiya. ve Bhagwan Shiv, ganesh, lakshmi, paarvati, sarasvati, buddh tatha lokeshvar aadi devataaon ki pooja kiya karte the. inhonne mandiron mein anya moottiyon shivlingon ki bhi sthaapana ki. ye mandir bhavya the parantu aaj jeern-sheern avastha mein hain.

Malaysia

praacheen kaal se Bhaarat mein Malaysia ke baare mein jaankaari thi. raamaayan, jaatak kathaaon, milindapanh, shilpaadikram tatha raghuvansh naamak mahaakaavyon mein malayeshiya ka ullekh aata hai. Malaysia ke kedaah tatha vailesli aadi praanton se is baat ke pramaan mile hain ki vahaan shaiv dharm prachalit tha. yahaan se kuchh aisi deviyon ki moortiyaan bhi mili hain jinke haath mein trishool hai. anya moortiyon mein saataveen aur aathaveen sadi se sambandhit grenaait ka nandi-sheersh, durga-pratima tatha ganesh moorti aadi vibhinn sthalon se praapt hui hain.

praacheen kaal mein Malaysia mein braahmi lipi ke paravarti roop ka hi prayog kiya jaata tha. kedaah naamak sthaan se kuchh aise bauddh granthon ke ansh mile hain jo puraani tamil se milti julati kisi lipi mein likhe gaye hain. sanskrut vahaaain ki srot bhaasha rahi. vahaan ki bhaasha ko shabd dene ka kaarya bhi sanskrut bhaasha ne kiya. svarg, ras, gun, dand, mantri, dohad dheepati, laksh ityaadi anek sanskrut shabd unki bhaasha mein paaye jaate hain. hanumaan aur garud apni alaukik shaktiyon ke liye Malaysia mein prasiddh the.

Bhaarat aur Malaysia ke saanskrutik sambandhon ke sabse praacheen pramaan vahaan se mile sanskrut ke shilaalekh hain. ye chauthi paanchaveen shataabdi ki bhaarateeya lipi mein likhe gaye hain. inmein sabse mahattvapoorn ligor ke shilaalekh ko maana jaata hai. yahaan par kareeb pachaas mandir mile hain.

indoneshiya

dhaarmik vaastushilp ke kshetr mein indoneshiya ka sabse bada Shiv-mandir jaava dweep mein sthaapit hai. ise 'prambanan' kaha jaata hai. yeh mandir naveen shataabdi mein banaaya gaya tha. iske madhya mein sabse bada mandir Shiv mandir hai. iske donon or brahma aur vishnu ke mandir hain. in teen mandiron ke saamane teen mandir aur hain jo teenon devataaon ke vaahanon ke mandir hain. jaise Shiv ke saamane nandi ka, vishnu ke saamane garud ka aur brahma ke saamane hans ka mandir hai. in do panktiyon ke beech mein do anya mandir devi durga tatha ganapati ke hain. is prakaar in aath mandiron ka ek samooh ban gaya hai. is samooh ke chaaron or chhote-chhote 240 mandiron ki panktiyaan hain. yeh vaastushilp ka anupam udaaharan hai. is mandir ki deevaaron par raamaayan tatha Krishna katha ke chitron ki jo nakkaashi ki gayi hai, vah sansaar ki sabse praacheen prastutiyon mein se hain.

yahaan pooja ke samay sanskrut mantron ka paath kiya jaata hai. baali dweep se sanskrut ke aise paanch sau se adhik soottaf tatha shlok ikatthe kiye gaye hain jo anek devi-devataaon ki stuti mein gaaye jaate hain, jaise-Shiv, brahma, durga, ganesh, buddh aadi. vaastav mein baali hi ek maatr pradesh hai jahaan hindu sanskruti samruddh hui aur abhi tak astitv mein hai. jabki samast (puraane logon) ne islaam sveekaar kar liya hai, 'baali' pifr bhi hindu sanskruti aur dharm ka hi anusaran karta hai.

indoneshiya ke jaava dweep se bhaari sankhya mein paandulipiyaan mili hain. ye praay: taadpatron par jaava ki praacheen lipi 'kaavi' mein likhi gayi hain. kaavi lipi ka aadhaar bhi braahmi lipi hi hai. in granthon mein praay: sanskrut mein shlok tatha 'kaavi' bhaasha mein un ki teekaaeain likhi hui hain. yadi shaiv dharm tatha darshan ke granthon par vichaar kiya jaaye to unamein 'bhuvanakosh' sabse bada aur sabse puraana granth hai. ismein 525 shlok sanskrut mein hain tatha ek teeka in shlokon ke arth ko bataate hue likhi gayi hai.

dakshin poorv Asia mein bhaarateeya sanskruti tatha dharm ka jitna prabhaav hua utana shaayad sansaar ke kisi anya raajya par naheen pada. saanskrutik aadaan-pradaan tatha bhaarateeya lipi mein sanskrut shilaalekh sabse mahattvapoorn srot hain. ye shilaalekh sabhi raajyon mein praapt hote hain. in shilaalekhon tatha saahitya ke adhyayan se tatha anya saahitya se yahaan ki bhaasha, dharm raajaneeti, saamaajik sansthaanon par Bhaarat ka bahut prabhaav dikhta hai.

'braahman, kshatriya, vaishya, shoodr'-ye jaati vibhaajan tatha varn vyavastha ko bhi jaante the. lekin yeh vyavastha Bhaarat ke samaan kathor naheen thi. rigved ke kaal mein jaisi karm ke aadhaar par vibhaajit vyavastha thi vaisi hi vyavastha yahaaain par thi. janm ke aadhaar par baali mein varnavyavastha naheen hai. vivaah ke reeti-rivaaj bhi praay: ek jaise hi hain.

manoranjan ka bahut lokapriya saadhan (bhaarateeya kathaputali ke pradarshan jaisa) chhaaya naatak 'vaayung' hain- jiski kahaaniyaan mukhyaroop se raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat se li jaati hain aur jo dakshin-poorv Asia mein abhi bhi bahut lokapriya hai.

bhaarateeya sanskruti aur arab sabhyata ke sambandh

sthal aur samudra-maarg ke dvaara pashchim Asia se Bhaarat ka sampark praacheen kaal se chala aa raha hai. in do sanskruti-kshetron (us samay raashtra ka vichaar viksit naheen hua tha) ke beech sambandh, pashchim Asia mein islaami sabhyata ke udaya aur prasaar ke saath aur gahre hue. is sambandh ke aarthik-paksh ke vishay mein 9veen sadi ke madhya ke arab tatha anya vyaapaari yaatriyon jaise- saudaagar sulemaan, al-masoodi, ibn haukul, al idarisi aadi ke vrutaanton se jaankaari milti hai. in yaatra-vrutaanton ke anusaar in do sanskruti-kshetron ke beech vyaapaarik aadaan-pradaan ka sambandh atyant samruddh tha. baharahaal, sanskruti ke kshetr mein aathaveen sadi ya isse bhi pehle se sakriya mel-jol ke pramaan mile hain.

Bhaarat aur pashchim Asia ke beech saarthak saanskrutik mel-jol ke pramaan bahut se kshetron mein praapt hote hain. is sambandh ke falasvaroop islaami-jagat samruddh hua. khagolavijnyaaan ke kshetr ke do mahattvapoorn granth 'brahm-sfut-siddhaant' jise arab jagat mein 'sindhin' ke naam se jaante hain, tatha 'khandanakhaadh' (arakand naam se prasiddh) sindh ke dootaavaason ke maadhyam se Baghdad pahunche. in dootaavaason ke bhaarateeya vidvaanon ki madad se in granthon ka arabi mein anuvaad al-fajaari ne kiya. sanbhavat: al-fajaari ne yaakoob-in-taareek ki bhi madad ki thi. baad ke samay mein aaryabhatt aur vaaraahamihir krut khagolavijnyaaan ke granthon ka bhi arab-jagat mein adhyayan hua aur inhein arab ke vaigyaanik saahitya mein shaamil kar liya gaya.

arab sabhyata ko Bhaarat ka ek anya mahattvapoorn yogadaan ganit tha. arab ke vidvaanon ne ganit shaastr ko 'hindisa' (arthaat, Bhaarat se sambandhit) kehkar Bhaarat ke prati apna rin sveekaar kiya hai. bhaarateeya ganit arabi vidvaanon ke adhyayan aur vichaar-vimarsh ka priya vishay ban gaya. bhaarateeya ganit ki lokapriyta anya vidvaanon ke atirikt alakindi ke granthon ke kaaran jyaada badhi. arabon ne bahut jaldi jaan liya ki shoonya ki avadhaarana se sampann bhaarateeya dashamik-pranaali atyant kraantikaari hai. Syria ke ek tatkaaleen vidvaan ne shoonya ke saath daashamik-pranaali ke prati apni krutajnyaata prakat karte hue kaha tha- ''main maatr itna bhar kehna chaahata hoon ki yeh parignana nau ankon ke sahaare hoti hai. isliye jo yeh vishvaas karte hain ki kyonki ve greek bhaasha bolte hain, unhonne vigyaan ki sarahadon ko chhoo liya hai, yadi in baaton ko jaanein to unhein pata lagega ki doosare log bhi hain jinhein kuchh aata hai.''

10veen se 13veen sadi ke anek arabi sroton se pata chalta hai ki chikitsa aur aushadhivijnyaaan ke bahut se bhaarateeya granthon ka khalifa haaroon al-rasheed ke nirdesh par arabi mein anuvaad hua. khaleefa haarun al-rashid san 786 E. se san 809 E. tak Baghdad ka shaasak raha. udaaharan ke taur par sushrutasanhita ka anuvaad arabi mein ek bhaarateeya ne kiya jise 'mankh' kaha jaata hai.

khagolavijnyaaan, jyotish-shaastr, ganit shaastr tatha aushadhi-vigyaan aadi granthon ke atirikt arabon ne vibhinn vishyon ke bhaarateeya granthon ke saath-saath bhaarateeya sabhyata-sanskruti ke vibhinn vishyon ki bhi prashansa ki. unhonne bhaarateeya granthon ka anuvaad bhi karaaya, lekin ve anuvaad se santusht naheen hue aur anoodit granthon par aadhaarit athva unase vyutpann maulik granthon ki bhi unhonne rachana ki. arabon ne bhaarateeya gyaan ke jin anya kshetron ka adhyayan kiya usamein saanp aur jahar ke vishay mein likhe granth, pashu-chikitsa se sambandhit granth, tarkashaastr, darshanashaastr, neetishaastr, raajaneeti tatha yuddh-kala par likhit granth bhi shaamil hain. is prakriya mein arab ki shabdaavali bhi atyant samruddh hui. misaal ke taur par arab log jahaajaraani mein atyant agrani the parantu aap is kshetr ke aise anek arabi shabdon ko pehchaan sakte hai jo bhaarateeya mool ke hain, jaise, 'hoortti' (chhoti naav) jo hori se bana hai tatha 'banavi' jo baniya ya vanik se bana hai, evam 'doneej' jo dongi se bana hai aadi.

Bhaarat ke rom se sambandh

dakshin Bhaarat ke utpaadon ka pashchim mein ekaadhikaar tha kyonki unki vahaan bahut maang thi. vaastav mein isa yug ki pratham teen shataabdiyon mein Bhaarat ka pashchim ke saath laabhaprad samudri vyaapaar hua jinmein rom saamraajya pramukh tha. rom bhaarateeya saamaan ka sarvottam graahak tha. yeh vyaapaar dakshin Bhaarat ke saath hua jo Coimbatore aur madurai mein mile rom ke sikkon se siddh hota hai. rom mein kaali mirch, paan, masaalon aur itron ki bahut maang thi. bahumoolya patthar jaise nageene, heere, panne, maanikya aur moti, haathi daant, resham evam malamal ke vastr vahaan bahut pasand kiye jaate the. rom ke saath vyaapaar se Bhaarat mein sona aata tha aur Bhaarat ko is vyaapaar se bahut laabh hota tha tatha us samay kushaan saamraajya ko aamdani ke roop mein sthaayi svarn mudra milti thi. tamil raajaaon ne yuddh sthal par apne shiviron ki raksha ke liye aur madurai ke nagaradvaar ki paharedaari ke liye bhi yavan niyukt kiye the. praacheen Bhaarat mein yavan shabd pashchim Asia tatha bhoomadhyasaagareeya kshetr ke logon ke liye prachalit tha aur ismein romavaasi tatha yoonaani log bhi shaamil the. kuchh itihaasakaaron ka mat hai ki 'yavan' angarakshakon mein kuchh romavaasi bhi ho sakte the.

is samay tak kaavereepattanam videshi vyaapaar ka ek bahut mahattvapoorn kendra ban gaya tha. kaavereepattanam mein tat par oonche manch, godaam aur bhandaar gruh jahaajon se utare maal ko rakhane ke liye banaaye gaye. in vastuon ki chungi bhugataan ke baad in par cholon ki baagh ke chirvinli mohar lagaai jaati thi. uske baad maal vyaapaariyon ke bhandaaragruhon (pattanappalaai) mein bheja jaata tha. nikat hi yavan vyaapaariyon ke aavaas aur vibhinn bhaashaaen bolne vaale videshi vyaapaariyon ke rahane ke sthaan hote the. vaheen ek bade baajaar mein unki jaroorat ka har saamaan upalabdh hota tha. yahaan foolon aur itron ke sugandhit lep aur choorn banaane vaale, darji jo silk, ooni aur sooti vastron par kaam karte the, chandan, moonge, sone, moti aur bahumoolya nagon ke vyaapaari, anaaj ke vyaapaari, dhobi, machhali aur namak aadi ke bechne vaale, mochi, sunaar, chitrakaar, moortikaar, luhaar aur khilaune banaane vaale sab mil jaate the. yahaan samudra paar sudoor deshon se aaye ghode bhi baajaar mein bechne ke liye laae jaate the.

inmein adhikaansh vastuon ko niryaat ke liye ekatr kiya jaata tha. plini ke anusaar Bhaarat ke niryaaton mein kaali mirch aur adarak bhi shaamil the. inka vaastavik moolya se sau guna jyaada daam milta tha. iske atirikt bhaarateeya itr, masaalon aur sugandhon aadi vastuon ki rom mein bahut adhik khapat thi.

praacheen kaal mein videshon ke saath Bhaarat ke vyaapaar sambandh kitne mahattvapoorn the iska anumaan aap bhaarateeya raajaaon dvaara bheje jaane vaale aur unase milne aane vaale raajadooton ki sankhya se laga sakte hain. ek paandya (chandakalan) raaja ne isa poorv pehli shataabdi mein rom ke samraat agastas ke paas raajadoot bheja tha. isa ke baad san 99 mein bhi traaya ke liye raajadoot bheje gaye. klaaudiys, traijan, entonamis, poois, instimaan tatha anya raajadooton ne vibhinn bhaarateeya raajadarabaaron ki shobha badhaayi.

rom ke saath vyaapaar itna adhik tha ki iski gati ko nirbaadh banaane ke liye pashchimi tat par sopaara aur bereegaaj (bhadauch) jaise bandargaah bane, jabki koromandal tat se 'sunahare kairasonees' (suvarnabhoomi) aur sunahare krees (suvarn dweep) ke saath vyaapaar hota tha. chol raajaaon ne apne bandaragaahon par prakaashastanbh lagaaye jo raat mein teevr roshani dekar bandaragaahon par jahaajon ka maargadarshan karte the. paandecheri ke sameep aarkemedoo naamak sthaan par Italy ki aretaain naam se prasiddh bartan banaane ki kala ke kuchh namoone jin par Italy ke bartanasaaj ki muhar bhi hai, tatha roman lainp ke avashesh bhi mile hain.

Andhra kshetr se bhi videshi vyaapaar ki nishaaniyaan milti hain. yahaan ke kuchh bandargaah aur aaspaas ke nagar bhi vyaapaar mein sahaayata pradaan karte the. at: paithan (pratisthaan) se patthar tagar, sooti malamal aur anya vastr videshon ko jahaaj se bheje jaate the. Andhra ke raaja yajnyaashri ne raajya ke samudri vyaapaar ke prateek roop mein jahaaj-mudrit durlabh sikke chalaaye.

jahaaj aur videshi vyaapaar

videshon mein bhaarateeya sanskruti ke prasaar mein vyaapaar ek mahattvapoorn maadhyam raha. praacheen samay se hi hamaare bhaarateeya jahaaj vishaal saagar ko paar kar videshi taton par pahunche. unhonne vahaan bahut se deshon ke saath vyaapaarik sambandh banaaye. padosi deshon ke saahitya, kala aur shilp par bhaarateeya sanskruti aur sabhyata ki chhaap saaf-saaf dikhaayi deti hai. yahaan tak ki sudoor Amreeki taton sooreenaam aur caribbean dveepon par bhi bhaarateeya sanskruti ke smruti chinh milte hain.

samudragupt (san 340-san 380) ke paas na keval shaktishaali sena thi balki sashakt jalasena bhi thi. ganga-paar praayadveep mein tatha malaya ke sangrahaalayon mein aise kuchh shilaalekh mile hain jo guptakaal mein bhaarateeya naavikon ke kriya kalaapon ko pramaanit karte hain. harshavardhan ke (606 - 647) ke kaal mein Bhaarat ki yaatra karne vaale hyoonasaang ne bhi us samay ke Bhaarat ke vishay mein vistaarapoorvak likha hai. chol shaasakon ne ek majaboot jalasena banaai thi aur samudra paar ke deshon par aakraman bhi kiye the.

purtagaaliyon ke ullekhon se gyaat hota hai ki kuchh bhaarateeya vyaapaari pachaas jahaajon tak ke svaami the. unke anusaar bhaarateeya vyaapaariyon ke paas niji jahaajon ka hona aam baat thi. pashchim mein vibhinn sthaanon par mili hadppa-sabhyata se sambandhit vastuen siddh karti hain ki isa poorv teesari sahasraabdi mein maisopotaamiya aur misr sabhyataaon ke saath Bhaarat ke vyaapaarik aur saanskrutik sambandh the. yahi naheen, praacheen yoonaan, rom aur faaras ke saath hamaare desh ke saanskrutik, dhaarmik aur saamaajik vichaaron ka khoob aadaan-praadaan hua. rom saamraajya ke saath vyaapaar ke foolane-foolane ka varnan rom ke itihaasakaar plini (chsapadal) ne kiya jise rom ki dhan-sanpada ka Bhaarat mein jaane ka dukh tha.

bhaarateeyon ne videshi logon se anek nai cheejein seekheen, udaaharanaarth- grees aur rom se svarn sikkon ki dhalaai, cheen se resham banaane ki kala aur indoneshiya se paan ko ugaana seekha. unhonne videshiyon se vyaapaar sambandh sthaapit kiye. vibhinn deshon ki kala aur sanskruti ka bhaarateeya sanskruti par bhi prabhaav pada lekin doosare deshon mein bhi iska pratibimb dekhne ko mila.

baahari kadiyaaain