vlaadimeer lenin

lenin

vlaadimeer ileeich lenin (1870-1924) roos mein bolshevik kraanti ka neta evam roos mein saamyavaadi shaasan ka sansthaapak tha.

jeevani

lenin (1887 mein)

vlaadimeer ileeich lenin ka janm sinvirsk naamak sthaan mein hua tha aur usaka vaastavik naam "ulyaanov" tha. usaka pita vidyaalayon ka nireekshak tha jiska jhukaav lokatantraatmak vichaaron ki or tha. usaki maata, jo ek chikitsak ki putri thi, sushikshit mahila thi. san 1886 mein pita ki mrutyu ho jaane par kai putr putriyon vaale bade parivaar ka saara bojh lenin ki maata par pada. ye bhaai bahan praarambh se hi kraantivaad ke anuyaayi bante gaye. bade bhaai alegjaandar ko jaar ki hatya ka shadayantr rachane mein shareek hone ke aarop mein faaainsi de di gayi.

uchch yogyata ke saath snaatak banane par lenin ne 1887 mein kajaan vishvavidyaalaya ke vidhi vibhaag mein pravesh kiya kintu sheegra hi vidyaarthiyon ke kraantikaari pradarshan mein hissa lene ke kaaran vishvavidyaalaya ne nishkaasit kar diya gaya. san 1889 mein vah samaara chala gaya jahaaain usane sthaaneeya maarksavaadiyon ki ek mandali ka sangatan kiya. 1891 mein seint peetarsabarg vishvavidyaalaya se vidhi pareeksha mein upaadhi praapt kar lenin ne samaara mein hi vakaalat karna aarabh kar diya. 1893 mein usane seint peetarsabarg ko apna nivaasasthaan banaaya. sheegra hi vah vahaaain ke maarksavaadiyon ka bahumaanya neta ban gaya. yaheen sushri krupsakaaya se, jo shramikon mein kraanti ka prachaar karne mein sanlagn thi, usaka parichay hua. iske baad lenin ki kraantikaari sangharsh mein jeevan paryant usaka ghanishth sahayog praapt hota raha.

san 1895 mein lenin bandeegruh mein daal diya gaya aur 1897 mein teen varsh ke liye poorvi saaiberiya ke ek sthaan ko nirvaasit kar diya gaya. kuchh samay baad krupsakaaya ko bhi nirvaasit hokar vahaaain jaana pada aur ab lenin se usaka vivaah ho gaya. nirvaasan mein rahate samay lenin ne tees pustakein likheen, jinmein se ek thi "roos mein pooainjeevaad ka vikaas". ismein maarksavaadi siddhaanton ke aadhaar par roos ki aarthik unnati ke vishleshan ka prayatn kiya gaya. yaheen usane apne man mein roos ke nirdhan shramikon ya sarvahaara varg ka ek dal sthaapit karne ki yojana banaai.

san 1900 mein nirvaasan se vaapas aane par ek samaachaarapatr sthaapit karne ke uddeshya se usane kai nagaron ki yaatra ki. greeshm ritu mein vah roos ke baahar chala gaya aur vaheen se usane "iskra" (chingaari) naamak samaachaarapatr ka sanpaadan aarambh kiya. ismein uske saath ""shramikon ki mukti"" ke liye prayatn karanevaale ve roosi maarksavaadi bhi the jinhein jaarashaahi ke atyaachaaron se utpeedit hokar desh ke baahar rahana pad raha tha. 1902 mein usane "hamein kya karna hai" sheershak pustak taiyaar ki jismein is baat par jor diya ki kraanti ka netrutv aise anushaasit dal ke haath mein hona chaahiye jiska mukhya kaamkaaj hi kraanti ke liye udyog karna hai. san 1903 mein roosi shramikon ke samaajavaadi lokatantr dal ka doosra sammelan hua. ismein lenin tatha uske samarthakon ko avasaravaadi tatvon se kada loha lena pada. ant mein kraantikaari yojana ke prastaav bahumat se manjoor ho gaya aur roosi samaajavaadi lokatantr dal do shaakhaaon mein vibhkt ho gaya - kraanti ka vaastavik samarthak bolashevik samooh aur avasaravaadi meinshevikon ka giroh.

san 1905-07 mein usane roos ki pratham kraati ke samay janasaadhaaran ko ubhaadne aur lakshya ki or agrasar karne mein bolashevikon ke kaarya ka nideshan kiya. avsar milte hi November, 1905 mein vah roos laut aaya. sashastr vidroh ki taiyaari karaane tatha keindreeya samiti ki gatividhi ka sanchaalan karne mein usane poori shakti se haath baintaaya aur karakhaanon tatha milon mein kaam karanevaale shramikon ki sabhaaon mein anek baar bhaashan kiya.

pratham roosi kraanti ke vifal ho jaane par lenin ko fir desh se baahar chale jaana pada. January, 1912 mein sarv roosi dal ka sammelan praag mein hua. lenin ke nidesh se sammelan ne kraantikaari samaajavaadi lokatantr dal se menashevikon ko nikaal baahar kiya. iske baad lenin ke kraiko naamak sthaan mein rahakar dal ke patra "praavada" ka sanchaalan karne, uske liye lekh likhne aur chauthe raajya dyooma ke bolashevik dal ka nideshan karne mein apne aapko lagaaya.

san 1913-14 mein lenin ne do pustakein likheen - "raashtreeyata ke prashn par sameekshaatmak "vichaar" tatha (raashtro ka) aatmanirnaya karne ka adhikaar." pehli mein usane boorjva logon ke raashtravaad ki teevr aalochna ki aur shramikon ki antararaashtreeyata ke siddhaanton ka samarthan kiya. doosari mein usane yeh maaaing ki ki apne bhavishya ka nirnaya karne ka raashtron ka adhikaar maan liya jaae. usane is baat par bal diya ki gulaami se chhutakaara paane ka prayatn karanevaale deshon ki sahaayata ki jaae.

pratham mahaasamar ke dauraan lenin ke netrutv mein roosi saamyavaadiyon ne sarvahaara varg ki antararaashtreeyata ka, "saamraajyavaadi" yuddh ke virodh ka, jhanda oopar uthaaya. yuddhakaal mein usane maarksavaad ki daarshanik vichaaradhaara ko aur aage badhaane ka prayatn kiya. usane apni pustak "saamraajyavaad" (1916) mein saamraajyavaad ka vishleshan karte hue batalaaya ki yeh pooainjeevaad ke vikaas ki charam aur aakhiri manjil hai. usane un paristhitiyon par bhi prakaash daala jo saamraajyavaad ke vinaash ke anivaarya bana deti hain. usane yeh spasht kar diya ki saamraajyavaad ke yug mein pooainjeevaad ke aarthik evam raajaneetik vikaas ki gati sab deshon mein ek si naheen hoti. isi aadhaar par usane yeh nishpatti nikaali ki shuroo shuroo mein samaajavaad ki vijay pruthak roop se keval do teen, ya maatr ek hi, pooainjeevaadi desh mein sambhav hai. iska pratipaadan usane apni do pustakon mein kiya - "di United states of Europe slogan" (1915) tatha "di vaar program of di politikl rivaalyooshan" (1916).

mahaasamar ke samay lenin ne Switzerland mein apna nivaas banaaya. kathinaaiyon ke baavajood apne dal ke logon ka sanghatan aur ekasootreekaran jaari rakha, roos mein sthit dal ki sansthaaon se pun: sampark sthaapit kar liya tatha aur bhi adhik utsaah evam saahas ke saath unke kaarya ka nideshan kiya. February-March, 1917 mein roos mein kraanti ka aarambh hone par vah roos laut aaya. usane kraanti ki vyaapak taiyaariyon ka sanchaalan kiya aur shramikon tatha sainikon ki bahusankhyak sabhaaon mein bhaashan kar unki raajaneetik chetna badhaane aur santusht karne ka prayatn kiya.

July, 1917 mein kraantivirodhiyon ke haath mein satta chali jaane par bolashevik dal ne apne neta ke ajnyaaatavaas ki vyavastha ki. isi sam usane "di state aind rivaalyooshan" (raaj tatha kraanti) naamak pustak likhi aur gupt roop se dal ke sanghatan aur kraanti ki taiyaariyon ke nideshan ka kaarya jaari rakha. October mein virodhiyon ki kaamachalaaoo sarkaar ka takhta ulat diya gaya aur 7 November 1917 ko lenin ki adhyakshata mein soviyt sarkaar ki sthaapana kar di gayi. praarambh se hi soviyt shaasan ne shaantisthaapana par bal dena shuroo kiya. Germany ke saath usane sandhi kar li; jameendaaron se bhoomi chheenakar saari bhoosanpatti par raashtra ka svaamitv sthaapit kar diya gaya, vyavasaayon tatha kaarkhaanon par shramikon ka niyantran ho gaya aur baikon tatha parivhan saadhanon ka raashtreekaran kar diya gaya. shramikon tatha kisaanon ko pooainjeepatiyon aur jameendaaron se chhutakaara mila aur samast desh ke nivaasiyon mein poorn samata sthaapit kar di gayi. navasthaapit soviyt prajaatantr ki raksha ke liye laal sena ka nirmaan kiya gaya. lenin ne ab majadooron aur kisaanon ke sansaar ke is pratham raajya ke nirmaan ka kaarya apne haath mein liya. usane "di imeediyet taasks of di soviyt gavarnameint" tatha "di prole teriyn rivaalyooshan aind di reneeged kautski" naamak pustakein likheen (1918). lenin ne batalaaya ki majadooron ka adhinaayakatantr vaastav mein adhikaansh janta ke liye sachcha lokatantr hai. usaka mukhya kaam dabaav ya jor jabaradasti naheen varan sanghatanaatmak tatha shikshan sambandhi kaarya hai.

baahari deshon ke sainik hastakshepon tatha gruhakalah ke teen varshon 1928-20 mein lenin ne videshi aakramanakaariyon tatha pratikraantikaariyon se drudhtaapoorvak loha lene ke liye soviyt janta ka maarg darshan kiya. is vyaapak ashaanti aur gruhayuddh ke samay bhi lenin ne yuddh kaal se hui desh ki barbaadi ko door kar sthiti sudhaarane, vidyuteekaran ka vikaas karne, parivhan ke saadhanon ke vistaar aur chhoti chhoti joton ko milaakar sahayog samitiyon ke aadhaar par bade firm sthaapit karne ki yojanaaeain aarambh kar Dean. usane shaasanik yantr ka aakaar ghataane, usamein sudhaar karne tatha kharch mein kami karne par bal diya. usane shikshit aur maneeshi varg se kisaanon, majadooron ke saath sahayog karte hue nae samaaj ke nirmaanakaarya mein sakriya bhaag lene ka aagrah liya.

jahaaain tak soviyt shaasan ki videsh neeti ka prashn hai, lenin ke avikl roop se shaanti banaae rakhane ka nirantar prayatn kiya. usane kaha ki "hamaari samast neeti aur prachaar ka lakshya yeh hona chaahiye ki chaahe kuchh bhi ho jaae, hamaare deshvaasiyon ko yuddh ki aag mein na jhonka jaae. ladaai ka khaatma kar dene ki or hi hamein agrasar hona chaahiye." usane saamyavaad ke shatruon se desh ka bachaav karne ke liye pratirksha vyavastha ko sudrudh banaane par bal diya aur soviyt naagrikon se aagrah kiya ki ve "vaastavik" lokatantr tatha samaajavaad ke sthaapanaarth vishv ke anya sabhi deshon mein rahanevaale shramikon ke saath antararaashtreeya bandhutv ki bhaavana badhaane ki or adhik dhyaan dein.

sandarbh