vishvavidyaalaya

vishvavidyaalaya (yunivrsiti) vah sanstha hai jismein sabhi prakaar ki vidyaaon ki uchch koti ki shiksha di jaati ho, pareeksha li jaati ho tatha logon ko vidya sambandhi upaadhiyaaain aadi pradaan ki jaati hon. iske antargat vishvavidyaalaya ke maidaan, bhavan, prabhaag, tatha vidyaarthiyon ka sangathan aadi bhi sammilit hain.

anukram

itihaas

praacheen kaal mein Europe ke deshon mein maanya arth mein koi vishvavidyaalaya na the, yadyapi anek mahatvapoorn vidyaalaya the, jaise Athens ke daarshanik vidyaalaya, athva rom ke saahitya aur reetishaastr ke vidyaalaya, jo uchch shiksha sansthaaeain theen. madhya yug mein shiksha par dhaarmik sansthaaon ka niyantran raha. dhaarmik sansthaaon dvaara vidyaalayon ki vyavastha ki jaati thi jinmein paadariyon ko dhaarmik, saahityik evam vaigyaanik vishyon ki shiksha di jaati thi. is yug mein peris ka dhaarmik vidyaalaya dharmashiksha ka ek kendra ban gaya, tatha san 1198 tatha 1215 E. ke beech peris vishvavidyaalaya ke roop mein parivrtit ho gaya aur usamein dharmavijnyaaan, kala tatha chikitsa ke prabhaag banaae gaye. baad mein visheshagya adhyaapakon aur vidyaarthiyon ne milkar vishvavidyaalaya chalaae. 12veen shataabdi ke madhya ke aaspaas bolona mein kaanoon ke vidyaarthiyon ke prayaas se ek kaanoon vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit kiya gaya. san 1250 E. ke lagbhag 'vishvavidyaalaya' (university) shabd ka prayog nae arth mein hone laga aur ye paandityapoorn vidyaarthiyon ke bajaay shaasakon dvaara apne raajyon ki raajaneetik evam saamaajik aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye sthaapit kiye jaane lage. madhyayugeen vishvavidyaalaya 13veen shataabdi ke madhya ke sarvotkrusht samay mein bauddhik svatantrata ki adviteeya avastha ko prakat karte hain. dhan ke kaaran inki pragati baadhit naheen hui aur ye apne svatantr adhikaaron ko nasht karanevaale prayatnon ka virodh karne mein saksham rahe. ye apne yug ki sanskruti ko nirdhaarit karne mein prabhaavashaali bane. madhyayugeen darshan ka janm kuchh mahaan dhaarmik aandolanon ke samaan mahaavidyaalayon mein hua jisne madhya yug ke Europe ko hila diya aur usaki ekta ko vibhaajit kar diya. isi 13veen shataabdi mein mahaadveepeeya Europe ke prabhaav se England mein bhi Oxford aur Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit ho chuke the.

Europe mein dharm-sudhaar-aandolan ke saath vishvavidyaalaya ke drushtikon aur vistaar mein ek nishchit parivartan hua. unki paramparaagat svavyavastha aur svatantrata lupt ho gayi; praachaarya, raajya ke sevak ho gaye; kathor niyantran tatha jaaainch ki vyavastha ki gayi. vishvavidyaalaya ko raajya tatha tatsanbandhit kharch ke liye kaaryakartaaon ko Dixit karanevaali sanstha maana jaane laga. ye vishvavidyaalaya dhaarmik sansthaaon se sambandhit hote hue bhi 16veen shataabdi ke dhaarmik sangharshon se door rahe. is shataabdi mein vishvavidyaalaya vaigyaanik khojon ke kendra ban gaye. baad mein 16veen shataabdi mein shikshan hi inka mukhya kaarya ho gaya. 18veen shataabdi mein vishvavidyaalaya samaaj ki aavashyakataaon ke anukool hote gaye aur un vibhinn vishyon ki shiksha dene ka prayatn karne lage jo vyavasaayik prashikshan ke liye aavashyak the. France ki kraanti ke baad vishvavidyaalayon dvaara raashtreeya shiksha ki aayojana (planning) hone lagi. 19veen shataabdi mein yeh anubhav kiya gaya ki vishvavidyaalaya uchch shiksha tatha shodhakaarya par apne ko keindrit karein aur maadhyamik shiksha ko apne kaaryavrutt se hata dein. vaigyaanik vishyon ke adhyayan par adhik bal diya gaya. is kaal ke vishvavidyaalaya keval vigyaan hi naheen balki raajaneeti ke kendra bhi bane aur vibhinn deshon ke raashtreeya utthaan mein raashtreeyata ke sthaayi bhaavon ko utpann karke unhonne mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya. 19veen shataabdi ke ant tak vishvavidyaalaya ka sambandh janta ke saath kaafi ghanishth ho gaya. 20veen shataabdi mein vishvavidyaalayon ke drushtikon mein vistrut parivartan hue. bauddhik vikaas ki paramparaagat seemaaon ki upeksha karke unamein sabhi prakaar ke praavidhik vishay aarambh kiye gaye. upayogitaavaad ke prabhaav mein aakar kabhi kabhi to unamein poornataya upayogi paathyakram ki hi pradhaanata ho gayi.

aadhunik vishvavidyaalaya apni utpatti tatha saamaajik sambandh ke vichaar ke teen mein se kisi ek prakaar ke hote hain : ya to ve dhaarmik sanstha se sambandhit hai, ya raajya ki samasyaaeain hain, ya fir vyaktigat samooh dvaara sanchaalit hai. is prakaar dheere dheere vishvavidyaalaya pradhaanataya dhaarmik kshetr se hatkar janasaadhaaran se sambandhit hote gaye.

Bhaarat mein uchch-shiksha ka itihaas

Bhaarat mein vaidik kaal ke gurukulon ko vishvavidyaalaya ka praacheen roop kaha ja sakta hai kyonki unheen mein uchch shiksha ki vyavastha thi. baad mein, upanishd tatha braahman kaal mein, ham "parishdon" ko vishvavidyaalaya ke roop mein kaarya karte hue paate hain. ye parishdein paandityapoorn adhyaapakon tatha vidyaarthiyon ke sammelan ke roop mein hoti thi aur upaadhiyaaain pradaan karne ke adhikaarini theen. bauddh kaal mein shiksha ke susangaathit keindron ki sthaapana hui jinmein takshashila aur naalanda atyant prasiddh the. inmein shulk liya jaata tha. paathyakram mein ved, vedaang tatha vibhinn kalaaeain, jaise chikitsa, shalya, jyotish, nakshatr ganana, krushi, baheekhaata, dhanurvidya aadi, sammilit the. bauddh tatha jain darshan evam tarkashaastr bhi padhaae jaate the. kaathiyaavaad mein vallabhi tatha dakshin mein kaanchi bhi takshashila aur naalanda ke samaan shiksha ke bade kendra the.

musalmaanon ke aakraman tatha unke dvaara raajasthaapan se praacheen bhaarateeya vishvavidyaalaya nasht ho gaye. musalmaan shaasakon ne vibhinn sthaanon par uchch shiksha ke liye madarasa athva mahaavidyaalaya sthaapit kiye. is kaal mein Lahore, Delhi, Rampur, Lucknow, Allahabad, jaunapur, Ajmer, beedar, aadi sthaanon ke madarase prasiddh the aur unamein arabi faarasi saahitya, itihaas, darshan, reetishaastr, kaanoon, jyaamiti, jyotishi, adhyaatmashaastr, dharmavijnyaaan aadi vishay padhaae jaate the. vastut: yeh madarase hi vishvavidyaalayeeya shiksha ki vyavastha karte the.

East India company ke shaasanakaal mein Calcutta madarasa aur banaaras sanskrut kaalej uchch shikshaakeindr ke roop mein sthaapit hue. san 1845 E. mein Bengal kaaunsil ov ejookeshan ne pehli baar kalakatte mein ek vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit karne ke liye prastaav paas kiya jise aage chalakar san 1854 E. ke vud ke ghoshanaapatr ne sveekaar kiya. iske anusaar Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya ki yojana London vishvavidyaalaya ke aadarsh par banaai gayi thi aur usamein kulapati, upakulapati, senate, adhyayan-adhyaapan, pareeksha, aadi ki vyavastha ki gayi. san 1856 E. tak Calcutta, Mumbai aur Madras mein vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit karne ke liye yojanaaeain taiyaar ho gain aur 24 January 1857 E. ko tatsanbandhi bilon ko Bhaarat ke gavarnarajanaral ki sveekruti praapt ho gayi. Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya ne pehle kaarya aarambh kiya aur baad mein usi varsh Mumbai tatha Madras vishvavidyaalaya ne. praarambh mein in vishvavidyaalayon mein chaar prabhaag, kala, kaanoon, chikitsa aur engineering ke khole gaye. ye vishvavidyaalaya mahaavidyaalayon ko sambaddh (affiliate) karanevaale the. Mumbai aur Madras vishvavidyaalayon ka yeh adhikaar apne hi praanton tak seemit raha.

san 1867 E. mein Punjab praant mein ek vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit karne ke liye prastaav kiya gaya aur san 1882 E. mein visheshat: poorvi bhaashaaon ke adhyayan ke liye Punjab vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana hui. san 1882 E. ke shiksha aayog ne mahaavidyaalayeeya shiksha tatha vitt sambandhi paristhiti ka poornaroopen punaravalokan kiya aur apne sujhaav diye. san 1857 E. mein Allahabad mein ek vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit kiya gaya. san 1902 E. ke vishvavidyaalaya aayog ne vishvavidyaalayon ko "shikshan sansthaaon" ke roop mein, tatha senate, sindeeket aur faikalti" ko maanyata dene ki sanstuti ki. san 1904 E. ke vishvavidyaalaya adhiniyam ke dvaara senate ke sanghatan mein parivartan hua, usaki sadasyasankhya mein vruddhi hui; sindeeket ko kaanooni maanyata mili aur usamein adhyaapakon ka pratinidhitv bhi raha; praachaarya evam adhyaapakon ki niyukti ke niyam tatha shartein nishchit huin. san 1913 E. ki shaikshik neeti ke aadhaar par dhaaka, Aligadh, banaaras, Patna, Nagpur aadi mein nae shikshan tatha saavaas vishvavidyaalayon ki sthaapana hui. 1916 E. mein Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya ne snaatakottar shiksha vibhaagon ko praarambh kiya. is vishvavidyaalaya ki dasha ki jaaainch ke liye 1917 E. mein Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya aayog bana jiski report ne desh mein uchch shiksha ke roop evam vikaas par vishesh prabhaav daala. ab vishvavidyaalaya saadhaaranataya maadhyamik shiksha kaarya se alag ho gaye aur unka dhyaan snaatak tatha snaatakottar adhyayan par keindrit hua. paathya-vishyon ki sankhya tatha unke vistaar mein vruddhi hui aur shikshak prashikshan, kaanoon, chikitsa, engineering, bhavananirmaan, krushi aadi vishyon ka adhyaapan hone laga. san 1924 E. mein antarvishvavidyaalaya parishad bana jisne vishvavidyaalayon ke kaarya ko sugathit kiya. maadhyamik shiksha ke nirantar vistaar hone se vishvavidyaalayon ki sankhya bhi kramash: badhti gayi jaisa ki keindreeya salaahakaar samiti ki riporton se prakat hota hai.

svatantrata praapti ke baad san 1948 E. mein dau॰ sarvapalli Radhakrishnan ki adhyakshata mein ek vishvavidyaalaya aayog ki sthaapana hui jisne bhaarateeya vishvavidyaalayon ko raashtreeya evam janatantraatmak aadhaar par pun: sangathit karne ke liye vistrut sujhaav diye. desh ki dasha evam aavashyakta ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue naveen paathyavishyon ko praarambh karne par jor diya gaya. is aayog ki report ke baad vishvavidyaalayon ki sankhya badhi. vishvavidyaalayon ki aarthik dasha ki jaaainch karne aur uchch shiksha ke prasaar hetu unhein uchit anudaan dene ke liye keindreeya sarkaar ne ek vishvavidyaalaya anudaan samiti (University Grants Commission) banaai. bhaarateeya vishvavidyaalaya shikshan tatha sambandhit karanevaale (affliliating) donon prakaar ke hain. vishvavidyaalaya anudaan samiti sansthaaon ke shikshan roop dhaaran karne par adhik bal deti hai.

kuchh bhaarateeya vishvavidyaalaya keindreeya sarkaar par aadhaarit hain, yatha banaaras, Aligadh, Aligadh, vishvabhaarati aadi. anya praanteeya vishvavidyaalaya shikshan karanevaale tatha saavaas hain. inmein vidyaarthi chhaatraavaas mein rahate, tatha vidyaadhyayan karte hain. doosare prakaar ke vishvavidyaalaya ve hain jo keval pareeksha lete tatha mahaavidyaalayon ko sambandhit karte hain. in vishvavidyaalayon mein bhi ab thoda bahut shikshan kaarya hone laga hai.

vishvavidyaalayon ka prashaasan

vishvavidyaalayon ke prashaasan ke liye kulapati, upakulapati, prabandh samiti (senate), court (sabha), shiksha samiti (Academic Council), rajistraar aur uske sahaayak aadi hote hain. pradesheeya vishvavidyaalayon ke kulapati praaya: pradesh ke raajyapaal hote hain, jo avaitanik hain. keindreeya vishvavidyaalaya mein raashtrapati ko vijitr (Visitor) ke roop mein maana jaata hai.

vibhaag evam upaadhiyaaain

paathyakrameeya sanghatan ki drushti se pratyek vishvavidyaalaya anek prabhaag (Faculties), yatha kala, vigyaan, vaanijya, kaanoon, chikitsa, engineering, shiksha, krushi, aadi mein bainta hua hota hai. prabhaag ke pradhaan praadhyaksh (Dean) hote hain. pratyek bhaag ke antargat vibhinn vibhaag hote hain jinke alag-alag adhyaksh hote hain. adhyaksh praaya: professor (praachaarya) kahalaate hain. unke sahaayak adhyaapakagan reedar, lekcharar athva asisteint professor aadi hote hain. vishvavidyaalaya mein ek ya anek prabhaag hote hain. in vishvavidyaalayon dvaara di jaanevaali upaadhiyaaain bhi anek prakaar ki hain. shodh kaarya ke nimitt uchch upaadhiyaaain di. lit., di. S-si., L.-L. di., pi-H. di., di. fil., aadi hain. bi. A., M. A., bi. S-si., bi. com., M. com., L-L. di., pi-H. di., di. fil., aadi hain. bi.A., M.A., bi.S-si., bi.com., M.com., L-L.bi., L-L. M., vi.ti., bi.ed., M.ed. aadi ki upaadhiyaaain praaya: likhit pareeksha ke uparaant di jaati hain. pratyek vishvavidyaalaya ka prati varsh ek samaavartan samaaroh (Convocation) hota hai jismein pareekshotteern vidyaarthiyon ka upaadhidaan kiya jaata hai.

samasyaaeain evam bhavishya

aaj ke vishvavidyaalayon evam vishvavidyaalayeeya shiksha ki anek samasyaaeain hain jinpar shaasan tatha shikshaavidon ka dhyaan keindrit hai. maadhyamik star par shiksha ke prasaar ke kaaran vishvavidyaalayon mein vidyaarthiyon ki sakhya badh rahi hai aur prashn yeh hai ki kya vishvavidyaalaya un sabhi vidyaarthiyon ko sthaan dein jo aage padhna chaahate hain, athva keval unheen ko chunakar lein jo uchch shiksha se laabh uthaane mein samarth hon? shiksha ka maadhyam kya ho?, yeh bhi ek mahatvapoorn prashn hai. shodh kaarya ko prashraya dene ki samasya bhi dhyaan akarshit karti hai. kuchh vishvavidyaalayon me vidyaalayon mein vidyaarthiyon ki anushaasanaheenata bhi ek samasya hai. yogya adhyaapakon ko vishvavidyaalaya mein aakarshit karna tatha unhein banaae rakhana kam mahatvapoorn naheen. desh ki vartamaan dasha ko dekhte hue tatha hamaara aaj va kal ki aavashyakataaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue kis prakaar ke paathyavishya praarambh kiye jaaeain aur aage ke vishvavidyaalayon ka kya roop ho? ye prashn raashtrotthaan ki drushti se atyant mahatvapoorn hain.

vishv ke pramukh vishvavidyaalaya

paramparaagat praapt maanavajnyaaan ka sanrakshan, naveen gyaan ka sanrakshan, naveen gyaan ka anusandhaan, sanvardhan evam prasaar aadhunik vishvidyaalayon ke pramukh kaarya hain. iseeliye ve saahitya, kala, darshan, samaajavijnyaaan, vigyaan, prashaasan, vyavasaaya, vyaapaar udyog ev takaneeki aadi ke shikshan evam anusandhaan ki apne yahaaain vyavastha karte hain aur shiksha-seva-vistaar (ejyukeshan evasteinshan) ke dvaara unako bhi laabhaanvit karne ki cheshta karte hain, jo vishvavidyaalaya ke chhaatr hokar adhyayan naheen kar sakte. jnyaaanaanusandhaan, evam prasaar ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki vishvavidyaalayon mein bauddhik svaatantrya ho. vishvavidyaalaya antararaashtreeya kshetr mein sadbhaavana sthaapit karne ke bhi shaktishaali maadhyam hain.

terahaveen shataabdi mein sthaapit Britain ke aaksaford evam Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya, unneesaveen evam beesaveen sadi tak nirmit baramingham, leeds, mainachaistar, livrapool, nyookaisl, glaasago, edinbara, Victoria, darahag, aadi vishvavidyaalayon ke samaan hi gyaan, vigyaan ke aadhuniktam shiksha sansthaanon se sampann hokar praacheen aur aadhunik yug ka pratinidhitv kar rahe hain. Europe ke isi prakaar ke anya praacheen vishvavidyaalayon mein France ke, peris vishvavidyaalaya (sthaapit 1253 E.), taailoj (1229 E.), maaainpeliya (Montpellier, 1289 E.), Italy ke nepals (1224 E.), floreins (1321 E.), rom (1303 E.) jenaagra (1471 E.); Germany ka myunikh (1472 E.) Spain ke vaaraseelona (1450 E.) Madrid (1508 E), Portugal ke kaaibra (Coimbra 1290 E.), sveedan ka apasaala (1477 E.) tatha Netherland ka laaidan (1575 E.) aadi vishvavidyaalaya apni pracheen ev naveen shiksha paranparaayon ke sandeshavaahak hokar vidyamaan hain.

Columbia, New York, ohaayo, kaleeforniya, florida, Chicago, Harvard, Washington, indiyaana, Michigan, yel aadi amereeka ke prasiddh vishvavidyaalaya hain.

roos mein Moscow, leningraad jaise vishaal keindreeya vishvavidyaalayon ke atirikt soviyt sangh (ab, roos) ke vishaal bhoobhaagon ke liye central asian lenin vishvavidyaalaya "faar East vishvavidyaalaya" tatha soviyt sangh ke ke vibhinn raajyon ke apne alag alag vishvavidyaalaya hain. soviyt sangh ki academy ne anusandhaan kshetr mein yugaparivrtanakaari kaarya kiye hain.

cheen mein peepals university ov China, peking, ke namoone par cheen ke sabhi pramukh pradeshon mein vishvavidyaalaya ki pun:sthaapana ki gayi hai jinmein saamyavaadi darshan aur takaneeki shiksha ki pradhaanata hai. Shanghai, pooshan, chunking, naanaking aadi vahaaain ke prasiddh vishvavidyaalaya hain.

Asia evam Australia ke sabhi deshon ke pramukh nagaron mein vishvavidyaalaya hain.[1] kisi kisi nagar mein kai vishvavidyaalaya hain. filipeens ke Manila jais nagar mein hi paaainch vishvavidyaalaya hain. chhaatron ki sankhya ki drushti se Asia mein cheen, Japan aur Bhaarat mein bade vishvavidyaalaya hain. dviteeya mahaayuddh ke uparaat jahaaain Japan ne anya kshetron mein punarnirmaan kiya , vaheen vishvavidyaalaya ke shiksha kshetr mein bhi vahaaain ke tokiyo, haukaaito, kiyoto, hiroshaaki, tatha hiroshima aadi vishvavidyaalaya gyaan evam vigyaan ke kshetr mein upayogi kaarya kar rahe hain. vishvavidyaalaya kshetr ki shiksha mein Africa bhi unnatisheel hai. dakshini Africa ke pritoriya, nataal, daraban, Cape Town, traansavaal aad unnatisheel vishvavidyaalaya hai.

Bhaarat ke vishvavidyaalaya

praacheen Bhaarat ke vishvavidyaalayon mein takshashila, naalanda, vikramashila, vallabhi, nadiya, udayantapuri, kaanchi aadi vishvavidyaalayon ne vishesh khyaati praapt ki thi. inmein videshon se bhi chhaatr adhyayan ke liye aate the. bhaarateeya shiksha parampara mein aatmajnyaaan ke liye shiksha guru aur shishya ka pita tulya sabandh, shikshaakaal mein brahmacharyapaalan ka tapasyaamaya jeevan, ni:shulk shiksha tatha bauddhik svaatantrya aadi bhaavon ki pradhaanata thi. madhyakaal ke shikshaakeindron mein Lahore, Delhi, Rampur, jaunapur, beedar aur Ajmer aadi vishaal shikshaakeindr the. angreji raajya ki sthaapana ke uparaat san 1857 mein Calcutta, Mumbai tatha Madras vishvavidyaalayon ki sthaapana tatkaaleen London vishvavidyaalaya ke namoone par hui thi. ve keval pareeksha lenevaale vishvavidyaalaya the. Cambridge aur aaksaford ke samaan inmein sahajeevan na tha. san 1913 se san 1921 tak chhah aavaas evam shikshanasamanvit vishvavidyaalayon ki sthaapana hui. san 1920 mein sar Sayyed Ahmad khaaain ne Aligadh musalim vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ki. san 1918 mein Hyderabad ke nijaam ne usamaaniya vishvavidyaalaya sthaapit kiya. usamein uchch shiksha ka maadhyam urdoo rakha gaya tha.

svaadheenataapraapti ke uparaant Bhaarat ke vishvavidyaalayon ki sankhya mein bahut vruddhi hui. Bhaarat ke vishvavidyaalaya vishisht vishyon krushi, engineering, sanskrut, sangeet aadi ke adhyayan ko pradhaanata dene ki drushti se sthaapit kiye gaye hain. udaaharan ke liye uttar pradesh krushi vishvavidyaalaya, rudrapur naineetaal, Punjab krushi vishvavidyaalaya ludhiyaana, krushi evam takaneeki vishvavidyaalaya bhuvaneshvar (udeesa), Andhra pradesh krushi vishvavidyaalaya Hyderabad, javaaharalaal Nehru krushi vishvavidyaalaya tatha khairagadh (Madhya Pradesh) indra kala aur sangeet vishvavidyaalaya hain. keval mahilaaon ke liye Mumbai mein thaikarasi vishvavidyaalaya hain.

inke atirikt kuchh shikshan sansthaaon ko unke vishisht mahatva ke kaaran vishvavidyaalaya ke samaksh maana gaya hai. Gujarat vidyaapeeth, kaashi vidyaapeeth, jaamemileeya dehali, gurukul kaangadi, haridvaar, ne svaadheenataapraapti ke poorv raashtreeya shiksha aandolan mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya tha. at: unhein vishvavidyaalaya ke samakaksh sthaan diya gaya. vigyaan takaneeki evam samaajavijnyaaan ke shikshaanusandhaan ki vishishtataaon ke kaaran bidla takaneeki evam vigyaan sansthaan Pilani, bhaarateeya vigyaan sansthaan bangalaur, bhaarateeya krushi anusandhaan sansthaan dehali, tata samaajavijnyaaan sansthaan Mumbai tatha bhaarateeya antararaashtreeya adhyayan sansthaan dehali ko bhi vishvavidyaalaya ke samakaksh maana gaya hai.

vishvavidyaalaya ke prakaar

Bhaarat mein is samay mukhyat: chaar tarah ke vishvavidyaalaya hain-

kendreeya vishvavidyaalaya : sansad ke adhiniyam ke tahat banaaye gaye desh mein kul 30 vishvavidyaalaya hain. ye sabhi maanav sansaadhan vikaas (HRD) mantraalaya ke tahat aati hain. is vishvavidyaalayon ko jyaada fund aavantit hota hai, isliye inmein doosare vishvavidyaalayon ke mukaabale suvidhaaen bhi behtar hoti hain. 2009 mein 15 vishvavidyaalayon ko kendreeya vishvavidyaalya ka darja diya gaya. kuchh pramukh kendreeya vishvavidyaalaya ye hain- Delhi vishvavidyaalaya, banaaras hindu vishvavidyaalaya, javaaharalaal Nehru vishvavidyaalaya, Allahabad vishvavidyaalaya aadi.

state university : raajyon ki vidhaanasabha aikt paarit kar stetayoonivrsiti banaati hai. desh mein kul 251 state university hain. inmein sekeval 123 university ko hi yoojeesi dvaara bajat milta hai. yoonivrsiteeof kolakata, university of Madras aur university of munbaidesh ki sabse puraani state yoonivrsiteej hain.

deemd university : yoonivrsiteej ke alaava uchch shiksha se jude doosareinstityoots ko yoojeesi ki salaah par kendra sarkaar deemd university kaadarja deti hai. amooman yeh darja paane ke liye sansthaan mein shiksha ka starabahut ooncha hona jaroori maana jaata hai. is tarah ki university kaastetas baaki university ki tarah hi hota hai, lekin inhein svaayattataaadhik haasil hoti hai. ye na sirf apna course aur silebas khudadijaain kar sakte hain, balki apne edamishn aur fees sambandhi niymabhi bana sakte hain. Indian instityoot of maains (dhanabaad), indiynainstityoot of science (bangalooru) kuchh jaani - maani deemd yoonivrsiteehain.

praaivat university : uchch shiksha ke aise sansthaan, jinki sthaapanaaraajya ya kendra ke kaanoon ke tahat kisi spaunsaring baudi dvaara ki jaateehai, private university kahalaate hain. aisi yoonivrsiteej ke paas yoojeeseeki maanyata bhi hoti hai, jisse inke dvaara di ja rahi digriyon komaanyata milti hai. Pilani sthit bidla instityoot of teknaulajeeend science ko is kaitigri mein rakha ja sakta hai.

Bhaarat mein kul 123 deemd university hai.[3] inmein se 54 ko pichhle paanch saal mein yeh darja haasil hua hai. choonki inmein se kai yoonivrsiteej ko maanyata dene mein paaradarshi prakriya naheen apnaai gayi, isliye inki maanyata ko lekar haal mein vivaad uth khada hua hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain