vishv vyaapi web

"vishv vyaapi vitaan," "W3," aur "WWW" yahaaain punarnirdeshit karein. anya upayogon ke liye, dekhein web (Web) aur WWW (disambiguation) (WWW (disambiguation)).
"web sarfing" yahaaain punarnirdeshit karegi.web braaujr ke liye, dekhein WorldWideWeb (WorldWideWeb).
WWW ke aitihaasik logo ki rachana ki gayiRobert kailliau dvaara (Robert Cailliau)

vishv vyaapi web(jise saamaanyat: web kaha jaata hai) aapas mein paraspar jude haaiparatekst dastaavejon ko intaranet dvaara praapt karne ki pranaali hai. ek web braaujar ki sahaayata se ham un web pannon ko dekh sakte hain jinmein tekst, chhavi (image), video, envan anya malteemeediya hote hain tatha haaiparalink ki sahaayata se un pannon ke beech mein aavaagaman kar sakte hai. vishv vyaapi web ko tim barnars li dvaara 1989 mein Europeeya naabhikeeya anusandhaan sangathan jo ki jeneva, sveetjralaind mein hai, mein kaam karte vakt banaaya gaya tha aur 1992 mein jaari kiya gaya tha. uske baad se baranars-li nein web ke staron ke vikaas (jaise ki maarkaap bhaashaaeain jinmein ki web panne likhe jaate hain) mein ek sakreeya bhoomika ada ki hai aur haal ke varshon mein unhonein seemeintik (arth) web (Semantic Web) viksit karne ke apne svapn ki vakaalat ki hai.

anukram

web kaise kaam karta hai

vishv vyaapi web par ek web panne ko dekhne ki shuruaat saamaanyat: web braaujar mein usaka yooaarael likh kar athva us panne ya sansaadhan ke haaiparalink ka peechha karte hue hoti hai. tab us panne ko dhoondh kar prardashit karne ke liye web braaujar andar hi andar sanchaar sandeshon ki ek shrrunkhala aarambh karta hai.

sabse pehle yooaarael ke sarvar-naam vaale hisse ko vishv mein vitrit intaranet data-base, jise domen naam pranaali ke naam se jaana jaata hai, ki sahaayata se aaipi pate mein parivrtit kar diya jaata hai. web sarvar se sampark saadhane aur data packet bhejane ke liye ye aaipi pata jaruri hai.

uske baad braaujar web sarvar ke us vishisht pate par haaiparatekst transfer protokaul ki praarthana bhej kar risors se anurodh karta hai. ek aam web panne ki baat karein to, web braaujar sabse pehle us panne ke H.ti.M.L. tekst ke liye anurodh karta hai aur tunrat hi usaka padachhed kar deta hai. uske baad web braaujar pun: anurodh karta hai un chhaviyon aur sanchikaaon ke liye jo us panne ke bhaag hain. ek website ki lokapriyta saamaanyat: is baat se maapi jaati hai ki kitni baar uske pannon ko dekha gaya ya kitni baar uske sarvar ko hit kiya gaya ya fir kitni baar usaki sanchikaaon ke liye anurodh kiya gaya.

web sevak se aavashyak sanchikaaeain praapt karne ke baad braaujr us panne ko screen par H.ti.M.L., kaiskeding style sheets envan anya web bhaashaaoain ke nirdesh ke anusaar prardashit karta hai. jis web panne ko ham screen par dekhte hain uske nirmaan ke liye anya chhaviyon envan sansaadhanon ka bhi istemaal hota hai.

adhikaansh web prushthon mein unase sambandhit anya prushthon aur shaayad daaunalod karne laayak vastu, srot dastaavejon, paribhaashaaeain aur anya web sansaadhanon ke haaiparalink swayam shaamil honge. is upayogi aur sambandhit sansaadhanon ke samaagam ko, jo ki aapas mein haaiparatekst link ke dvaara jude hue hon, ko jaankaari ka "web" kaha gaya. isko intaranet par upalabdh karaane ko tim barnars li nein sarvapratham 1990[1] mein vishvavyaapeeveb ka naam diya.

itihaas

yeh NeXTcube (NeXTcube) jiska upayog barnars-li dvaara sarn mein kiya gaya, pehla web sarvar ban gaya.

web ki utpatti ke antarnihit vichaaron ke lakshan 1980 mein milne shuroo ho gaye the jab sarn mein tim baranars-li nein enkvaaiyar (ENQUIRE) ki rachana ki thi (yahaaain unka ishaara ek kitaab, enkvaaiyar vidin upon evri-thing (Enquire Within Upon Everything), ki taraf tha jo unhonein bachapan mein padhi thi. haalaaainki aaj istemaal hone waali pranaali se ye bhinn tha lekin iske mool vichaar kaafi had tak saamaan the (yahaaain tak ki vishv vyaapi web ke baad ki pariyojana seemeintik web (Semantic Web) ke vichaar bhi)

March 1989 mein tim baranars-li nein ek prastaav likha[2]jismein enkvaaiyar ka jikr kiya gaya aur ek adhik vistrut soochana pranaali ka varnan kiya gaya. Robert kailliau (Robert Cailliau) ki madad se unhonein November 12, 1990[3] mein vishv vyaapi web ka ek adhik aupachaarik prastaav prakaashit kiya. iska aadarsh namoona EBT ke DYNATEXT SGML reedar, jise ki sarn dvaara anubandhit kiya gaya tha, dvaara pradaan kiya gaya tha. EBT(electronic book technology, jiska vikaas brown university ke instityoot for research in informeshan end skaularaship dvaara kiya gaya tha). haalaaainki ye DYNATEXT (Dynatext) (HYTIME (HyTime) ke antargat SGML ISO 8879:1986 ke haaiparameediya mein vistaar mein iska mukhya yogadaan tha) pranaali kaafi uchch takaneek ki maani jaati thi, parantu ise bahut mahanga samjha jaata tha aur HEP(haai enarji fijiks) ke samaaj ke istemaal ke liye jo laaiseinsing neeti thi use bhi anuchit samjha jaata tha.

next kyoob (NeXTcube) ka istemaal baranars-li dvaara 1990 mein duniya ke pehle web sarvar ki tarah aur pehle web braaujar, world wide web, ko likhne ke liye kiya gaya tha. 1990 ke christmas tak baranars-li ne ek chaaloo web ke liye aavashyak sabhi upakaranon ka nirmaan kar liya tha:[4]pehla web braaujar (jo ki ek achha web sampaadak bhi tha), pehla web sevak aur pratham web prushth[5] jo is pariyojana ka varnan karte the.

6 August 1991 ko unhonne vishv vyaapi web pariyojana ka ek sankshipt saar alt.hypertext nyoojgrup (newsgroup)[6] par post kiya tha. is tithi ko web ke Internet par ek saarvajanik roop se upalabdh seva ke shuruaat ke roop mein bhi yaad kiya jaata hai.

Europe ke baahar pehla sarvar SLAC (SLAC) mein December 1991 mein banaaya gaya tha[7].

haaiparatekst jaise mahattvapoorn buniyaadi vichaar ki utpatti 1960 ki puraani pariyojanaaon (jaise ki brown university ka haaiparatekst editing system, HES) se hi ho gayi thi- ted nelsan (Ted Nelson) aur endriys ven dem (Andries van Dam)- ted nelsan (Ted Nelson) ki pariyojana jnaadoo (Project Xanadu) aur dagalas engelbart (Douglas Engelbart) ki on-line sistams (oN-Line System) (NLS).donon nelsan aur engelbart ko vannevar bush (Vannevar Bush) ki maaikrofilm (microfilm) par aadhaarit "memeks (memex)" se prerana mili thi, jiska varnan 1945 ke ek nibandh mein is prakaar kiya gaya tha " jaisa ham sonchein (As We May Think)".

berners-li ki ek badi safalta thi haaiparateksat aur intaranet ka aapas mein mel karaana.apni kitaab veeving the web mein unhonne varnan kiya hai ki kaise unhonne baar baar donon takaneeki samudaayon ke sadasyon ko ye sujhaav diya tha ki in donon takaneekon ka aapas mein mel ho sakta hai, lekin kisi ne unka nyota sveekaar naheen kiya aur ant mein is pariyojana mein unhein swayam haaainth daalna pada. web aur anya jagahon par istemaal hone vaale sansaadhanon ki vishv mein ekamaatr pehchaan waali pranaali viksit ki: yoonifaurm risors abhijnyaaapak.

web mein us samay maujood anya haaiparatekst pranaaliyon se kaafi saari bhinnaataaeain theen. web mein do dishaaon ki kadiyon ki bajaay keval ek disha waali kadiyon ki aavashyakta thi. yadi kisi ko kisi sansaadhan se judna ho, bina us sansaadhan ke maalik ki madad ke, to ye bhi sambhav ho gaya. pehle ki pranaaliyon ki tulana mein isne web braaujrs aur sarvaron ko laagoo karne mein aane waali dikkaton ko kaafi had tak kam kar diya. lekin badle mein link rot (link rot) ki bheeshan samasya ko paida ka diya. poorvaadhikaareeyon, jaise ki haaipar card (HyperCard), ki tulana mein ye web gair maalikaana tha. jisse ki laaisens pratibandhon ke bina hi sarvaron aur graahakon ko svatantr roop se viksit karna aur anya vistaaron ko jodna sambhav ho gaya.

30 April 1993 ko sarn ne ghoshana[8] ki ki vishv vyaapi web sabke liye ni:shulk hoga aur koi shulk bakaaya naheen rahega. gofar (Gopher) protokaul ki is ghoshana ki ab usaki seva ni:shulk naheen hai, logon ka rujhaan bahut teji se gofar ki bajaay web ki taraf ho gaya. ViolaWWW (ViolaWWW) ek shuruaati lokapriya web braausar tha, jo ki haaipar card (HyperCard) par aadhaarit tha.

vidvaan aamtaur par is baat se sahamat hain ki vishv vyaapi web ke jeevan mein naya mod (turning point) 1993 mein mojek (Mosaic) web braaujr[9] ke aane[10] ke saath shuroo hua, is suchitrit braaujr ka vikaas arbaana shampaign ke ilinois vishvavidyaalaya (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) ke suparakanpyooting ke anuprayogon ke liye raashtreeya kendra (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) (NCSA-UIUC) ke ek dal dvaara mark endrissein (Marc Andreessen) ki aguvaai mein kiya gaya. mojek ke liye anudaan uchch nishpaadan kampyooting aur sanchaar pahal ki taraf se aaya, ye ek vitt poshan kaaryakram tha jiski shuruaat uchch nishpaadan kampyooting aur sanchaar adhiniyam 1991 (High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991) ke tahat hui thi. ye senetar al gor[11] dvaara shuroo kiye gaye anekon kanpyooting vikaas (several computing developments) ke kaaryakramon mein se ek tha. mojaik ke baahar aane se pehle chitrit (graafiks) aur likhit shabdon ka mishran web pannon par aam taur par naheen hota tha aur iski lokapriyta intanet ke puraane protokaulon, jaise ki gofar (Gopher) aur wide area informeshan sarvars (Wide Area Information Servers)(WAIS), se kam thi. mojaik ab tak ka sabse lokapriya intaranet protokaul iske chitramaya upayogakarta intarafes ki vajah se bana.

vishv vyaapi web sangh ke tim berners-li dvaara October 1994 mein Europeeya sangathan parmaanu anusandhaan (sarn) chhodne ke baad sthaapit kiya gaya tha. iski sthaapana masaachusets takaneeki sansthaan ki computer vigyaan ki prayogashaala mein raksha unnat anusandhaan pariyojanaaon agency (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) (DARPA) samarthan se ki gayi thi - jisne intanet aur Europeeya aayog (European Commission) ki shuruaat ki thi.

saahitya mein itihaas

ghar mein sthaapit vaishvik soochana pranaali ka vichaar ko kam se kam isaak asimov (Isaac Asimov) ki March 1959 ki laghu kahaani "enivrsari" amejing storeej (Amazing Stories) tak peechhe khincha ja sakta hai. ismein paatr "malteevaak (Multivac) aautalet" naamak ek hom computer ke dvaara jaankaari praapt karte hain. ye grah computer pure grah par faile sarkits ke ek jaal dvaara ek meal lambe super computer se juda hua tha, jo ki pruthvi ke andar kaheen sthaapit tha. ek charitra apne bachchon ke liye ek malteevaak, junior model sthaapit karne ki soch raha hai.

is kahaani mein bhavishya ke us samay ki kalpana ki gayi jab vyaavasaayik antariksh yaatra ek aam baat hogi, fir bhi machine uttar ko ek tape ki parchi par print karti hai jo ki kisi khaane mein se baahar aata hai- koi vidiyo dikhaai naheen deta hai- aur computer ka maalik kehta hai ki usane itna kharcha isliye to naheen kiya tha ki use ek malteevaak aautalet mile jo sirf bolata ho.

maanak

vishv vyaapi web, Internet aur computer jaankaari vinimay ke vibhinn pahaluon ke sanchaalan ko kai aupachaarik maanak aur anya takaneeki visheshataaen paribhaashit karti hain. kai dastaavejon ko vishv vyaapi web sangh (W3C) ne baranars-li ke netrutv mein banaaya hai, lekin kuchh anya ko Internet engineering taask fors (Internet Engineering Task Force) (IETF) aur anya sangathanon dvaara banaaya gaya hai.

aamtaur par, jab web maanakon par charcha hoti hai tab nimnalikhit prakaashanon moolabhoot ke roop mein dekha jaata hai:

atirikt prakaashan vishv vyaapi web ki anya aavashyak takaneekon ki paribhaasha pradaan karte hain, jinmein nimnalikhit (parantu isi tak seemit naheen) shaamil hain:

  • yoonifaurm risors pahachaanakarta (yooaaraaai (URI)), jo ki intaranet par sansaadhanon, jaise ki haayaparatekst dastaavej aur tasveerein, ko sandarbhit karne ki ek saarvabhaumik pranaali hai. yooaaraaai, jinhein ki aksar URL bhi kaha jaata hai, IETF's RFC 3986 / STD 66 dvaara paribhaashit kiye jaate hain: yoonifaurm risors aaideintifaaiyar (yooaaraaai): jenerik sinteks , saath hi apne poorvavarti tatha anekon yooaaraaai yojana (URI scheme)-paribhaashit RFC (RFCs);
  • haayapar tekst transfer protokaul (HTTP), khaastaur par RFC 2616 dvaara paribhaashit: echateeteepi/1.1 tatha RFC 2617: echateeteepi pramaaneekaran, jo ye bataate hain ki braaujr aur sarvar kaise ek doosare ko pramaanit karte hain.

jaava

web praudyogiki ke kshetr mein ek mahatvapoorn pragati thi san maaikrosistams (Sun Microsystems') ka jaava manch (Java platform). isne web pannon ko chhote prograamon (jinhein epplet (applet) kaha jaata hai) ko seedhe dikhne mein saksham banaaya. ye epplet antim istemaalakarta ke computer par chalte hain aur web pannon ke mukaabale mein use ek uttam shreni ka anubhav pradaan karte hain. jaava ke graahakon ke liye jo epplets the unhein anekon kaaranon se aasha ke anuroop lokapriyta haasil naheen hui. in kaaranon mein shaamil tha anya tatvon ke saath ekeekaran ka aabhaav (epplets darshaae gaye pannon ke chhote bakson tak hi seemit the) aur ye tathya ki us samay ke kaafi saare computer uchit jaava varchual machine (Java Virtual Machine) ko lagaaye bina hi antim graahakon tak bhej diye gaye the, jiski vajah se istemaalakarta ko daaunalod karna parata tha tab ja kar epplets saamane aate the. edob flaish (Adobe Flash) ab un kaaryon ko karta hai jinki apeksha shuroo mein jaava epplets se ki gayi thi, jaise ki vidiyo saamagri, enimeshan, tatha kuchh utkrusht visheshataaon vaale GUI (GUI) adi ko chalaana.swayam jaava (Java) ka vyaapak istemaal ab sarvar-side (server-side) aur anya prograaming ke liye uchit manch aur bhaasha ke taur par hone laga hai.

jaavaaskript

doosari taraf, jaavaaskript, ek skripting bhaasha (scripting language) jise ki shuruaat mein web prushthon ke bheetar upayog ke liye viksit kiya gaya tha. is maanakeekrut sanskaran hai ECMA script (ECMAScript).jabki iska naam jaava ke samaan hai, jaavaaskript ko netaskep (Netscape) dvaara viksit kiya gaya tha aur jaava se iska koi lena dena naheen hai, haalaanki donon bhaashaaon ki vaakya rachana ko C prograaming bhaasha se liya gaya hai. web panne ke dastaavej objekt model (Document Object Model) (dom) ke sanyojan mein jaavaaskript, uske mool rachanaakaaron ki bhi kalpana ke pare, ek atyant prabhaavi takaneek ban chuki hai. ek panne ko uske istemaalakarta tak pahunchaane ke baad bhi uske DOM mein chhed-chhaad karne ko gatisheel HTML (Dynamic HTML) (DHTML) kaha gaya, sthir HTML se rujhaan parivartan par jor dene ke liye aisa kiya gaya.

saamaanya maamalon mein, sabhi vaikalpik jaanakaariyaan aur kaarya, jo ki jaavaaskript yukt web panne par upalabdh hain, vo us panne ke pehli baar pahuainchane ke saath hi daaunalod ho jaati hain. AJAX (Ajax)("esinkronas jaavaaskript end XML") antarmishrit web vikaas ki takaneekon ka ek samooh hai jiska upayog intaraektiv web anuprayogon ke vikaas mein kiya jaata hai jo ki web panne ke andar anshon ko unnat karne ka ek tareeka pradaan karte hain. network par yoosar dvaara baad ki taareekh mein praapt nai jaankaari ka istemaal kar ke, isse panne ko adhik sanvaadaatmak, uttaradaayi evam rochak banaane mein madad milti hai. iske liye upayogakarta ko poore panne ke reelod hone tak ki prateeksha naheen karni hoti hai. AJAX ko web 2.0 (Web 2.0) ke ek mahattvapoorn pahalu ke roop mein dekha ja raha hai. Ajax takaneekon ke vartamaan upayog ke udaaharan hain Gmail, Google Maps (Google Maps) aur anya gatisheel web anuprayog.

web prushthon ka prakaashan

web pannon ka utpaadan maas media (mass media) ke baahar ke vyaktiyon ke liye bhi upalabdh hai. web panne ka prakaashan karne ke liye aapko kisi prakaashak ya anya media sansthaanon ke paas jaane ki aavashyakta naheen hai aur sambhaavit paathak aapko duniya ke har kone mein mil jaayeinge.

web par bhinn bhinn prakaar ki jaanakaariyaan upalabdh hain aur jo log anya samaaj, sanskrutiyon aur logon ke baare mein jaanane mein ichhuk hain unke liye bhi badi aasaani ho gayi hai.

apni vaastu ko prakaashit karne badhe hue maukon ke baare mein is baat se pata chalta hai ki aaj kal dheron vyaktigat aur saamaajik netvarking ke panne hain, yahaaain tak ki parivaaron aur chhoti dukaanon ki bhi saaitein hain, ye sab muft web hosting (Web hosting) ki vajah se sambhav ho paaya hai.

aaainkade

2001 ke ek adhyayan ke mutaabik web mein 550 arab se bhi jyaada dastaavej the, inmein se adhikaansh adrushya athva deep web (deep Web) mein the.[12]2002 ke 2024 million web pannon[13] ke ek sarvekshan ke anusaar sabse adhik web saamagri, 56.4%, angreji mein thi, uske baad jarman bhaasha mein (7.7%), French (5.6%) aur Japani (4.9%).haal ke dinon ke ek adhyayan ke anusaar, jisne 75 alag alag bhaashaaoain ka istemaal web khojon ke liye kiya tha, January 2005 ke ant tak 11.5 arab web panne saarvajanik indeksebal web (publicly indexable Web) mein the.[14]June 2008 tak is indeksebal web mein kam se kam 63 arab panne shaamil hain.[15]July 25, 2008 ko Google ke software injeeniyron jessi alpart aur nisaan hajaaj nein ghoshana ki ki Google khoj (Google Search) nein ek lakh karod adviteeya URL khoj liye hain.[16]

March 2008 tak 100.1 million se jyaada web saaitein kaaryarat theen.[17]inmein se 74% aarthik ya anya saaitein theen jo .COM jenerik sheersh star domen (generic top-level domain).[17] mein kaaryarat theen. vo sevaaen jinka kharcha vigyaapan dvaara niklata hai, Yahoo web ke vyaavasaayik upayogakartaaon ke baare mein sabse adhik aankade ekatr kar paaya hai, prati maah apne pratyek istemaalakarta aur sambaddh vigyaapan network saaiton ke baare mein jaankaariyon ke lagbhag 2500 bit.Yahoo ke baad number aata hai maaispes (MySpace) ka jiske paas sambhaavana Yahoo ki lagbhag aadhi hai, uske baad hai eoel (AOL)-taaimavaarnar (TimeWarner), Google, Facebook (Facebook), Microsoft aur ibe (eBay).[18] lagbhag 27% vebasaaitein .com pate ke baahar kaarya karti hain.[17]

speed ke mudde

adhik bheed-bhaad (congestion) ke mudde ke kaaran intaranet ke buniyaadi dhaanche ke upar logon ki hataasha aur lambi intajaar ki avadhi (latency), jiski vajah se intaranet par braaujing atyant dheemi ho gayi thi, yahi kaaran tha ki vishv vyaapi web ka ek vaikalpik, apamaanajanak naamakaran kiya gaya: vishv vyaapi intajaar (vet). intaranet ki raftaar badhne ke liye charchaaeain peeyaring (peering) aur QoS (QoS) takaneekon ke istemaal ke oopar chal rahi hain. vishv vyaapi intajaar ko kam karne ke anya samaadhaan W3C par paae ja sakte hain.

aadarsh web pratikriya samay ke liye maanak dishaanirdesh (guideline) hain :[19]

  • 0.1 second (ek second ka dasavaan hissa).aadarsh pratikriya ka samay.prayokta ko kisi bhi rukaavat ka ehsaas na ho.
  • 1 second.sarvaadhik sveekaarya pratikriya samay hai. 1 second se upar ka daaunalod samay upabhokta ke anubhav mein rukaavat paida karta hai.
  • 10 second.asveekaarya pratikriya samay.upabhokta ke kaarya mein baadha utpann hoti hai aur uske saait ya computer ko chhod kar chale jaane ki sambhaavana hoti hai.

parisevak kshamata niyojan mein in sankhyaaon ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

kaiching

yadi koi upayogakarta keval ek chhote antaraal ke baad ek web prushth par fir se aata hai to prushth deta pun: sarvar ke srot se praapt karne ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai. lagbhag sabhi web braaujrs haal mein praapt hue aankadon ko ikaththa (cache) karte hain, aamtaur par lokal hard drive par.braaujar dvaara bheja gaya HTTP anurodh saamaanyat: keval unheen aankadon ke baare mein poochhata hai jo pichhle daaunalod ke baad sebadale hain. yadi sthaaneeya-kaishd data mein ki bhi parivartan naheen hai to usi ko dobaara istemaal kiya jaaega.

kaishing Internet par web yaataayaat ki maatra ko kam karne mein madad karta hai. pratyek daaunaloded sanchika ki samay samaapti ki avadhi ka nirnaya svatantr roop se kiya jaata hai, fir vo chaahe chhavi, style sheet (stylesheet), jaava script, ya koi anya saamagri jise saait pradaan karti hai. is prakaar bhi atyadhik gatisheel saamagri waali saaiton par bhi, buniyaadi sansaadhanon ko sirf kabhi kabhi hi taaja karne ki hi aavashyakta hoti hai. web site dijaainaron ke anusaar seeesaes data aur jaavaaskript jaise sansaadhanon ko kuchh saaiton ki sanchikaaon mein ikaththa rakhana laabhaprad hota hai taaki unako adhik kushalata poorvak kaishd kiya ja sake. isse prushth ko daaunalod samay kam karne mein madad milti hai aur web sarvar par bojh kam padta hai.

intaranet ke anya ghatak bhi hain jo web saamagri ko cash kar sakte hain. companiyon aur shikshan sansthaanon ki faayaravaalein (firewalls) aksar ek ke dvaara anurodhit web sansaadhanon ko baaki sab ke upayog ke liye cash kar leti hain. (yeh bhi dekhein kaishing prauksi sarvar (Caching proxy server).) kuchh khoj engine (search engines), jaise ki Google aur Yahoo!apni websiton par bhi kaishd saamagri ko ekatr karte hain.

web sarvar ye pata kar sakte hain ki kaun si sanchikaaon mein parivartan hua hai taaki unhein dubaara bheja ja sake. in suvidhaaon ke aalaava, atyant gatisheel pannon ko banaane vaale upayogakartaaon ko unke anurodh par bheje gaye HTTP hedar ko bhi niyantrit kar sakte hain, taaki asthaayi aur samvedansheel panne kaishd na hon. Internet banking (Internet banking) aur samaachaar saaitein aksar is suvidha ka upayog karti hain.

HTTP (HTTP) 'gate' ke saath anurodhit data ke cash ho jaane ki sambhaavana hoti hai, yadi anya shartein poori hoti hon. 'post' ke pratiuttar mein praapt data ko posted data par aashrit maana jaata hai isliye vo kaishd naheen hota hai.

link rot aur web abhilekheeya

samay ke saath kai web sansaadhan jinki taraf haayaparalink ishaara karta hai, gaayab, visthaapit, ya kisi anya saamagri dvaara badal diye jaate hain. is vastusthiti ko kuchh halakon mein "link rot (link rot)" kaha jaata hai aur jo haayaparalink isse prabhaavit hote hain unhein "ded link (dead link)" kaha jaata hai.

web ke kshanik svabhaav ne kai web saaits ko apne puraane dastaavejon aadi ka sangrah karne ki prerana di. intaranet puraalekh (Internet Archive) sabse mashahoor prayaason mein se ek hai, ye 1996 se sakriya hai.

shaikshanik sammalen

vishv vyaapi web sammalen (World Wide Web Conference) web ki khabar dene vaale shaikshanik kaaryakramon mein mukhya hai, isko IW3C2 (IW3C2) dvaara badhaava diya jaata hai.

suraksha

mailaveyar (malware) failaane ke liye web aparaadhiyon ki pasandeeda jagah ban gayi hai. HTML aur yooaarael ke raaste hone vaale hamlon, jaise ki kraus-saait skripting (cross-site scripting)(XSS), jo ki jaavaaskript[20] ke saath astitv mein aaye the), ke saamane web kamjor tha. aur inko kuchh had tak badhaava web 2.0 evam AJAX web dijaain (web design) ke kaaran mila tha kyonki ye lipiyon ke prayog ko pasand karte the.[21]web nihit kamjoriyaan ab paaramparik computer suraksha chintaaon se adhik ho gayeen theen.[22]

ek anumaan ke anusaar, sabhi websiton ka 70% aaj apne upayogakartaaon par XSS hamlon ke liye khula HAI.[23]jaisa ki Google dvaara aanka gaya hai, pratyek das web pannon mein se lagbhag ek mein durbhaavanaapoorn code ho sakta hai.[24]pehchaan ki chori, dhokhaadhadi, jaasoosi aur khufiya jaankaari jutaana- ye sabhi web par kiye jaane vaale aparaadh hain.[25]adhikaansh web aadhaarit hamle vaidh web saaiton par hi kiye jaate hain aur adhikaansh, jaisa ki sofos (Sophos) dvaara maapa gaya hai, ki shuruaat amareeka, cheen aur roos mein hoti hai.[26]

prastaavit samaadhaan charam seemaaon tak jaate hain. bade suraksha vikreta jaise ki McAfee (McAfee) pehle se hi 9 sitmbar ke baad bane praavadhaanon[27] ko poora karne ke liye prashaasanik aur anupaalan suits bana rahe hain. aur kuchh, jaise ki finjan (Finjan), nein prastaav rakha hai ki sabhi saamagriyon ka sakriya nireekshan vaastavik samay mein ho, uske strot ki chinta kiye bina.[25]kuchh logon ka ye mat hai ki udyam ke liye suraksha ko ek kharche ki bajaay ek vyaavasaayik mauke ke roop mein dekhne ke liye,[28]"hamesha chaaloo aur hamesha maujood rahane vaale digital adhikaar prabandhan" ko kuchh gini chuni companiyon ke dvaara hi laagoo karavaana chaahiye, bajaay iske ki saikadon kampaniyaaain jo aaj data aur network ko suraksha pradaan karti hain.[29]jonaathan jitren (Jonathan Zittrain) nein kaha hai ki intaranet ko taala maarane se jyaada achha ye rahega ki istemaalakarta computer suraksha ki jimmedaariyon ka bhaar aapas mein baaaint lein.[30]

web upalabdhata

kai deshon mein web saaits se ye apeksha ki jaati hai ki vo web tak pahuainch (web accessibility) ko niyantrit kareinge.

web paton mein WWW upasarg

"www" akshar saamaanyat: web edres (Web address) ki shuruaat mein paae jaate hain, aisa ek lambe samay se chale aa rahe vyavahaar ki vajah se hai jiske anusaar intaranet mejbaan ka naam is aadhaar par rakha jaata hai ki vo kya sevaaen pradaan karta hai. to udahaaran ke liye, web sarvar (Web server) ke host naam aksar "www" hota hai. FTP sarvar (FTP server) ke liye "ऍfteepi"' aur usanet news sarvar (news server) ke liye "news" athva "enaenateepi" (samaachaar protokaul enaenateepi (NNTP) ke kaaran). ye host naam deeenaes upanaam (subdomain) ki tarah prakat hote hain, jaise ki "www.EXAMPLE.com"

in upasargon ka prayog kinheen takaneeki kaaranon ki vajah se naheen hai; vaastav mein pehla web sarvar "nxoc01.cern.ch" par tha,[31]aur yahaaain tak aaj bhi kai saaits bina "www" upasarg ke maujood hain. mukhya web saait kis tarah dikhaai degi ismein "www" upasarg ka koi mahattv naheen hai."www" upasarg kisi web saait ke host naam ka bas ek vikalp maatr hai.

yadi likhe gaye URL mein koi mejbaan dikhaai naheen deta hai to kuchh web braausar "www" ko svat: hi shuroo mein jodne ki koshish kareinge aur sanbhavat: ".com" ko ant mein.Internet eksaplorar, faayarafauks, safaari aur opera yeh bhi "upasarg jaaegaahttp://www."aur jodna". pata patti saamagri "ke liye com agar niyantran aur chaabi ek saath daba rahe hain darj karein.misaal ke taur par, pata likhne ki jagah par yadi "EXAMPLE" likh kar ya to keval entar aur ya to control+entar dabaane par aamtaur par "http://www.example.com" likha aayega, lekin ye nirbhar karega braaujr ki setings aur uske sanskaran par.

"www" ka uchchaaran

angreji mein "www" ka uchchaaran is prakaar hai "dabalyoo dabalyoo dabalyoo" .

cheeni bhaasha meinderin mein vishv vyaapi web ka aamtaur par fono-seemaintik maiching (phono-semantic matching) ke dvaara "wàan wéaai wǎaang ()" anuvaad kiya jaata hai, jo "www" se mel bhi khaata hai aur jiska shaabdik arth hai "asankhya aayaami net".[32]

yeh bhi dekhein

nots

sandarbh

baahari links