vishv bank

vishv bank sanyukt raashtra ki vishisht sanstha hai. iska mukhya uddeshya sadasya raashtron ko punarnimaan aur vikaas ke kaaryon mein aarthik sahaayata dena hai. vishv bank samooh paanch antar raashtreeya sangathano ka ek aisa samooh hai jo desho ko vitt aur vitteeya salaah deta hai. iske uddeshya nimn hai -

  • vishv ko aarthik tarakki ke raaste par le jaana.
  • vishv me gareebi ko kam karna.
  • antararaashtreeya nivesh ko badhaava dena.

vishv bank samooh ke mukhyaalaya Washington mein hai. vishv bank ke ek antararaashtreeya vitteeya sanstha hai ki rin pradaan karta hai hai. [2] poonji kaaryakramon ke liye vikaasasheel deshon ke liye. vishv bank ki aadhikaarik lakshya gareebi ki kami hai. kaanoon ke anusaar, [jo?] apne faisale ke sabhi videshi nivesh, antararaashtreeya vyaapaar ko badhaava dene aur poonji nivesh ki suvidha pratibaddhata ke dvaara nirdeshit kiya jaana chaahiye. [3] vishv bank vishv bank samooh se alag hai, ki vishv bank keval do sansthaanon ko shaamil: antarraashtreeya punarnirmaan aur vikaas (aaibeeaaradi) aur international development association (aaideee) ke liye bank, jabki baad in donon ke alaava teen aur mein shaamil [4] antarraashtreeya vitt nigam (aaiefasi), bahupaksheeya nivesh guaranty agency (MIGA) aur nivesh vivaad (ICSID) ke niptaan ke liye international center. itihaas


John menaard keens (daaen) sammelan mein United kingadam ka pratinidhitv kiya aur Harry Dexter white (baaen) sanyukt raajya America ka pratinidhitv. vishv bank 1944 mein Bretton Woods sammelan mein banaai gayi paanch sansthaanon ki hai. antararaashtreeya mudra kosh, ek sambandhit sanstha, doosare number par hai. kai deshon se pratinidhi Bretton Woods sammelan mein bhaag liya. upasthiti mein sabse shaktishaali deshon mein sanyukt raajya America aur United kingadam, jo vaarta prabhutv the. [5] haalaanki donon Washington, deesi mein aadhaarit hain, custom, ek ameriki ki adhyakshata mein vishv bank hai, hai, jabki aaiemaef ke netrutv mein hai ek Europeeya. 1944-1968 [sanpaadit karein] apni avadhaarana se 1967 tak bank udhaar ki ek apekshaakrut kam star par chalaaya. raajakosheeya roodhivaad aur rin aavedanon ke saavdhaan screening aam tha. bank karmachaariyon ko bank mein vishvaas paida karne ki aavashyakta ke saath punarnirmaan aur vikaas ke liye rin upalabdh karaane ki praathamiktaaon santulan karne ka prayaas [6]. bank ke adhyaksh John McCloy France vishv bank sahaayata ki pehli praaptakarta ke liye chayanit, Poland aur chili se do anya anuprayogon ko khaarij kar diya gaya. rin 250 million Amreeki dollar ke liye tha, aadhi raashi ka anurodh kiya aur kadi sharton ke saath aaya tha. vishv bank se karmachaari dhan ke upayog par najar rakhi, yeh sunishchit karna hai ki fraanseesi sarkaar ne ek santulit bajat pesh aur anya sarkaaron se adhik vishv bank ke liye rin chukauti ki praathamikta dena hoga. sanyukt raajya America raajya vibhaag fraanseesi sarkaar se kaha ki mantrimandal ke bheetar communist tatvon ko hataaya ja jaroorat hai. fraanseesi sarkaar ko is nirdesh ke saath anupaalan aur communist gathabandhan sarkaar hata diya. France karne ke liye rin ghante ke bheetar anumodit kiya gaya tha. [7] maarshal yojana 1947 ke kaaran bank dvaara rin ko badalne ke roop mein kai Europeeya deshon ko sahaayata ki vishv bank rin ke saath competed praapt. gair - Europeeya deshon ke liye jor sthaanaantarit kiya gaya aur 1968 tak, rin pariyojanaaon hai ki ek udhaarakarta desh saksham rin (bandaragaahon, raajamaarg pranaali aur bijli sanyantron ke roop mein aisi pariyojanaaon) chukaane ke liye nirdhaarit kiye gaye the. 1968-1980 [sanpaadit karein] 1968 se 1980 tak bank vikaasasheel deshon mein logon ki buniyaadi jarooraton ko poora karne par [prashasti patra ki jaroorat] aur udhaarakartaaon ko rin ki sankhya aur aakaar bahut rin lakshya ke roop mein saamaajik sevaaon aur anya kshetron mein buniyaadi dhaanche se vistaar badha diya gaya tha. prashasti patra [keindrit. jaroorat] in parivrtanon Robert McNamara jo Lyndon bi Johnson dvaara 1968 mein raashtrapati pad ke liye niyukt kiya gaya hai ke liye jimmedaar thaharaaya ja sakta hai. [8] McNamara bank hai ki vah sanyukt raajya America ki raksha aur raashtrapati ke sachiv Ford motor ke roop mein istemaal kiya tha karne ke liye ek technocratic prabandhakeeya shaili ka aayaat company [9] McNamara bank neeti nirmaan schoolon aur aspataalon ke roop mein is tarah ke upaayon ki or sthaanaantarit kar diya, saaksharata aur krushi sudhaar mein sudhaar. McNamara sambhaavit udhaarakarta raashtron hai ki bank rin aavedan prakriya ke liye bahut teji se saksham se jaankaari jutaane ka ek naya system banaaya. adhik rin vitt, McNamara bank koshaadhyaksh yoojeen Rotberg kaha ki bank dhan ke praathamik srot gaya tha uttari bankon ke baahar rajdhani ke nae sroton ki talaash. Rotberg vaishvik baand baajaar ka istemaal bank ko upalabdh poonji ko badhaane ke [10] gareebi unmoolan udhaar ki avadhi ka ek parinaam teesari duniya ke rin ki teji se vruddhi tha. 1976 se 1980 tak vikaasasheel duniya rin 20% ki ek ausat vaarshik dar par gulaab. [11] [12] 1980 mein, vishv bank prashaasanik adhikran ke liye vishv bank samooh aur apne staaf ke beech vivaadon jahaan rojagaar ya niyukti ki sharton ke theke ke apaalan ke aarop ko sammaanit naheen kiya gaya tha par faisala karne ke liye sthaapit kiya gaya tha. [13] 1980-1989 [sanpaadit karein]

is lekh ke tatasthata vivaadit hai. krupaya baat prushth par charcha dekhein. krupaya hataayein jab tak vivaad hal naheen hai is sandesh. (May 2011) 1980 mein A.W. klausan McNamara ke baad ameriki raashtrapati Jimmy Carter dvaara naamit kiya ja raha hai badal diya. klausan McNamara yug se bank ke karmachaariyon ki ek badi sankhya ki jagah hai aur bank mein ek naya vaichaarik dhyaan keindrit ki shurooaat ki. 1982 mein aini idbhoojar ke mukhya arthashaastri holis bi Chenery ke pratisthaapan bank mein ek ullekhaneeya badlaav neeti ke roop mein chihnit. idbhoojar vikaas ke dhan ki usaki aalochna ke liye jaana jaata tha, ke roop mein ke roop mein achhi tarah se kiraaya maang raajyon ke roop mein teesari duniya ke sarkaaron ke. seva teesari duniya ke rin ke liye udhaar dene 1980-1989 ki avadhi ke roop mein chihnit. strakcharal samaayojan vikaasasheel deshon ki arthavyavasthaaon ko vyavasthit banaane ke uddeshya se neetiyon ko bhi is avadhi ke dauraan vishv bank ki neeti ka ek bada hissa the. yoonisef ne bataaya ki der se 1980 mein vishv bank ke sanrachanaatmak samaayojan kaaryakram "kam, Asia, laitin America aur Africa mein bachchon ke laakhon logon ke dasiyon ke liye svaasthya aur poshan aur shiksha ke star ke liye jimmedaar the [14]. 1989 mein vartamaan [sanpaadit karein] 1989 se, vishv bank ki neeti ke kai samoohon se aalochna ke javaab mein badal diya hai. paryaavaran samoohon aur gair - sarkaari sangathanon ko bank ki rin dene mein shaamil the kram mein karne ke liye ateet ke prabhaav hai ki itni kathor aalochna ke liye kaha ko kam hai. [15]


Washington di.si. mein vishv bank mukhyaalaya [sanpaadit karein] netrutv

bank ke adhyaksh, vartamaan mein Robert bi Zoellick, nideshak mandal ki baithakon ki adhyakshata karte hue aur bank ke samagr prabandhan ke liye jimmedaar hai. paramparaagat roop se, bank ke adhyaksh hamesha ek ameriki naagrik, sanyukt raajya America dvaara naamit bank mein sabse badi sheyaradhaarak kiya gaya hai. naamiti kaaryakaari nideshakon ke board dvaara pushti ke adheen hai, ke liye ek paanch saal, Akshay shabd ki seva ke liye. [16] kaaryakaari nideshak, bank ke sadasya deshon ka pratinidhitv karne, nideshak mandal, aamtaur par do baar ek saptaah rin aur guaranty deta hai, nai neetiyon, prashaasanik bajat, desh sahaayata rananeetiyon aur udhaar lene aur vittaposhan nirnaya ke anumodan ke roop mein is tarah ki gatividhiyon ki nigraani ki baithak. bank ke upaadhyaksh uske pramukh prabandhakon kshetron, kshetron, network aur kaaryon ke prabhaari mein hain. 24 upaadhyaksh, teen varishth upaadhyaksh aur do kaaryakaari upaadhyaksh hain raashtrapatiyon ki soochi vishv bank naheen sabhi raashtrapatiyon banking anubhav hai, kuchh raajaneetik niyuktiyon kiya gaya hai. naam raashtreeyata prushthabhoomi tithiyaaain yoojeen 1946-1946 sanyukt raajya America akhbaaron ke prakaashak meyer John J 1947-1949 sanyukt raajya America vakeel aur yuddh ke ameriki sahaayak videsh mantri McCloy yoojeen aar black, varishth 1949-1963 ches aur vishv bank ke saath kaaryakaari nideshak ke saath sanyukt raajya America ke bank ke kaaryakaari George 1963-1968 first Boston nigam ke saath sanyukt raajya America bank ke kaaryakaari Woods Robert McNamara 1968-1981 sanyukt raajya America ameriki raksha sachiv, Ford motor company ke saath kaarobaar ke kaaryakaari Alden dablyoo 1981-1986 sanyukt raajya America, bank of America ke saath bank ke kaaryakaari vakeel klausan naai Conable 1986-1991 sanyukt raajya America New York raajya senator aur ameriki Congress luis ti. 1991-1995 JP maurgan ke saath sanyukt raajya America bank ke kaaryakaari prestan sar James Wolfensohn 1995-2005 sanyukt raajya America

Australia [1 not] kaurporet vakeel aur banker

paul vulfovitj 2005-2007 sanyukt vibhinn cabinet aur sarkaar ki sthiti raajya America, America Indonesia, ameriki raksha up sachiv ke raajadoot Robert bi Zoellick 2007-vartamaan goldamain saiks, raajya ke up sachiv aur ameriki vyaapaar pratinidhi ke saath sanyukt raajya America ke bank ke kaaryakaari [sanpaadit karein] pramukh arthashaastriyon ki soochi

mukhya lekh: vishv bank ke mukhya arthashaastri


Justin Yifu lin holis bi Chenery (1972-1982) aini Osborn idbhoojar (1982-1986) stenali fishr (1988-1990) Lawrence greeshmakaal (1991-1993) Michael broono (1993-1996) Yusuf E. Stiglitz (1997-2000) nikolas Stern (2000-2003) fraaainsva Bourguignon (2003-2007) Justin Yifu lin (June 2008) sadasya [sanpaadit karein]

mukhya lekh: vishv bank ke sadasyon ki soochi antarraashtreeya punarnirmaan aur vikaas bank (aaibeeaaradi) 187 sadasya deshon ki hai, jabki antararaashtreeya vikaas association (aaideee) 171 sadasya hain. [17] aaibeeaaradi ke pratyek sadasya raajya bhi antarraashtreeya mudra kosh (aaiemaef) ke ek sadasya hona chaahiye aur keval aaibeeaaradi ke sadasyon bank ke bheetar anya sansthaanon mein shaamil ho (jaise ki aaideee ke roop mein) karne ke liye anumati di jaati hai. [18] [sanpaadit karein] voting shakti

2010 mein, vishv bank mein matadaan shaktiyon vikaasasheel deshon, vishesh roop se cheen ki aavaaj badhaane ke liye sanshodhit kiya gaya tha. sabse matadaan shakti ke saath deshon ke ab kar rahe hain sanyukt raajya America (15.85%), Japan (6.84%), cheen (4.42%), Germany (4.00%), United kingadam (3.75%), France (3.75%) aur Bhaarat (2.91%). 'vauyas sudhaar - charan 2' parivartan, ke roop mein jaana jaata hai ke tahat, cheen ke alaava anya deshon mein hai ki mahatvapoorn laabh dekha dakshin Korea, Turkey, Mexico, Singapore, grees, Brazil, Bhaarat aur Spain shaamil hain. adhikaansh viksit deshon ke matadaan shakti, Nigeria ke roop mein kuchh gareeb deshon ke saath saath kam ho gaya tha. sanyukt raajya America, roos aur Saudi arab ke matadaan shaktiyon aparivrtit rahe the. [19] [20] parivrtanon ke baare mein maanakon ko matadaan adhik sambandh hai saarvabhaumik banaane ke lakshya ke saath laaya gaya, niyam aadhaarit uddeshya sanketak aur anya baaton ke alaava paaradarshi ke saath. ", pool model" vishesh roop se Europe dvaara samarthit ab, vikaasasheel deshon mein ek vruddhi ki aavaaj hai. iske atirikt, matadaan shakti international development association yogadaan ke alaava aarthik aakaar par aadhaarit hai [21]. gareebi mein kami rananeetiyon [sanpaadit karein]

duniya mein sabse gareeb vikaasasheel deshon ke liye, bank ki sahaayata yojanaaon ko gareebi mein kami rananeeti par aadhaarit hain, vishv bank desh ke vitteeya aur aarthik sthiti ka ek vyaapak vishleshan ke saath ek sthaaneeya samoohon ke paar anubhaag ke sanyojan ke dvaara ek vishisht sambandhit rananeeti viksit savaal desh mein. sarkaar to gareebi ki kami ke liye desh ki praathamiktaaon aur lakshyon ko dikhaata hai aur vishv bank sahaayata prayaason tadanusaar sanrekhit karta hai. "duniya ke sabse gareeb deshon ke liye sahaayata, sahaayata hai ki vishv bank antarraashtreeya vikaas association (aaideee) jo assi gareeb deshon ke liye rin vitrit karne ke liye chala jaata hai mein paintaalees deshon ke 25.1 arab ameriki dollar ka vachan diya. jabki ameer raashtron kabhi kabhi unke rogon ke liye un sahit swayam sahaayata pariyojanaaon, nidhi aur haalaanki aaideee aalochna ke praaptakarta hai, Robert bi Zoellick, vishv bank ke adhyaksh, ne kaha ki jab rin 15 December 2007 ko ghoshana ki thi, ki aaideee paise "mool dhan hai ki sabse gareeb vikaasasheel deshon par bharosa hai". [22] [sanpaadit karein] svachh praudyogiki fund prabandhan

vishv bank svachh praudyogiki fund (CTF) ke asthaayi prabandhan ki jimmedaari, Akshay oorja koyala aadhaarit bijli ke saath laagat pratiyogi ke roop mein ke roop mein jaldi sambhav banaane par dhyaan keindrit hai, lekin yeh sanyukt raashtra December mein kopenahegan jalavaayu parivartan sammelan ke baad jaari naheen ho sakta hai saunpa gaya hai, 2009, kyonki bank ke koyala aadhaarit bijli sanyantron mein nivesh jaari rakha. [23] [sanpaadit karein] svachh vaayu pahal

svachh vaayu pahal (kai) [24] vishv bank duniya ke gyaan aur anubhavon ko baantane ke dvaara chayanit kshetron mein bhaageedaari ke maadhyam se shaharon mein vaayu gunavatta mein sudhaar ke liye Abhinav tareeke agrim pahal hai. yeh bijli ke vaahanon shaamil hai. [sanpaadit karein] sanyukt raashtra vikaas vyaapaar

sanyukt raashtra aur 1981 mein vishv bank ke beech ek samjhaute ke aadhaar par, vikaas vyaapaar vishv bank prokyormeint notice, anubandh puraskaar aur pariyojana sveekruti ke liye sarkaari srot ban gaya [25] 1998 mein, samjhauta fir se baatcheet ki thi aur mein shaamil hai. is samjhaute world wide web ke maadhyam se ek prakaashan ka electronic sanskaran banaane ke liye ek sanyukt udyam tha. aaj, vikaas ke sabhi pramukh bahupaksheeya vikaas bankon, sanyukt raashtra agencyon aur kai raashtreeya sarkaaron ke liye praathamik prakaashan hai, jinmein se kai vikaas vyavasaaya mein unke nividaaon aur theke ke prakaashan ke ek anivaarya aavashyakta bana diya hai. [26] vartamaan mein, sadasyata mukt "online sanskaran keval" naheen hai, lekin yooes $ 550 laagat. [27] vishv bank ya vishv bank samooh bhi sanyukt raashtra vikaas samooh mein baithe paryavekshak hai. [28] aalochanaaon [sanpaadit karein]

vishv bank lambe samay se svadeshi adhikaar samooh sarvaaival international aur shikshaavidon ke roop mein gair - sarkaari sangathanon, iske poorv mukhya arthashaastri Joseph Stiglitz jo antararaashtreeya mudra kosh, America khajaana vibhaag, samaan roop se mahatvapoorn hai America aur anya sahit, dvaara aalochna ki gayi hai hai viksit desh vyaapaar vaartaakaaron [29] aalochakon ka tark hai ki tathaakathit mukt baajaar mein sudhaar ki neetiyon jo bank adhivktaaon aksar aarthik vikaas ke liye haanikaarak agar buri tarah se laagoo bhi jaldi ("aaghaat chikitsa") galat anukram mein ya kamjor, apratispardhi arthavyavasthaaon [29] [30] bhram ke paraasnaatak mein: vishv bank aur raashtra ke gareebi (1996), Cathrine Caufield tark hai ki maanyataaon aur vishv bank ki sanrachana dakshini raashtron ko haani pahuainchaata hai. Caufield "vikaas" ka faarmoolaabaddh vyanjanon ki aalochna ki. vishv bank ke liye vibhinn deshon aur kshetron aprabhedya aur "vikaas ke ek samaan upaaya" praapt karne ke liye taiyaar hain. vah tark hai ki bhi maamooli safalta paane ke liye, pashchimi pranaali ko apnaaya hai aur paaramparik aarthik sanrachanaaon aur moolyon ko tyaag diya. ek doosari dhaarana yeh hai ki gareeb deshon aur videsh se paisa salaah ke bina naheen aadhunikeekaran kar sakte hain. vikaasasheel deshon mein buddhijeeviyon ka ek number ka kehna hai ki vishv bank gahra daata aur gair sarkaari sangathan saamraajyavaad ke samakaaleen mod mein fansa hai aur apni bauddhik yogadaan ke liye apni haalat ke liye gareeb dosh samaaroh [31]. vishv bank ki majaboot aalochanaaon ke jis tarah yeh niyantrit hota hai kiya gaya hai. haalaanki vishv bank ke 186 deshon ka pratinidhitv karta hai, yeh aarthik roop se shaktishaali deshon ki ek chhoti sankhya ke dvaara chalaaya jaata hai. in deshon ka netrutv karne ke liye aur vishv bank ke varishth prabandhan chunate hain aur isliye unke hiton bank par haavi hain. [32] vishv bank dohari bhoomikaaon hai ki virodhaabhaasi hain: ki ek raajaneetik sangathan aur ek vyaavahaarik sangathan ke. ek raajaneetik sangathan ke roop mein, vishv bank daata aur udhaar lene ki sarkaaron, niji poonji baajaar aur anya antararaashtreeya sangathanon ki maangon ko poora karna chaahiye. ek kaarravaai unmukh sangathan ke roop mein, yeh tatasth ho sakta hai, vikaas sahaayata, takaneeki sahaayata aur rin mein visheshajnyaata chaahiye. daata deshon aur niji poonji baajaaron ke liye vishv bank ke daayitvon yeh neetiyaaain jo hukm hai ki gareebi sabse achha "baajaar" neetiyon ke kaaryaanvayan ke dvaara alleviated hai apnaane ke liye kaaran hai. [33] 1990 ke dashak mein, vishv bank aur aaiemaef Washington sahamati, neetiyon, jismein dheel aur baajaar ke udaareekaran, nijeekaran aur sarkaar ke downscaling jaali. haalaanki Washington sahamati sabse achha hai ki vikaas ko badhaava milega ek neeti ke roop mein kalpana ki thi, yeh ikviti, rojagaar aur nijeekaran jaise sudhaaron baahar kiye gaye hai ki kaise ki anadekhi karne ke liye aalochna ki thi. kai log ab [prashasti patra ki jaroorat] ki Washington sahamati sakal ghareloo utpaad (GDP) ke vikaas par bahut adhik jor rakha hai aur vikaas ke vikaas ke sthaayitv par ya par ki kya behtar jeevan star ke liye yogadaan paryaapt naheen hai. [34] sahamat kuchh vishleshan se pata chalta hai ki vishv bank ne gareebi badh gaya hai aur paryaavaran, saarvajanik svaasthya aur saanskrutik vividhta ke liye haanikaarak hai. [35] kuchh aalochakon ka bhi daava hai ki vishv bank lagaataar neoliberal agende dhakka diya hai, jo haanikaarak kiya gaya hai vikaasasheel deshon par neetiyon bhavya, vinaashakaari aur virodhi vikaas [36] [37] yeh bhi sujhaav diya gaya hai ki vishv bank duniya ke kuchh kshetron mein America ya pashchimi hiton ko badhaava dene ke ke liye ek saadhan hai. dakshin ameriki deshon ko bhi dakshin ke bank ki sthaapana ki hai taaki kshetr mein America ke prabhaav ko kam [38] bank ki ek aalochna yeh hai ki raashtrapati hamesha sanyukt raajya America ke ek naagrik, sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati dvaara naamit hai. (haalaanki anya sadasya deshon ke "anumodan" ke adheen). aarop hai ki nirnaya lene ki sanrachana America ke roop mein alokataantrik hai kiya gaya hai bank mein sheyaron ki bas par 16% ke saath kuchh samvaidhaanik faisale par veto hai, [39] nirnaya keval deshon jinke sheyaron adhik kul se voto ke saath paarit kiya ja sakta hai bank ke sheyaron ka 85% se [40] ek aur aalochna chintaaon aantarik prabandhan aur jis tarah mein vishv bank kami javaabadehi ke liye kaha jaata hai. [41] vishv bank ki aalochna aksar virodh ke roop mein vishv bank oslo +2,002 virodh ke roop mein haal ki ghatnaaon mein dekha ke roop leta hai, [42] October vidroh, [43] aur siyetal ki ladaai [44] is tarah ke pradarshanon sab kuchh khatm hui hai Brazil Kayapo logon ke beech bhi duniya hai, [45] 2008 mein, vishv bank ki report hai jismein paaya gaya hai ki jaiv indhan 75% tak khaadya keematon sanchaalit tha naheen prakaashit kiya gaya tha. adhikaariyon ne gupt hai ki ve vishvaas ke liye sanyukt raajya America, George dablyoo bush ke tatkaaleen raashtrapati sharmanaak se bachane ke liye daba diya gaya tha. [46] [sanpaadit karein] gyaan utpaadan vishv bank [kiske dvaara?] aalochna ki gayi hai yeh "utpaadan, sanchaya, parisancharan aur kaamkaaj" gyaan ke mein sanlagn hai ki jis tarah mein ke liye. gyaan ke bank ke utpaadan aur badi poonji pariyojanaaon ke vitt poshan ke auchitya ka abhinn ang ban gaya hai. bank "translocal vaigyaaniko, teknokret, gair sarkaari sangathanon aur sashakt naagrikon ke ek badhte network deta utpann aur asanbaddh rananeetiyon ka nirmaan karne mein madad" par nirbhar karta hai. [47] iski aadhikaarik gyaan utpaadan kshamata se utpann bank pariyojanaaon ki gahan jaanch karne ke liye ek pratikriya hai. vaale bank aur vaikalpik vikaas virodhi aandolanon ki safalta [48] "vikaas vishesh roop se ek gyaan pranaali par bharosa hai, arthaat, aadhunik pashchimi ek is gyaan pranaali ke prabhutv aur gair - pashchimi gyaan pranaaliyon ki marginalization ayogyata tay hai. "[49] yeh tippani kiya gaya hai ki in vaikalpik gyaan pranaaliyon mein, shodhakartaaon aur kaaryakartaaon vaikalpik rationales hastakshep kaarravaai soch ke pashchimi tareeke (bank ka utpaadan) se door maargadarshan mil sakta hai. gyaan utpaadan ek parisanpatti bank ban gaya hai aur "yeh utpann aur atyadhik saamarik tareeke mein istemaal kiya hai" [50] vikaas ke liye auchitya pradaan karne ke liye. [sanpaadit karein] strakcharal samaayojan sanrachanaatmak samaayojan neetiyon ke prabhaav gareeb deshon par vishv bank ki sabse mahatvapoorn aalochanaaon kiya gaya hai. 1979 oorja sankat aarthik sankat mein kai deshon gir [51] vishv bank ke sanrachanaatmak samaayojan rin jo sangharsh deshon ko sahaayata vitrit jabki neeti mein parivartan laagoo karne ke kram mein mudraasfeeti aur raajakosheeya asantulan ko kam karne ke saath javaab diya. in neetiyon ke kuchh utsaahajanak utpaadan, nivesh aur shram pradhaan vinirmaan, vaastavik vinimay daron mein parivartan aur sarkaari sansaadhanon ka vitran ferabadal. [52] strakcharal samaayojan neetiyon ek sansthaagat rooparekha hai ki in neetiyon ko aasaani se kaaryaanvit karne ki anumati di ke saath deshon mein sabse prabhaavi the [53] kuchh deshon ke liye, vishesh roop se up sahaara Africa mein, aarthik vikaas regressed aur mudraasfeeti badatar. [54] gareebi unmoolan sanrachanaatmak samaayojan rin ka ek lakshya naheen tha aur gareeb ki paristhitiyon aksar kaaran badatar saamaajik kharch mein kami aur bhojan ki keemat mein vruddhi, subsidy ke roop mein uthaaya gaya. [55] der se 1980 ke dashak se, antararaashtreeya sangathanon ki sanrachanaatmak samaayojan ki neetiyon ko sveekaar karte the duniya ke gareeb ke liye jeevan bigdti shuroo kar diya. vishv bank ke sanrachanaatmak samaayojan rin badal gaya hai, saamaajik kharch ko banaae rakha ja hai ke liye anumati deta hai aur ek dheemi subsidy aur keemat badh jaata hai ke hastaantaran ke roop mein aisi neetiyon ko badalne ko protsaahit kiya. [56] 1999 mein, vishv bank aur antararaashtreeya mudra kosh gareebi nyooneekaran rananeeti kaagaj shuroo ki sanrachanaatmak samaayojan rin ki jagah ke liye drushtikon. [57] gareebi unmoolan rananeeti kaagaj drushtikon sanrachanaatmak samaayojan ki neetiyon ka ek vistaar ke roop mein vyaakhya ki hai ke roop mein ise majaboot aur vaishvik vishmataaon vaidhata jaari hai [58] na to drushtikon vaishvik arthavyavastha ke bheetar nihit khaamiyon ko sambodhit kiya. hai ki vikaasasheel deshon ke bheetar aarthik aur saamaajik vishmataaon ke liye yogadaan hai. [59] udhaar graahak aur raajyon ke beech rishte majaboot, kai logon ka maanana ​a​ahai ki vishv bank rini 'deshon shakti usurped hai apne swayam ke aarthik neeti ka nirdhaaran. [60] [sanpaadit karein] prabhu unmukti "achha shaasan aur bhrashtaachaar virodhi" [61] ka daava lakshyon ke baavajood vishv bank ke deshon ke saath saudon se prabhu unmukti ki aavashyakta [62] [63] [64] [65] prabhu unmukti se sabhi kaanooni dhaarak waives [66] [62] unke kaaryon ke liye deyata yeh prastaavit hai ki jimmedaari se is unmukti ek "dhaal [vishv bank] jo logon dvaara javaabadehi aur suraksha se bachane ke liye ka sahaara chaahata hai." sanyukt raajya America ke roop mein veto shakti hai, yeh kar sakte hain apne hiton ke khilaaf kaarravaai karne se vishv bank ko rokane. [62] [sanpaadit karein] paryaavaran rananeeti vishv bank ke chal rahe jalavaayu parivartan aur paryaavaran ke khataron par ek rananeeti viksit karne ka kaam (i) ke liye ek uchit samagr drushti aur uddeshya, (ii) apni vaishvik aur kshetreeya prashaasan mein apni bhoomika par ek seemit dhyaan hone ki kami ki aalochna ki hai aur (iii) vishisht kshetreeya muddon ke seemit maanyata, jaise bhojan aur bhoomi aur sthaayi bhoomi ka upayog karne ke liye adhikaaron ke muddon. aalochakon ka yeh bhi tippani ki hai ki vishv bank udhaar ke keval 1% paryaavaran kshetr ke liye chala jaata hai, baal baal paribhaashit. [67] paryaavaranavidon bank koyala sanyantr aur greenahaaus gas aur aapareshanon ki apavitr ya paryaavaran ko nuksaan ke liye saabit kar rahe hain ke anya bade utsarjak ke vikaas ke liye duniya bhar mein samarthan band aagrah kar rahe hain. udaaharan ke liye, dakshin Africa mein aur videshon mein pradarshanakaariyon 2010 ke 3.75 arab Amreeki dollar karne ke liye duniya ka sabse bada 4 dakshin Africa mein koyala aadhaarit bijli sanyantr ka nirmaan rin ke liye vishv bank ke anumodan ke nirnaya ki aalochna ki hai. sanyantr bahut koyala khanan aur koyale ki isi haanikaarak paryaavaraneeya prabhaav ke liye maang mein vruddhi hogi. [68] sandarbh

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