visheshaadhikaar

samraat Charles chaturth ka visheshaadhikaar

raajya athva kisi anya praadhikaari dvaara kisi chhote samooh ko diya gaya adhikaar/chhoot (imyuniti) ko visheshaadhikaar (privilege) kahalaata hai.

vibhinn prakaar ke visheshaadhikaar

  • sthaaneeya visheshaadhikaar
  • vyaktigat visheshaadhikaar
  • raajanayik visheshaadhikaar, aadi

Bhaarat mein sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar

sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar ve vishish‍aat adhikaar hain jo sansad ke donon sadanon ko, uske sadas‍aayon ko aur samitiyon ko praap‍aat hai. visheshaadhikaar is drush‍aati se diye jaate hain ki sansad ke donon sadan, usaki samitiyaan aur sadas‍aaya s‍aavatantr roop se kaam kar sakein. unki garima bani rahe parantu iska yeh arth naheen hai ki kaanoon ki najaron mein saadhaaran naagrikon ke mukaabale mein visheshaadhikaar praap‍aat sadas‍aayon ki s‍aathiti bhin‍aan hai. jahaan tak vidhiyon ke laagoo hone ka sambandh hai, sadas‍aaya logon ke pratinidhi hone ke saath saath saadhaaran naagrik bhi hote hain. mool vidhi yeh hai ki sansad sadas‍aayon sahit sabhi naagrik kaanoon ki najaron mein baraabar maane jaane chaahiye. jo daayit‍aav an‍aaya naagrikon ke hon vahi unke bhi hote hain aur shaayad sadas‍aaya hone ke naate kuchh adhik hote hain.

sansadon ka sabse mahat‍aavapoorn visheshaadhikaar hai sadan aur usaki samitiyon mein poori s‍aavatantrata ke saath apne vichaar rakhane ki chhoot. sansad ke kisi sadas‍aaya dvaara kahi gayi kisi baat ya diye gaye kisi mat ke sambandh mein uske virooddh kisi n‍aayaayaalaya mein koi kaaryavaahi naheen ki ja sakti. sansadeeya visheshaadhikaaron ki soochiyaan taiyaar ki ja sakti hain. vaas‍aatav mein ye taiyaar bhi ki gain hain parantu aisi koi bhi soochi poori naheen hai. thode mein kah sakte hain ki koi bhi vah kaam jo sadan ke, usaki samitiyon ke ya uske sadas‍aayon ke kaam mein kisi prakaar ki baadha daale vah sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar ka hanan karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, koi sadas‍aaya na keval us samay giraftaar naheen kiya ja sakta jabki us sadan ka, jiska ki vah sadas‍aaya ho, adhiveshan chal raha ho ya jabki us sansadeeya samiti ki, jiska vah sadas‍aaya ho, baithak chal rahi ho, ya jabki donon sadanon ki sanyuk‍aat baithak chal rahi ho, ya jabki donon sadanon ki sanyuk‍aat baithak chal rahi ho. sansad ke adhiveshan ke praarambh se 40 din pehle aur usaki samaap‍aati se 40 din baad ya jabki vah sadan ko aa raha ho ya sadan ke baahar ja raha ho, tab bhi use giraftaar naheen kiya ja sakta.

sansad ke parisaron ke bheetar, adh‍aayaksh/sabhaapati ki anumati ke bina, deevaani ya aaparaadhik koi kaanooni 'saman' naheen diye ja sakte hain. adh‍aayaksh/sabhaapati ki anumati ke bina sansad bhavan ke andar kisi ko bhi giraftaar naheen kiya ja sakta hai. k‍aayonki sansad ke parisaron mein keval sansad ke sadan ke ya adh‍aayaksh/sabhaapati ke aadeshon ka paalan hota hai. yahaan an‍aaya kisi sarkaari praadhikaari ke ya s‍aathaaneeya prashaasan ke aadesh ka paalan naheen hota.

sansad ka prat‍aayek sadan apne visheshaadhikaar ka s‍aavayan hi rakshak hota hai. visheshaadhikaar bhang karne ya sadan ki avamaanana karne vaale ko bhart‍aasana karke ya taadna karke ya nirdhaarit avadhi ke liye kaaraavaas dvaara dandit kar sakta hai. s‍aavayan apne sadas‍aayon ke maamale mein sadan an‍aaya do prakaar ke dand de sakta hai, arthaat sadan ki seva se nilambit karna aur nikaal dena, kisi sadas‍aaya ko ek nirdhaarit avadhi ke liye sadan ki seva se nilambit kiya ja sakta hai. kisi ati gambhir maamale mein sadan se nikaala ja sakta hai.

sadan aparaadhiyon ko aisi avadhi ke liye kaaraavaas ka dand de sakta hai jo saadhaaranataya sadan ke adhiveshan ki avadhi se adhik naheen hoti. jaise hi sadan ka satraavasaan hota hai, bandi ko muk‍aat kar diya jaata hai. darshakon dvaara gailari mein naare lagaakar aur/athva ish‍aatihaar feinkakar sadan ki avamaanana karne ke kaaran, donon sadanon ne, samay samay par, aparaadhiyon ko sadan ke us din s‍aathagit hone tak kaaraavaas ka dand diya hai.

sadan ka daandik kshetr apne sadanon tak aur unke saamane kiye gaye aparaadhon tak hi seemit na hokar sadan ki sabhi avamaananaaon par laagoo hota hai. chaahe avamaanana sadas‍aayon dvaara ki gayi ho ya aise v‍aayak‍aatiyon dvaara jo sadas‍aaya na hon. isse bhi koi antar naheen padta ki aparaadh sadan ke bheetar kiya gaya hai ya uske parisar se baahar. sadan ka visheshaadhikaar bhang karne ya usaki avamaanana karne ke kaaran v‍aayak‍aatiyon ko dand dene ki sadan ki yeh shak‍aati sansadeeya visheshaadhikaar ki neenv hai. sadan ki aisi panrapara bhi rahi hai ki sadan ka visheshaadhikaar bhang karne ya sadan ki avamaanana karne ke doshi v‍aayak‍aatiyon dvaara s‍aapash‍aat roop se aur bina kisi shart ke dil se v‍aayak‍aat kiya gaya khed sadan dvaara s‍aaveekaar karar liya jaata hai. aise mein saadhaaranataya sadan apni garima ko dekhte hue aise maamalo par aage kaaryavaahi na karne ka faisala karta hai.

baahari kadiyaaain