vishaanu

chitr:Phage 1.png
ek aadarsh vishaanu

vishaanu akoshikeeya atisookshm jeev hain jo keval jeevit koshika mein hi vansh vruddhi kar sakte hain.[1] ye naabhikeeya aml aur proteen se milkar gathit hote hain, shareer ke baahar to ye mrut-samaan hote hain parantu shareer ke andar jeevit ho jaate hain. inhe kristal ke roop me ikattha kiya ja sakta hai. ek vishaanu bina kisi sajeev maadhyam ke punarutpaadan naheen kar sakta hai. yeh saikadon varshon tak sushuptaavastha mein rah sakta hai aur jab bhi ek jeevit madhyam ya dhaarak ke sampark mein aata hai us jeev ki koshika ko bhed kar aachhaadit kar deta hai aur jeev beemaar ho jaata hai. ek baar jab vishaanu jeevit koshika mein pravesh kar jaata hai, vah koshika ke mool aaraenae evam DNA ki jenetik sanrachana ko apni jenetik soochana se badal deta hai aur sankramit koshika apne jaise sankramit koshikaaon ka punarutpaadan shuroo kar deti hai.

vishaanu ka angreji shabd vaairas ka shaabdik arth vish hota hai. sarvapratham san 1796 mein daaktar Edward jenar ne pata lagaaya ki chechak, vishaanu ke kaaran hota hai. unhonne chechak ke teeke ka aavishkaar bhi kiya. iske baad san 1886 mein edolf mayor ne bataaya ki tambaakoo mein mojek rog ek vishesh prakaar ke vaairas ke dvaara hota hai. roosi vanaspati shaastri ivaanovaski ne bhi 1892 mein tambaakoo mein hone vaale mojek rog ka adhyayan karte samay vishaanu ke astitv ka pata lagaaya. bejernik aur bor ne bhi tambaakoo ke patte par iska prabhaav dekha aur usaka naam tobeko mojek rakha. mojek shabd rakhane ka kaaran inka mojek ke samaan tambaakoo ke patte par chinh paaya jaana tha. is chinh ko dekhkar is vishesh vishaanu ka naam unhonne tobeko mojek vaairas rakha.[2]

vishaanu laabhaprad evam haanikaarak donon prakaar ke hote hain. jeevaanubhoji vishaanu ek laabhaprad vishaanu hai, yeh haija, pechish, taayafaayad aadi rog utpann karne vaale jeevaanuon ko nasht kar maanav ki rogon se raksha karta hai. kuchh vishaanu paudhe ya jantuon mein rog utpann karte hain evam haaniprad hote hain. echaaaivi, inflooenja vaairas, poliyo vaairas rog utpann karne vaale pramukh vishaanu hain. sampark dvaara, vaayu dvaara, bhojan evam jal dvaara tatha keeton dvaara vishaanuon ka sancharan hota hai parantu vishisht prakaar ke vishaanu vishisht vidhiyon dvaara sancharan karte hain.

sandarbh

  1. Yadav, Narayan, raamanandan, vijay (March 2003). Abhinav jeevan vigyaan. Kolkata: nirmal prakaashan. pa॰ 1-40.
  2. Singh, gaureeshankar (March 1992). haai-school jeev-vigyaan. Kolkata: naalanda saahitya sadan. pa॰ 47-48.