vish

vish (Poision) aise padaarthon ke naam hain, jo khaae jaane par shleshmal jhilli (mucous membrane), ootak ya tvacha par seedhi kriya karke athva parisancharan tantr (circulatory system) mein avashoshit hokar, ghaatak roop se svaasthya ko prabhaavit karne, ya jeevan nasht karne, mein samarth hote hain.

anukram

vishaaktata ke lakshan

vishaaktata (poisoning) ke lakshan nimnalikhit hain :

(1) jatharaantr uttejan (Gastrointestinal irritation) - saadhaaranataya vaman, pet ki peeda aur atisaar (diarrhea) vishaaktata ke pramukh lakshan hain. yadi kuchh hi gharon ke bheetar anek vyakti vishaaktata ke shikaar hue hon, to kisi khaas vastu ko kshobhak (irritant) ka vaahak samjha ja sakta hai.

(2) pralaap - yeh raasaayanik vish ya upaapachayi (metabolic) gadbadi aur jvar ke parinaamasvaroop utpann rudhirvishaaktata (toxaemia) ke kaaran hota hai. thodi khuraak mein hi pralaap utpann karanevaale raasaayanik vishon mein vaaravityooret, bromaaid ka chirkaalik masha, ailkohaul, haaiosaayanin (hyocyanine) aadi hai. inmein se pratham teen adhik prachalit hain aur pralaap praaya: atyalp nashe ka soochak hota hai.

(3) sammoorchha (coma) - pramastishkeeya (cerebral) kshati adhik hone par pralaap sammoorchha mein parivrtit hota hai. saamaanyat: baaravityooret aur ailkohaul aise parinaam utpann karte hain.

(4) aithan (Convulsions) - ye do prakaar ki hoti hain :

  • (k) merudandeeya ya taaitenik ainthan, jo aksar baahya uddeepan, jaise striknin (strychnine), se utpann hoti hai (ismein sfoorti (tone) rahati hai aur sanjnyaa santulit rahati hai),
  • (kh) pramastishkeeya ya mirgeejanya ainthan mein sanjnyaaaheenata hoti hai aur sfoorti tatha kloni (clonic) ainthan paryaayakram se hoti hain. pratihestaamin oshadhi, Kapoor, feras salfet aur aifaataimin iske udaaharan hain.

(5) parinaah chetaakop (Peripheral neuritis) - seesa, aarsenik sona, paara aadi se chirkaalik (chronic) vishaaktata hone par parinaah peshi ki durbalata hoti hai, jismein shareer chheejata hai aur jatharaantr (gastrointestinal) vikshobh bhi hota hai.

vishon ka vargeekaran

lakshanon ke anusaar vishon ke vargeekaran nimnalikhit hain :

(1) sankshaarak : saandr aml aur kshaar;

(2) uttejak :

  • (k) akaarbanik - fausforas, klorin, bromeen, aayodeen aadi adhaatvik aur aarsenik, aintimni, paara, taaainba, seesa, jasta, chaaaindi aadi dhaatvik;
  • (kh) kaarbanik - reindi ka tel aur beej, madaar, krotan (croton) tel, ghrutakumaari (aloes) aadi vanaspati aur haribhrung (cantharides) saaainp tatha anya keeton ke dansh;
  • (g) yaantrik - heere ki dhool, choornit kaach, baal aadi;

(3) rugnatantrik (neurotic) :

  • (k) mastishk ko kshati pahuainchaanevaale, afi aur uske ailkelauyad, ailkohaul, ithar, klorofaurm, dhatoora, belaadona, haayesaayaamas (hyoscyamus); *(kh) merurajju ko prabhaavit karanevaale - kuchala (nux vomica), jelasemiym mool.
  • (g) hrudaya ko prabhaavit karanevaale - vachhanaabh (aconite), dijitailis (digitalis), kaner, tanbaakoo, haaidrosaayanik, aml,
  • (gh) shvaasaavarodhak (Asphyxiants) - kaarban daaioksaaid, kaarban monooksaaid, koyala gas,
  • (ङ) parinaah - vishgarjar (conium) koraari (curare).

teekshn vishaaktata ke upachaar ke siddhaant

vishaaktata ke aapaati upachaar (emergency treatment) ke liye, jismein jeevavish (toxin) kha liya gaya ho, nimnalikhit kriyaavidhi apanaani chaahiye :

(1) yathaasheeghr ulati, vastikriya (lavage), virechan (catharsis) ya mootrata (diuresis) dvaara vish ko nikaalna.

(2) vishisht ya saamaanya pratikaarak (antidote) dekar vish ka nishkriya karna aur tab vastikriya ka upachaar.

(3) sankshobh (shock), paat (collapse) aur anya vishisht abhivyaktiyon (manifestations) ke hote hi unase sangharsh karna.

(4) shleshmal jhilliyon ko shamakon (demulcents) ke prayog dvaara bachaana.

vish ka nishkaasan

teevr aml, kshaar ya anya sankshaarak padaarth dvaara vishaaktata hone par aamaashaya nalikaaon (stomach tubes), ya vamanakaariyon, ka upayog naheen karna chaahiye. inse jathareeya vedhan (gastric perforation) ho sakta hai. jathar mein sthit antarvastu ki khaali karne ka sabse saral upaaya vaman karaana hai. vaman ka prayog tabhi karna chaahiye jab rogi chikitsak ko sahayog dene ki sthiti mein ho, uske shareer mein atirikt vish ho aur aamaashaya nalikaaon ka abhaav ho, ya rogi aamaashaya nalikaaon ka upayog kar sakane ki sthiti mein na ho. nidraalu ya achetan rogi ko vaman naheen karaana chaahiye, kyonki uske aamaashaya ki antarvastu ke taralaapanayan (aspiration) ka bhaya rahata hai. sankshaarak vishon ke upashamakon ke antargrahan ki sthiti mein bhi vaman varjit hai.

vaman karaane ke liye gale mein aainguli ya anya vastu ka prayog karna chaahiye, ya nimnalikhit vastuon mein se koi cheej khilaani chaahiye : aiyomaurafeen haaidrokloraaid, choornit sarason, (powdered mustard) aur namak ya prabal saabun jal (strong soap suds).

jathareeya taralaapanayan aur vastikriya

in kriyaaon ke uddeshya nimnalikhit hain :

(1) atirikt asankshaarak vishon ka nishkaasan, jinhein baad mein jatharaantr kshetr (gastro intestinal tract) se avashoshit kiya ja sakta hai;

(2) vaman kendra ke nirbal hone par jab vaman naheen hota, keindreeya tantrikaatantr ko apasaadit karanevaale vish ka nishkaasan;

(3) vishon ki pehchaan ke liye jathareeya antarvastuon ke sanchaya aur pareekshan ke liye tatha

(4) vishpratikaarakon ke suvidhaajanak prayog ke liye.

nishedhak lakshan

nimnalikhit sthitiyon mein jathareeya taralaapanayan aur vasti kriya naheen ki jaati hain :

(1) vish ke dvaara ootakon ka vyaapak sankshaaran,

(2) teevr ni:sanjnya, jadimaagrast (stuporous), ya nishchetanataagrast (comatose), rogi, kyonki use taralaapanayan fuffusaarti (pnuemonia) ka khatra rahata hai.

vidhi

naak ya muainh dvaara aamaashaya mein ek chikni, mrudu, na dabanevaali amaashaya nali ko dheeme-dheeme pravesh karaana chaahiye. vastikriya prachur ho, parantu amaashaya ka aadhmaan (distention) na kiya jaae. kuchh sthitiyon mein thode thode antar par alp taral ke saath vastikriya karna achha hota hai. vastikriya ke vilyan ke aadhikya ko nikaalna anivaarya hai.

jathareeya vastikriya ke taral

1. gunaguna paani ya 1 pratishat namakeen paani,

2. patala vileya staarch pest (paste),

3. ek pratishat sodiym baaikaarbonet,

4. potaishiym paramainganet (1:2000) vilyan,

5. ek pratishat vileya thaaposalfet tatha

6. ek ya do pratishat haaidrojan paraoksaaid.

virechan (Catharsis)

yeh mandakaari avashoshan mein prabhaavakaari ho sakta hai. aantrik avashoshan ke pehle vish ka nishkriya karne ke liye jathareeya vastikriya anivaarya hai, yadi teevr aml ya kshaar se vishaaktata na hui ho. jis sthiti mein vastikriya sambhav naheen hai, uske liye nimnalikhit upaaya karna chaahiye :

(1) vish pratikaarakon ke dvaara amlon aur kshaaron ka udaaseenikran,

(2) vishisht rasaayanakon ka avakshepan (yeh kriya vishisht kaarakon par nirbhar honi chaahiye) tatha

(3) shamakon dvaara nishkriykaran (shamak dhaatuon ko avakshepit karte hain anek vishon ke avashoshan ko kam karne mein sahaayak hote hain aur ye pradaahagrast jhilliyon ko badi shaanti pradaan karte hain). 3-4 andon ka shvetak 500 mili liter doodh ya paani mein, makkhaniya doodh, patale aate ya mand ke vilyan mein (yadi sambhav ho to ubale hue mein) milaakar dena chaahiye.

sahaayak aur laakshanik upaaya

teevr vishaaktata ke shikaar logon ko jaagruk daaktari dekhbhaal mein rakhana chaahiye, jisse vishaaktata ki taatkaalik aur vilanbit jatiltaaon ka poorvaanumaan kiya ja sake. vish khaakar aatmahatya karne mein vifal logon ko kisi manashchikitsak ki dekharekh mein rakhana chaahiye.

parisanchaari vifalta (Circulatory failure)

ismein

  • (1) sankshobh ke samay mukhya upaaya hain, paarshvashaayi sthiti (recumbent position), ooshma, uddeepakon ka prayog aur prabhaavi rudhir aayatan ki vruddhi ke liye aantretar taralon ka (parenteral fluids) prayog,
  • (2) hrudeeya asafalata ke samay mukhya upaaya hai, okseejan, dijitelis (digitalis), paaradeeyamootravardhak aushadhiyon ka sevan, tatha
  • (3) fupfusashoth (pulmonary oedema) ke samay mukhya upaaya hai, dhanaatmak dabaav ke saath okseejan sevan, aantretar (parenteral) lavan ya anya aantretar taral (plaajma chhodkar) se bachaana.

shvasan asaamaanyataaeain

(1) shvasan avarodh ke samay mukhagrasani (oropharyngeal) vaayupath aur aantarashvaasapranaal (intratracheal) ninaalan (intubation) ko theek karna chaahiye.

(2) shvasan avanaman (depression) ke samay rogi ko khuli hava mein krutrim shvasan karaana chaahiye. punarujjeevak (resuscitator), ya anya svayanchal sanvaatan, yathaasheeghr karna chaahiye. uddeepakon se laabh hona sandigdh hai. saadhaaranataya upayog mein aanevaale uddeepak nimnalikhit hain :

  • garam, kadi kaali kaufi, mukh se ya gudaamaarg se,
  • garam kadi chai mukh se,
  • ek pyaale paani mein do ya chaar milileetar amoniya ka airometik spirit,
  • 50-120 milileetar efedrin salfet mukh se ya adhastvk roop se,
  • koraamin (coramine) ki sooi,
  • ainfaataimin salfet 5-40 miligraam mukh se ya sooi se tatha,
  • methaaainfaataimin haaidrokloraaid, 2.5-15 miligraam mukh se.

keindreeya tantrikaatantr sanyog

(1) keindreeya tantrikaatantr ki uttejana hone par sammohak ya prati aakshep (anti-convulsant) ka prayog karna chaahiye :

  • (k) aimobaarabitl sodiym (aimitl) ka taaja 10 pratishat vilyan 250-500 milimeetar,
  • (kh) pairaaaildihaaid mukh se, gudaamaarg se ya nitanb mein tatha
  • (g) kailsiym glookonet 10 pratishat, 10-20 milileetar, sooi se.

nirjaleekaran (Dehydration)

sanketaanusaar mukh ke maadhyam se ya aantretar taral dena chaahiye.

peeda

peedaahar aur svaapak (Narcotic) oshadhi deni chaahiye.

vidhik (kaanooni) paksh

chaahe kaisi hi vishaaktata ho, yeh chikitsak ka kartavya hai ki vah vamit padaarth, aamaashaya dhaavan (wash) aur mal mootr ka noomana surakshit rakhe. rogi ka naam, sanrakshit padaarth ka naam, pareekshan ki tithi aur namoone ko taale mein band kar rakhana chaahiye.

yadi gairsarkaari chikitsak ko shanka ho jaae ki rogi ki hatya karne ke liye vish diya gaya hai, to use aaparaadhik kaaryavaahi sanhita ki 44veen dhaara ke antargat iski soochana niktasth police station ya magistrate ko deneen chaahiye. is prakaar ki kathinaaiyon se bachane ke liye, har vishaaktata ke rogi ki soochana police mein de deni chaahiye. sarkaari aspataal ka chikitsa adhikaari sabhi sandigdh vishaaktata ki soochana police ko dene ke liye baadhya hai. yadi rogi mrut avastha mein laaya jaae to daaktar use mrutyu ka pramaanapatr na de aur iski soochana police ko de.

saamaanya vishon ki chikitsa

dekhein : vish pratikaarak

inhein bhi dekhein

  • vish pratikaarak
  • ghaatak sooi (Lethal injection)
  • atyant khatarnaak padaarthon ki soochi (List of extremely hazardous substances)
  • mithya-vishon ki soochi (List of fictional toxins)
  • vishaaktata soochi (List of poisonings)
  • vishaakt paadapon ki soochi
  • vibhinn prakaar ke vish (List of types of poison)
  • saanp ka vish (Venom)
  • maadakata

baahari kadiyaaain