visa (dastaavej)

visa (laitin shabd kaarta visa se liya gaya hai jiska shaabdik arth hota hai 'vah kaagaj jo dekha gaya ho'. visa ingit karta hai ki amuk vyakti visa jaari karne vaale desh mein pravesh ke liye adhikrut hai, yadi vaastavik pravesh ke samay aavrajan adhikaari iski anumati de de. visa ek alag dastaavej ke roop mein bhi ho sakta hai, lekin adhiktar yeh aavedak ke passport par hi ek mohar ke roop mein prushthaankit kiya jaata hai.

kuchh deshon me, kuchh vishesh sthitiyon mein visa ki aavashyakta naheen hoti jaise ki paarasparik sandhi vyavastha. visa jaari karne wala desh aamtaur par iske saath kai shartein jod dete hain, jaise visa ki vaidhata, vah avadhi jiske dauraan ek vyakti us desh mein rah sakta hai, diye gaye visa par vyakti kitni baar yaatra kar sakta hai aadi. sirf visa jaari hona bhar hi apne aap mein visa jaari karne vaale desh mein pravesh ki koi guaranty naheen hai aur jaari visa ko kisi bhi samay radd kiya ja sakta hai.

aam taur par visa ek vyakti ko ek desh mein pravesh karne aur vahaaain rahane ke alaava aur koi adhikaar naheen deta hai. pravesh aur rahane ke alaava aur kuchh bhi karne ke liye vishesh paramit ki aavashyakta hoti hai, jaise nivaasaanumati ya kaaryaanumati.

visa vah dastaavej hota hai jo kisi vyakti ko anya desh mein pravesh karne ki anumati deta hai. daraasal doosare deshon mein jaane ke liye is tarah ke pratibandh ki shuruaat mukhya taur par pratham vishvayuddh ke baad saamane I. kisi desh ke visa sambandhi niyam anya deshon se sambandhon par nirbhar karte hain. inmein suraksha, arthavyavastha aur apravaasi logon ki aarthik sthiti jaise tathya aham bhoomika nibhaate hain.

anukram

vibhinn prakaar ke visa

har desh maksad ke hisaab se alag-alag prakaar ka visa jaari karta hai. udaaharan ke liye Bhaarat mein 11 tarah ke visa jaari kiye jaate hain, jaise tourist, business, jarnalist, traansit, entry aadi. entry visa bhaarateeya mool ke vyakti ko Bhaarat aane ke samay diya jaata hai. Bhaarat Finland, Japan, lagjamabarg, New Zealand aur Singapore ke naagrikon ko 'paryatak visa' jaari karta hai.

veeja mukhya roop se do tarah ke hote hain, imigreint veeja aur naun-imigreint veeja. agar koi vyakti kisi seemit samay ke liye kisi desh jaana chaahata ho to vah naun-imigreint visa lekar jaaega. lekin agar maksad doosare desh jaakar vahaaain basana ho to iske liye imigreint visa lena hota hai. in donon kaitigri mein kai tarah ke visa hote hain, jo aamtaur par doosare desh mein thaharane ke samay aur maksad par nirbhar karte hain.

traanjit veeja : yeh veeja jyaada se jyaada paanch dinon ke liye vailid hota hai. ise us haalat mein jaari kiya jaata hai jab kisi vyakti ko kisi teesare desh se hokar gujarana hota hai.

tourist veeja : yeh veeja sirf ghoomane-firne ke liye jaari kiya jaata hai. is visa ko lekar agar kisi desh mein jaate hain to aap kisi tarah ki business aiktiviteej se naheen jud sakte. kuchh desh tourist veeja jaari naheen karte. Saudi arab ne tourist veeja 2004 se dene shuroo kiye. haalaanki iske pehle vah haj yaatriyon ke liye teerthasthal veeja jaari karta tha.

business veeja : kisi doosare desh mein business aiktiviteej mein hissa lene ke liye yeh veeja diya jaata hai. ismein kisi pakki naukri ko bhi shaamil kiya ja sakta hai aur uske liye vark veeja liya ja sakta hai.

: kisi aur desh mein naukri ke liye yeh veeja diya jaata hai. ise haasil karna thoda mushkil hota hai. business veeja ki tulana mein yeh kuchh jyaada dinon ke liye vailid hota hai.

on-araaival veeja : yeh kisi desh mein entry ke vakt turant jaari kiya jaata hai. haalaanki iske liye pehle se veeja hona bhi jaroori hai kyonki aapki country ka imigreshan dipaartameint flight mein board karne se pehle hi use check karta hai.

paartanar veeja : doosare desh mein rahane wala koi shakhs agar apne jeevanasaathi ko apne paas bulaana chaahata hai to uske paartanar ko 'paartanar veeja' diya jaata hai.

student veeja : yeh visa kisi desh mein haayar stadeej ke liye diya jaata hai. yaani agar aapko kisi degree ya course ke liye videsh jaana hai to student veeja ke liye aplaai karna hoga.

varking haulide veeja : yeh un logon ke liye hota hai jinhein company ya organaaijeshan ki taraf se varking haulide program ke liye kisi doosare desh bheja jaata hai. ismein ghoomane ke saath teinparari vark karne ki ijaajat hoti hai.

diplomaitik veeja : yeh veeja sirf raajanayikon ke liye hota hai. yaani jin logon ke paas diplomaitik passport hota hai, unhein hi yeh veeja jaari kiya jaata hai.

korteji veeja : videshi sarkaar ya intaranaishanal organaaijeshanon ke aise adhikaariyon ko yeh veeja diya jaata hai, jo diplomait kaitigri mein naheen aate.

jarnalist veeja : news organaaijeshanon se jude log isi veeja ke jariye ek desh se doosare desh mein traival karte hain.

mairij veeja : yeh veeja ek nishchit samay ke liye jaari kiya jaata hai. maan leejiye, koi bhaarateeya yuvak kisi ameriki ladki se shaadi karna chaahata hai to vah shaadi karne ke liye use Bhaarat mein bula sakta hai aur aise mein us ladki ko America mein Indian enbesi jaakar mairij veeja ke liye aplaai karna hoga.

imigreint veeja : yeh us kandishn mein diya jaata hai jab koi shakhs kisi doosare desh mein basana chaahata hai. yeh sirf singal jarni ke liye hota hai yaani jab aap is baat ke liye shyor hon ki doosra desh imigreshan dene ke liye taiyaar hai, tabhi veeja milta hai.

peinshan veeja (ya ritaayarameint veeja) : is tarah ka veeja Australia aur kuchh gine-chune desh hi jaari karte hain. yeh un logon ko hi diya jaata hai jinka maksad doosare desh mein jaakar kisi tarah paisa kamaane ka naheen hota. kuchh maamalon mein vyakti ki umr ka dhyaan bhi rakha jaata hai.

kauman visa

aamtaur par visa se keval usi desh mein jaane ki ijaajat milti hai, jo desh use jaari karta hai. lekin kauman visa ke jariye ek se adhik deshon mein jaane ki anumati milti hai. daraasal kuchh antararaashtreeya samjhaute hote hain, jo kisi videshi ko kauman visa par kuchh deshon mein jaane ki anumati dete hain. udaaharan ke liye shenjen visa se bina kisi rukaavat ke Europe ke 25 sadasya deshon ki sair ki ja sakti hai. central American singal visa se gvaatemaala, honduraas, al-salvaador aur nikaaraaguaa ki sair ki ja sakti hai. kenya, tanjaaniya aur yugaanda mein jaane ke liye bhi East afreekan tourist visa kaafi hai. 2007 mein hue cricket vishv cup ke dauraan 10 kairibiyaai deshon ne isi tarah ka kauman visa jaari kiya tha. Canada, Japan, Brazil aur Commonwealth of indipeindeint states jaise deshon mein visa sambandhi niyam resiprokal (paarasparik) hain, yaani agar koi desh doosare deshon ke naagrikon ko bina visa pravesh deta hai, to doosare desh bhi vahaaain ke naagrikon ko bagair visa apne yahaaain aane deinge.

yahaaain visa ki jaroorat naheen

vishv mein kuchh aise desh bhi hain jahaaain naagrikon ko kuchh chuninda deshon mein jaane ke liye visa banavaane ki jaroorat naheen. jaise yooropiyn union ke sadasya deshon ke naagrik ek-doosare kedeshon mein berok-tok pravesh kar sakte hain. America bhi 36 deshon ko is tarah ki chhoot deta hai. gulf ko-operation kaaunsil (chhah arab raajyon ka samooh) mein shaamil sadasya deshon ke naagrik bhi ek-doosare ke yahaaain na sirf bina visa ja sakte hain, balki aavashyakataanusaar thahar bhi sakte hain. East afreekan samudaaya ke sadasya deshon ke naagrik ek-doosare ke yahaaain bina visa ja sakte hain. Bhaarat bhi bhootaan aur Nepal ke logon ko bagair visa aane ki anumati deta hai. lekin apne desh ki bajaay kisi anya desh se Bhaarat mein pravesh karne ki sthiti mein in logon ko passport ki aaïaavashyakata hogi.

baahar jaane ke liye bhi visa

duniya mein kuchh aise desh bhi hain jahaaain se baahar jaane ke liye bhi visa ki jaroorat hoti hai. saudi arab aur Qatar mein kaam kar rahe. videshi majadooron ko desh chhodaऩae se pehle ekjit visa dikhaana hota hai. yeh ekjit visa ek tarah se maalik dvaara majoodar ko di gayi clearance hoti hai. yadi roos mein koi videshi nishchit avadhi se jyaada samay tak vahaaain rahata hai, to use bhi is tarah ke visa ki jaroorat padti hai. is visa mein use tay ki gayi avadhi se jyaada samay tak vahaaain rahane ka kaaran bataana hota hai. isi tarah Uzbekistan aur kyooba jaise deshon mein videshiyon ko bhi desh chhodte vakt ekjit visa banavaana padta hai.

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