vinimay dar

vinimay dar do alag alag mudraaon ki saapeksh keemat hoti hai, arthaat ek mudra ke padon mein doosari mudra ke moolya ki maap hai. kinheen do mudraaon ke madhya vinimay ki dar unki paarasparik maaaing aur aapoorti ke aadhaar par nirdhaarit hoti hai.

parichay

videshi vinimay (foreign exchange) ke sambandh mein vichaar karne se pehle 'vinimay' shabd ka arth jaan lena aavashyak hai. vinimay ka saadhaaran arth yeh hai ki kisi ek vastu ke badle aavashyakta ki anya vastueain praapt karna. vastuon ke kraya vikraya athva adal badal ko bhi vinimay (exchange) kehte hain. videshi vinimay mein bhinn deshon ki leni deni ka paarasparik vinimay hota hai. ismein vinimay ki dar ke vivechan ke atirikt us sab leni deni ka vivechan bhi shaamil hai jiske dvaara ek desh anya deshon ka denadaar aur lenadaar ban jaata hai. videshi vinimay mein is baat ka bhi vichaar kiya jaata hai ki us leni deni ka kis prakaar bhugataan kiya jaata hai aur usaki vishmata ka vinimay ki dar par kya prabhaav padta hai.

hamein yeh vichaar karna hai ki koi desh anya desh ka kin kaaranon se denadaar aur lenadaar ho jaata hai. jitni rakam ki vastueain baahar se kisi desh mein aati hain utani rakam ka vah desh anya deshon ka denadaar ho jaata hai aur jitni rakam ki vastueain vah baahar anya deshon ko bhejata hai utani rakam ka vah lenadaar ho jaata hai. videshi jahaajon par maal ka aayaat hone se jahaajon ke bhaade ke liye bhi vah anya deshon ka denadaar ho jaata hai. isi prakaar apne jahaaj par maal baahar bhejane ke kaaran vah anya deshon ka lenadaar bhi ho jaata hai. desh ki sarkaar ya vyakti yadi anya desh ke rinapatr (sikyooriti) evam share aadi khareedata hai to desh anya deshon ka lenadaar ho jaata hai. iske atirikt videshiyon se karj lene ke samay bhi anya deshon ka denadaar ho jaata hai. desh mein kaarya karanevaale videshiyon ki bachat aur munaafe ke kaaran bhi desh anya deshon ka denadaar ho jaata hai. jab desh kisi kaaran se anya deshon ko vishesh 'kar' dene ke liye baadhya kiya jaata hai to vah is rakam ke liye anya desh ka denadaar ho jaata hai.

uparyukt len-den ka bhugataan karne ke liye kuchh deshon mein to sone chaaaindi ke sikke prachalit hain aur unka len den inheen sikkon mein koota jaata hai. yadi kisi kaaran se desh ko apna karj chukaane ka koi anya saadhan naheen milta, to use sona ya chaaaindi bhejane ke liye baadhya hona padta hai. vyaapaari log praaya: bhugataan videshi hundiyon se hi karte hain kyonki ab sarkaar dvaara sona chaaaindi baahar bhejane par rok laga di gayi hai. hundi ek prakaar ka aajnyaaapatr hai. hundi likhnevaala kisi vyakti ya sanstha ko yeh aajnyaa deta hai ki vah hundi mein likhi rakam naamollekh kiye hue vyakti ko de de. aisi hundi ko 'vyaapaari hundi' kehte hain. vyaapaari hundi ke atirikt ek aur doosari tarah ki hundiyon ka upayog kiya jaata hai jinhein 'rojagaari hundi' kehte hain. iske atirikt yaatri hundi, sarkaari hundi aur bankon dvaara jaari ki gayi hundiyon ka upayog bhi videshi vyaapaarik len den chukaane mein hota hai.

uparyukt len den jis dar par chukaaya jaata hai use vinimay dar kehte hain. is dar par praaya: bankon dvaara videshi darshani hundiyaaain sveekaari jaati hain aur isi dar par kisi samay desh ki leni deni ki vishmata ka prabhaav padta hai. yadi sarkaar dvaara baahar sona bhejane mein koi rok tok na ho aur desh ki deni leni se bahut adhik ho to vinimay ki dar us seema tak pahunch jaati hai jab deshvaasiyon ko hundi ke badle sona bhejane mein hi suvidha hoti hai. is seema ko svarn-niryaat-dar kehte hain aur vinimay ki dar iske baahar naheen jaati. iske vipreet anya deshon se kisi desh ko deni ki apeksha leni bahut adhik hoti hai tab us desh ki vinimay ki dar us seema tak pahunch jaati hai jab anya deshon ko us desh mein hundiyaaain bhejane ke badle sona bhejane mein suvidha hoti hai. is dar ko svarnaaayaat-dar kehte hain. videshi vinimay ki dar is seema se bahar naheen jaati. is prakaar svarn aayaat aur niryaat dar ke andar hi kisi desh ki vinimay ki dar ghatati badhti hai.

ab hamein yeh jaanana hai ki vinimay ki dar ki atyadhik ghatabadh ka vyaapaar ya bhinn bhinn vargon ke manushyon par kya prabhaav padta hai. jab vinimay ki dar svarn-aayaat-dar se baahar jaane lagti hai to desh mein baahar se maal maingaanevaalon ko laabh hota hai aur aayaat ko uttejana milti hai. saath hi saath desh se baahar maal bhejanevaalon ko haani uthaani padti hai. desh ke andar ki vastuon ki keemat kuchh ghatne lagti hai. un udyogon ko haani hoti hai jinka desh ke andar videshi saste maal se mukaabala rahata hai. is prakaar vinimay ki dar ki atyadhik ghatabadh se kisi ko to laabh hota hai aur kisi ko haani. vyaapaariyon ko hajaaron ka nuksaan ho jaata hai aur kuchh ko utana hi faayda ho jaata hai. is haani laabh se bachane ke liye pratyek desh ki sarkaar ka yeh prayatn ho jaata hai ki vah vinimay ki dar ko atyadhik ghatne badhne se roke.

vartamaan kaal mein sansaar ke adhikaansh deshon mein sone aur chaaaindi ke praamaanik sikke prachalit naheen hain. patramudra (pepar currency) ka sarvatr hi prachaar hai. svarn ke aayaat aur niryaat par sarkaaron dvaara rok laga di gayi hai. is kaaran kisi bhi desh ki sarkaar ko apne desh ki videshi vinimay ki dar ka niyantran karna aavashyak ho jaata hai. vah hamesha prayatn karti hai ki yeh kisi bhi samay desh ki deni leni se bahut adhik na hone paave.

videshi vinimay ke niyantran karne ka pradhaan kaaran yeh hai ki vinimay dar mein ghatabadh hone ke kaaran antararaashtreeya vyaapaar ko bahut dhakka lagta hai. at: is ghatabadh ko rokane ke liye anek raashtron ne videshi vinimay sameekaran koshon ki sthaapana ki. us kosh mein svadesh ka dravya aur anya deshon ka dravya aur sona bhi rahata hai. aarthik sankat ke samay bhi kabhi kabhi desh ki pooainji ko baahar jaane se rokane ke liye videshi vinimay ka niyantran kiya jaata hai.

sansaar ke pradhaan deshon ne milkar antararaashtreeya mudra kosh ki sthaapana ki hai. is kosh ki sthaapana se deshon ke beech vitteeya maamalon mein adhik nikat sahayog ka yugaaranbh hua. is kosh ka pradhaan kaarya videshi vinimay mein asthirta kam karne mein sadasya deshon ki sahaayata karna hai. chaaloo vyaapaar ke len den mein vyaapakata laane mein bhi yeh kosh sahaayak hota hai. iske atirikt antararaashtreeya len den ko chukta karne mein bhi yeh sahaayak hota hai.

bhaarateeya videshi vinimay ka itihaas

bhaarateeya videshi vinimay ka itihaas apne hi dhang ka hai. san 1893 mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne England ke sikke shiling peins mein rupae ki ek kaanoonan dar nirdhaarit ki thi vah dar 1 Ru. = 1 shiling 4 peins thi. Bhaarat sarkaar is dar ko san 1917 tak banaae rakhane mein samarth rahi. iske baad vinimay ki dar ka badhna praarambh hua. vinimay ki dar ke badhne ka pradhaan kaaran chaaaindi ki keemat mein vruddhi thi. chaaaindi ki keemat itni badh gayi thi ki Bhaarat ka chaaaindi ka rupaya praamaanik sikka ho gaya. san 1918 mein yeh dar 1 shi. 6 pein. ho gayi. May aur August, san 1919 mein yeh dar kramash: 1 shi. 8 pein. aur 1 shi. 10 pein. ho gayi. chaaaindi ki keemat fir bhi badhti hi gayi. isi varsh vinimay ki dar September mein 2 shiling, November mein 2 shi. 2 pein. tatha December mein 2 shi. 4 pein. tak badh gayi.

san 1920 ke February maheene ke pratham saptaah mein currency committee ki report prakaashit hui. committee ne yeh sifaarish ki ki bhaarateeya vinimay ki kaanoonan dar badha di jaae par committee ne ooainchi dar se honevaali haaniyon ki taraf poora dhyaan naheen diya. is dar se Bhaarat ke niryaat vyaapaar aur udyog dhandhon ko bhaari kshati pahunchane ki sambhaavana thi parantu usane iski paravaah na ki. kuchh samay baad vinimay ki dar ghatna aarambh hua aur vah April san 1920 tak 2 shi. paune chaar peins tak gir gayi. vinimay ki dar girti hi gayi aur 1920 ke ant tak vah girte girte 1 shi. 10 pein. tak aa gayi. is beech Bhaarat sarkaar ko kai lakh rupayon ki ulti hundiya evam kai lakh rupae ka sona ghaate par bechana pada. ulti hundiyon ko bechne se Bhaarat sarkaar ko kareeb 32 karod ki haani hui aur ghaate par sona bechne se kareeb 8 karod ki haani hui. is prakaar Bhaarat ko lagbhag 40 karod rupayon ki haani hui.

kai karod rupayon ki haani uthaane ke baad September, san 1920 se Bhaarat sarkaar ne vinimay sambandhi baaton mein kisi bhi prakaar se hastakshep na karne ki neeti apnaai. isse vinimay dar ki asthirta aur bhi badhti gayi. san 1921 se 1925 tak yeh dar 1 shi. 6 pein. evam 1 shi. 3 pein. ke beech ghatati badhti rahi. is asthirta ke kaaran bhi desh ko bahut nuksaan hua.

Hilton yang commission ki report san 1926 E. mein prakaashit hui. is commission ki sifaarishon ke anusaar bhaarateeya vinimay ki dar 1 shi. 6 pein. nishchit hui aur Bhaarat sarkaar ne aavashyak kaanoon bana diye.

sandarbh granth

  • (1) dablyoo. ef. svaalding : fauren exchange aind faaren bils
  • (2) H. S. jervas : future ov exchange in idiya
  • (3) gaashen : thiyri of fauren exchange.