vinaashak pot

Japani nausena ka vidhvansak : kotaaka (1887)

vinaashak ya dhvasank (angreji: Destroyer)- saamudrik/nausainik bhaasha mein vinaashak pot teji se chal kar hamla karne vaale yuddh poton ko kaha jaata hain. inka aavishkaar 20veen sadi ke praarambhik varshon mein hua aur tabhi se nausenaayuddh mein isak sthaan bejod raha hai. bahumukhi aur vishvasaneeya kaaryon ka daayitv safalataapoorvak vahan karne ke kaaran nausena ke itihaas mein iska sthaan bejod ho gaya hai. at: iska ateet, vartamaan aur bhavishya adhyayan karne yogya hai.

anukram

vikaas ke itihaas

yeh nishchit hai ki vinaashak ka aavishkaar taarapeedo ke kaaran hua. taarapeedo ne nausenaayuddh mein kraanti la di. yeh pehla avsar tha jab taarapeedo se lais chhota jahaaj vishaal nausena se morcha lekar use nasht kar sakta tha. nausainik samaratantr mein is kraantikaari aavishkaar se chhote jahaajon ka vikaas aavashyak ho gaya. iske do kaaran the :

(1). shatru ke bhaari jahaajon par taarapeedo dvaara aakraman karne ke liye chhote drutagaami, atyadhik yuddhaabhyaasaksham jahaajon ki aavashyakta padi.
(2). shatru ke taarapeedo aakraman se apne bhaari jahaajon ki raksha karne ke liye bhi aise chhote jahaajon ki aavashyakta padi.

in kaaranon se hi vinaashak ka aavishkaar hua. praarambhik dhvasankon mein, jinhein "taarapeedo naudhvasank' kehte the, keval do taarapeedo nalikaaeain hoti theen. shatru ke dhvansakon par aakraman karne ke liye inapar aage ki or ek top aaroodh hoti thi. ye jahaaj bahut chhote, 200 se 300 tan visthaapan ke, hote the.

samay beetane par dhvansak ka prabhaav badhaane ke liye usapar adhikaadhik taarapeedo laadana aavashyak samjha gaya. taarapeedo naliyon ki sankhya dheere-dheere badhti gayi aur dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samay tak do maauting (mounting) par aath nalikaaaaein ke rahane ka maanaveekaran hua.

aakramak asron mein havaai jahaaj ka pravesh hote hi dekha gaya ki havaai aakramanon se bachaav ke liye dhvansak par havaamaar top ka rahana aavashyak hai. praarambh mein dhvansak par saamaanya masheenagan sthaapit ki gayi thi, par aisi chhoti topon mein sanhaarashakti naheen hoti thi, at: baad mein ubhaya prayojan ki top sthaapit ki gayi. panadubbi ka vikaas hone par vinaashak par ek kaam aur aa pada. vah tha, panadubbiyon ka pata lagaana aur unka vinaash karna. iske parinaamasvaroop dhvansak panadubbeemaar astr bhi dhone lage. isse dhvansak ka aakaar aur vistaar badh jaana svaabhaavik tha. pratham vishvayuddh ke poorv jahaaain vinaashak keval 300 din tan visthaapan ke hote the vahaaain aaj 2,000 tan se adhik visthaapan ke vinaashak banane lage hain.

vinaashakon ki visheshataaeain

pichhli kuchh dashaabdiyon mein vinaashakon mein anek aamool sudhaar hue hain, lekin iski aadhaarbhoot visheshataaoein, jaise tej gati aur yuddhaabhyaasakshamata mein (jo sada hi inki visheshata rahi hai) antar naheen hua hai. tej gati ke abhaav mein bade bade jahaajon par aakraman karte samay vinaashakon ke bach nikalne ki sambhaavana kam rah jaati hai. samudra mein rakshit rahane (sea keeping) inki aashcharyajanak kshamata inke suvaahi aakaar (stream lined shape) aur abhiklp ke kaaran hai.

atrashastr

dhvansak mein jo astr-shastr rahate hain ve teen shreniyon mein vibhkt kiye ja sakte hain :

1. jahaajon par aakraman karne ke liye taarapeedo,

2. panadubbi par aakraman ke liye asr shasr,

3. vaayuyaan aur chhoti-moti sthal senaaon se ladne ke liye ubhayaprayojaneeya topein.

taarapeedo

yon to vinaashak ka nirmaan hi bade jahaajon par taarapeedo se aakraman karne ke liye hota hai, tathaapi aadhunik nausenaayuddh mein taarapeedo aakraman ke avsar kam hone ke kaaran taarapeedo ka mahatva dheere-dheere ghat raha hai. kintu aisa naheen kaha ja sakta ki taarapeedo aakraman ke din ab lad chale. peechha karanevaale (running) aur lautanevaale (homing) taarapeedo ke aagaman se jahaajavaahit taarapeedo ke din fir laut sakte hain.

panadubbeenaashak asr-shasr

kuchh logon ke kathanaanusaar panadubbi ka itna vikaas ho chuka hai ki vinaashak dvaara use nasht naheen kiya ja sakta. yadyapi kuchh seema tak yeh kathan satya hai fir bhi nikat pareekshan se prakat hota hai ki aaj bhi vinaashak panadubbi ko maarane mein saamarth hai. pichhle mahaayuddh mein vinaashakon ne 300 panadubbiyaaain samudra mein duba di theen. ab to sudoorasth lakshvedhi astron aur sudhari hui svanaanvesh (sonar) yuktiyaaain upalabdh hain, jinse vinaashakon ki shakyata bahut badh gayi hai. drone helicopter (drone helicopter) aur rocket yukt panadubbeemaar taarapeedo ke kaaran panadubbiyon ko khojakar nasht karne ki kshamata vinaashakon mein bahut badh gayi hai.

top

samudri jahaajon ke liye havaai aakramanon ka sankat badh jaane se uske niraakaranaarth havaamaaron ki shakyata badhaana svabhaavik tha. kintu raadaar niyantrit aur tatkshan prahaar karanevaali topein bhi paraadhvanik (supersonic) aaghaati vaayuyaanon se raksha naheen kar sakateen. top ke sthaan par niyantrit misaail (guided missiles) ka prayog hone par, jaisa ant mein hoga, dhvansak pehle ke samaan hi prabal ho jaaeainge.

dhvansakon ke kaarya

dhvansak jahaaji bede ke sarvaadhik vishvasaneeya ang hain. pichhle mahaayuddh mein dhvansakon ne sab prakaar ka kaarya kiya tha. inhonne krutik dalon ko chhipaaya, kaafilon ko anurakshit le gaye, praarambhik sarvekshan dalon ka parivhan kiya, jalasthaleeya ghaat (amphibious landing) ko chhipa rakha, yuddh mein hataahat logon ko bachaaya aur daak vitran kiya. saath hi lagbhag 300 panadubbiyon ko bhi dubaaya. ye jal ke tal par bahut nikat sthit yuddhapoton se lekar kroojron, dhvansakon aur petrol jalayaanon se joojhe.

dhvansakon ka bhavishya ujjval maaloom hota hai. bhavishya mein ye vaahak krutik sen (task forces) ke atyaavashyak ang honge. ye krutik sena ke parichyan paraas ko paryaapt badhaakar tatha vaahak havaai gashat ka niyantran karke havaai pratirksha ko sudrudh karege. tej jahajon ko panadubbi se dhvansak hi bacha sakta hai. uttam panadubbeemaar asron se lais dhvansak khojane maarane ki kaarravaai mein bejod honge. dhvansak aaj bhi saarth anurakshan kaarya mein atyadhik upayogi jahaaj siddh hua hai.

bhaavi dhvansak

bhaavi dhvansak kaise honge, iski parikalpana hi ki ja sakti hai, par aadhunik jhukaav ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue yeh parikalpana bahut kuchh yathaarth hogi. bhaavi dhvansak praaya: nishchit roop se nyookleeya shaakti sanchaalit hoga, kyonki nyookleeya shakti (nuclear power) hi ekamaatr saadhan hogi, jisse dhvansak ki sahanasheelata badhaai ja sakti hai. bhavishya mein dhvansak ki sahanasheelata mahatva ka kaarya karegi, ismein koi sandeh naheen, kyonki krutik sena ko hafton tak samudra mein rahana pad sakta hai. dhvansak ki chaal bhi badhaana aavashyak hoga. bhaavi dhvansak saralata se 50 not ki chaal se chal sakega. taarapeedo astr-shastron ko kam karna aavashyak hoga. par dhvansak mein panadubbeemaar taarapeedo rah sakte hain. inmein rocket laga hoga, taarapeedo mein lagi lautanevaali sakriya yuktiyaaain aisi hongi ki unhein shghreeaata se nalon mein bhara ja sake. topon ko poornataya hata dena padega aur unke sthaan par tal-se-tal vaale niyantrit misaail lage raheinge. dhvansakon par drone helikauptar bhi raheinge. saaraanshat: naveenatam kism ke panadubbeemaar astron, aadhuniktam kism ki khoj karanevaali yuktiyon aur niyantrit misaail ki baitariyon se yukt dhvansakon ka kaarya bhaavi yuddh mein bahut hi mahatvapoorn hoga.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain