vimaanan

vimaanan kisi vimaan — visheshakar hava se bhaari vimaan — ke praaroop, vikaas, utpaadan, parichaalan tatha uske upayog ko kehte hain.

itihaas

pauraanik kaal se kai sabhyataaon ne hava mein prakshepit kiye jaane vaale upakaran ijaad kare — jaise paashaan, shool, trishool, baan ityaadi[1][2], Australia ka boomaraiङag, garm hava ka kuoming faanoos aur patang. kai sabhyataaon ke kisse-kahaaniyon mein manushya dvaara pankh lagaakar udne ke prasang dekhe ja sakte hain. hinduon ki pauraanik gaathaaon mein to vimaanon ka bhi varnan hua hai, jaise raamaayan mein pushpak vimaan ka.

right bandhuon dvaara pehli udaan, 17 December san 1903 E.

aadhunik yug mein vimaanan ki shuruaat 21 November san 1783 E. mein pratham nirbaadhit manushya-sahit hava se halke garm hava ke gubbaare ke dvaara huyi, jise fraans ke mauntagaulfiye bandhuon ne viksit kiya tha. is garm hava ke gubbaare ki upayogita seemit thi kyonki use hava ke samarukh hi chalaaya ja sakta tha. jaldi hi yeh aabhaas ho gaya ki ek parichaalan yogya gubbaara atyant aavashyak hai. jaunya peeare blainchard ne san 1784 E. mein pehla manushya parichaalit gubbaara udaaya tatha san 1785 E. mein usaki sahaayata se english channel paar kiya.

san 1799 E. mein sar George keali aadhunik vimaan ka vichaar saamane laaye jo ki achal paron wala udne ka yantr tha aur jiska pruthak utthaapan, pranodan aur niyntran tha.[3][4]
haalaanki pratham shaktiyukt, hava se bhaari udaan ke liye kai pratispardhi daave kiye gaye hain, kintu right bandhuon dvaara 17 December san 1903 E. ko bhari udaan ko hi saarvajanik maanyata mili hai. aadhunik yug mein right bandhu pehle aise manushya the jinhonne shaktiyukt tatha niyantrit vimaan udaaya tha. isse poorv udaanein glaaidar ki theen jo ki niyantrit to tha lekin shaktiviheen tha ya fir aisi udaanein bhi theen jo ki shaktiyukt theen lekin niyantrit naheen theen. right bandhuon ne in donon ko sammishrit kiya aur vimaanan ke itihaas mein naye maapadand rach diye. iske pashchaat, pankh modne ke bajaay ऍlaraun ke vyaapak angikran ke kaaran, keval ek dashak baad pratham vishvayuddh ki shuruaat mein hava se bhaari shaktiyukt vimaan toh lene ke liye, topakhaane ke gole saadhane ke liye aur yahaaain tak ki jmeeni morche mein hamle karne ke liye istemaal kiye jaane lage.

jaise-jaise vimaan ke praaroop durust tatha vishvasneeya hote gaye, vimaanon dvaara maal aur yaatriyon ka yaataayaat behtar hota chala gaya. chhote, mulaayam aavaran vaale gubbaaron ke bajaay vishaal, sakht aavaran vaale vaayupot (en:airship) duniya ke pehle aise vaayuyaan bane jo lambi doori tak maal aur yaatriyon ke yaataayaat ka saadhan bane. is shreni ke sabse prasiddh vaayupot Germany ki jaipalin company ne banaaye. jaipalin vaayupoton ka paryaaya ban gaya aur duniya vaayupoton ko jaipalin ke naam se bulaane lagi.
sabse safal jaipalin graaf jaipalin tha, jisne kul das lakh meal se zyaada ki udaan bhari jismein san 1929 E. ka duniya ka chakkar bhi shaamil hai. lekin jaise-jaise vaayuyaan ke praaroop mein unnati huyi — us jmaane ke vaayuyaan kuchh sau meal hi ud sakte the — shanai:-shanai: jaipalinon ka vaayuyaanon par se aadhiptya ksheen hota chala gaya. vaayupoton ka svarn yug 6 May san 1937 ko tab samaapt ho gaya jab hindainbarg ne aag pakad li jiske kaaran 36 vyaktiyon ki maut ho gayi. haalaanki uske pashchaat aaj tak vaayupoton ko pun: prachalit karne ki koshishein hoti rahi hain lekin unako vah darja fir kabhi naheen mil paaya hai jo us jmaane mein mila tha.
1920 aur 1930 ke dashak mein vimaanan ke kshetr mein kaafi pragati huyi, jaise Charles lindabarg ki 1927 ki atalaantik mahaasaagar ki paar ki akeli udaan aur uske agale varsh Charles kingsaford smith prashaant mahaasaagar ke paar ki udaan. is kaal ka ek sabse safal praaroop dagalas di si -3 tha, jo vishv ka pehla vimaan tha jisne sirf yaatriyon ko udaakar munaafa kamaaya aur jisne aadhunik yaatri vimaan seva ki neenv rakhi. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke shuruaat mein kai shahar aur kasbon ne havaai-patti ka nirmaan kar liya tha aur us daur mein kai vimaanachaalak bhi upalabdh the. vishvayuddh ke dauraan vimaanan mein kai naveen parivartan aaye jaise pehla jait vimaan tatha pehla taral-indhan rocket.
dviteeya vishvayuddh ke pashchaat, khaas taur par uttari amareeka mein, saamaanya vimaanan ke kshetr — niji tatha vyaavasaayik — mein atyadhik teji I, kyonki hajaaron ki taadaad mein fauj se sevaanivrutt vimaanachaalak the aur fauj ke hi bache huye saste vimaan bhi the. Amreeki nirmaata jaise saisna, paaipar tatha beechakraaft ne madhyam vargeeya baajaar mein apni paith badhaane ke liye halke vimaanon ka utpaadan shuru kiya.
1950 ke dashak mein naagrik uddayan mein aur unnati huyi, jab naagrik jait utpaadan mein aaye. iski shuruaat di haivilaind kaumait se huyi haalaanki sabse zyaada prachalan mein jait vimaan Boeing 707 aaya tha kyonki us kaal ke anya vimaanon ki tulana mein yeh zyaada mitvyayi tha. usi dauraan tarbopraup pranodan ka bhi chhote vyaavasaayik vimaanon mein aagaaj hua jiski vajah se kam yaatri vaale maargon mein bhi vibhinn prakaar ke mausam mein sevaayein chalaai gayeen.

naasa ka hailios vimaan saurya oorja se chaalit

sandarbh

  1. Archytas of Tar entum, Technology Museum of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
  2. Automata history
  3. "Aviation History". http://www.aviation-history.com/early/cayley.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26.
  4. "Sir George Carley (British Inventor and Scientist)". Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/100795/Sir-George-Cayley-6th-Baronet. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-26. "English pioneer of aerial navigation and aeronautical engineering and designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft."

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