vilyan

namak cheeni ke ghol ki prastuti

do ya do se adhik padaarthon ke samaangi mishran ko vilyan kehte hain. kisi nishchit taapamaan par vilyan ke upaadaanon ka aapekshik anupaat ek seema tak parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai. jab cheeni ko paani mein ghola jaata hai to ek samaangi mishran banta hai. yeh samaangi mishran cheeni ka paani mein vilyan kahalaata hai.

anukram

parichay

jab do padaarthon ko ek doosare ke sampark mein laaya jaata hai, tab uske chaar parinaam ho sakte hain:

  • (1) ve donon padaarth ek doosare ke sampark mein aane par bhi alag alag rahein,
  • (2) ve donon padaarth, yadi unamein se ek jal hai to ek doosare se milkar, paayas (emulsion) bane,
  • (3) ve donon padaarth ek doosare se milkar ek samaang mishran banein tatha
  • (4) un donon padaarthon ke beech raasaayanik kriya hokar, ek ya adhik doosare yaugik banein.

yadi ham khadiya ke kuchh tukadon ko paani mein daalkar bhali bhaaainti hila dulaakar rakh dein, to khadiya ke tukade paatr ke peinde mein baith jaayeinge aur paani se ghire raheinge. yadi khadiya ko maheen peesakar paani mein daalein, to khadiya ke bahut chhote chhote kanon ke paani ke saath milne se paani doodh ki bhaaainti ban jaata hai aur vah kuchh samay tak usi dasha mein rahata hai. yahaaain khadiya ka paani mein paayas bana hai. yadi ise chhanne kaagaj par chhaanein, to khadiya jal se alag ho jaaegi. yadi namak ke tukade ko paani mein daalein aur use hilaavein dulaavein, to kuchh hi samay mein namak ka tukada paani mein ghulakar samaapt ho jaaega aur jo padaarth banega vah paani sa hi dikhaai padega. yadi use chakhein, to usaka svaad namakeen hoga. aise namak ghule jal ko namak ka jal mein vilyan (solution) kehte hain. khadiya jal mein ghulati naheen hai, vah jal mein avileya (insoluble) hai. par bahut maheen khadiya yadyapi paani ke saath ghulati naheen hai, tathaapi vah paayas ya imalshan ban jaati hai. namak jal mein vileya hai. kya namak aparimit maatra mein jal mein ghul sakta hai? naheen, jal mein namak ke, vastut: kisi bhi lavan ke, jal mein ghulane ki ek seema hoti hai. yeh seema taap aur, gaison ki dasha mein, dabaav par bhi nirbhar karti hai. jis namak ke vilyan mein aur namak na ghul sake, use ham namak ka santrupt (saturated) vilyan kehte hain. jis vilyan mein aur namak ghul jaata hai, use asantrupt (unsaturated) vilyan kehte hain. kabhi kabhi ham kuchh thos padaarthon ko itni maatra mein ghula sakte hain ki vilyan mein unki maatra santrupt vilyan mein upasthit maatra se adhik rahe, to aise vilyan ko atisantrupta (supersturated) vilyan kaha jaata hai. atisantrupta vilyan saamaanyat: asthaayi hote hain aur kisi vishisht paristhiti mein hi bante hain. adhik ghula hua thos usase kabhi bhi nikal kar alag ho ja sakta hai. ghulanevaale padaarth ko vileya (solute) aur ghulaanevaale padaarth ko vilyaak (solvent) kehte hain. jab gaisein ya koi thos kisi drav mein ghulata hai, tab drav ko vilaayak evam gas ya thos ko vileya kehte hain. jab ek drav doosare drav mein ghulata hai, tab adhik maatraavaale drav ko vilaayak aur kam maatraavaale drav ko vileya kehte hain.

vilaayak

vilaayak do prakaar ke hote hain : ek ko dhruveeya (Polar) aur doosare ko adhruveeya (Nonpolar) kehte hain. dhruveeya vilaayakon mein haaidrauksil ya kaarboksil samooh rahate hain aur ye apekshaya sakriya hote hain tatha inka paraavaidyutaank ooaincha hota hai. adhruveeya vilaayak rasaayanat nishkriya hote hain aur inka paraavaidyutaank nimn hota hai. dhruveeya vilaayak adhik prabal hote hain aur anek padaarthon ko ghulaate hain. ek doosari drushti se vilaayakon ko akaarbanik aur kaarbanik vilaayakon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. akaarbanik vilaayakon mein jal ka sthaan sarvopari hai. vilaayak ke roop mein iski shreshthata is kaaran hai ki yeh saralata se shuddh roop mein praapya hai. yeh na vishaakt aur na jvalanasheel hota hai. ooshma se ismein koi parivartan naheen hota aur anek padaarthon ko yeh ghulaata hai. oshadhiyon mein bhi vilaayak ke roop mein iska vyavahaar vyaapak roop se hota hai. par anek kaarbanik padaarth jal mein naheen ghulate hain. in kaarbanik padaarthon ko ghulaane ke liye jin vilaayakon ka vyavahaar hota hai, unhein kaarbanik vilaayak kehte hain. anek udyogadhandhon mein kaarbanik vilaayakon ka vyavahaar hota hai. kuchh kaarbanik vilaayak hydrocarbon, kuchh hailojen yaugik, kuchh ailkohaul, keeton, ithar aur estar hote hain. kuchh vilaayak bade vaashpasheel hote hain tatha kuchh vishaakt bhi. at: inke prayog mein badi saavadhaani baratani hoti hai. aise vaashpasheel evam vishaakt vilaayak petrol, naiftha, beinjeen, taulooin, methenaul, ethaanaul, byootenaul, ainseeton, ithar, klorofaurm, kaarban tetraakloraaid, aimil aiseetet aadi hain. in vilaayakon ka bahut badi maatra mein upayog peint, vaarnish, laakshaaras aur anya naana prakaar ke aavaran chadhaane ke lepon mein hota hai.

anek vastuon ki safaai mein vilaayak kaam mein aate hain. lakdi aur dhaatu ke saamaanon ki safaai bhi vilaayakon dvaara hoti hai. inse mail dhulakar nikal jaati hai aur vastu saaf ho jaati hai. ek samay ooni vastron ki dhulaai mein petrol, ya beinjaain vyaapak roop se prayukt hota tha. jvalanasheelata ke kaaran haaidrokaarbanon ka sthaan kloreenavaale yaugik, traaikloroethileen aur kaarban tetraakloraaid le rahe hain. bhojyapadaarthon, oshadhiyon aur angaraagon mein vishheen vilaayakon ka hi prayog hona chaahiye. inmein aruchikr gandh ya svaad bhi na rahana chaahiye. isliye tinchar nishkarshon aadi mein keval ethil ailkohaul ka vyavahaar hota hai. jahaaain avaashpasheel ya meethe svaadavaale vilaayak ki aavashyakta padti hai, vahaaain glisraul aur glaaikaul prayukt hote hain. anek praakrutik padaarthon se kisi vishisht yaugik ke nikaalne mein bhi vilaayakon ka upayog hota hai. praakrutik sroton se vilaayakon ke dvaara hi ailkelauid, klorofil, penisilin, tel aadi naana prakaar ke padaarth nikaale jaate hain.

gas

yadi do gaison ko ek doosare ke sampark mein laaya jaae, to uske do parinaam ho sakte hain :

  • (1) donon ke beech mein raasaayanik kriyaaeain hokar ek teesara padaarth ban sakta hai, jaise amoniya gas aur haaidrojan kloraaid gaise ke milaane se hota hai;
  • (2) yadi donon gaison ke beech koi raasaayanik kriya naheen hoti hai, to donon paraspar mil jaate hain, jaise naaitrojan aur okseejan gaison ko milaane se hota hai. aisi dasha mein donon gaise milkar ek samaang mishran ban jaati hai. yahaaain donon gaisein kisi bhi anupaat mein milaai ja sakti hain. yahaaain santrupti ka koi prashn hi naheen uthata.

yadi gas ko drav ke sampark mein laaya jaae, to vishisht taap aur daab par gas drav mein ghulakar santrupt vilyan banaati hai. kuchh gaisein, jaise amoniya, ya haaidrojan kloraaid, jal mein bahut adhik ghulati hain aur kuchh gaisein, jaise naaitrojan, ya okseejan, jal mein kam ghulati hain. gaison ki vileyata gaison ki prakruti, vilaayakon ki prakruti, taap aur dabaav par nirbhar karti hai, jaisa neeche ki saarani se prakat hai :

kuchh gaison ki vileyata

(ek liter jal mein vileya ka aayatan liter mein)

gas ka naam 0° aur 760 mimi. daab 20° aur 760 mimi. daab
amoniya 1,300 710
haaidrojan kloraaid 506 442
kaarban daaioksaaid 1.71 0.878
naaitrojan 0.0235 0.164
okseejan 0.049 0.031
haaidrojan 0.0215 0.0184

oopar ki saarani se spasht hai ki ooainche taap se gaison ki vileyata kam ho jaati hai aur adhik dabaav se vileyata badh jaati hai. sodaavaatar ki botal mein adhik dabaav par hi kaarban daaioksaaid adhik ghula hua rahata hai aur botal ke kholne par dabaav kam hone par adhik ghuli hui gas budabud karke nikal jaati hai. yadi gaison ke mishran ko ghulaaya jaae, to vibhinn gaisein svatantr roop se apni vileyata ke anusaar ghulati hain tatha doosari gas ki upasthiti se unki vileyata par koi asar naheen padta hai.

drav

kai drav ek doosare mein kisi bhi anupaat mein milaane se ghul jaate hain. jal aur methenaul sab anupaat mein vileya hain. inhein ham mishraneeya (miscible) kehte hain. ve hi drav mishraneeya drav hote hain, jinmein paraspar rasaayanat: samaanata hoti hai. kuchh drav aise hain jo ek doosare mein bilkul naheen ghulate, jaise paara aur paani, paani aur beinjeen. inhein ham amishraneeya (nonmiscible) kehte hain. kuchh drav aise hote hain jo ek doosare mein kuchh ghul jaate hain aur ghulakar do star banaate hain. aise do drav jal aur ithar hain. jal aur ithanr ke milaane se do star ban jaate hain. oopar ka star ithar ka aur neeche ka star jal ka hota hai. parantu oopar ke ithar ke star mein kuchh jal tatha neeche ke jal ke star mein kuchh ithar bhi ghula hua rahata hai. ye anshat: mishraneeya drav hote hain aur in donon staron ko sanyugmi star (conjugate layers) kehte hain. yahaaain bhi vileyata taap aur kuchh seema tak daab par nirbhar karti hai.

thos

dravon mein thoson ki vileyata seemit hoti hai. pratyek taap par thoson ki ek nishchit maatra hi drav mein ghulati hai. yeh bahut kuchh vileya aur vilaayak ki prakruti par nirbhar karti hai. saadhaaranataya anek lavan jal mein vilyasheel hote hain. kuchh lavan, jaise amoniym naaitret, jal mein bahut vilyasheel hain aur kuchh lavan, jais kailsiym salfet, jal mein alp vileya hote hain. jab koi thos kisi drav mein ghulata hai, to saamaanyataya ooshma ka avashoshan hota hai. taap ki vruddhi se saamaanyat: thoson ki vileyata badh jaati hai, par ismein kuchh apavaad bhi hain. kailsiym salfet aur kailsiym aiseetet ki vileyata taap ki vruddhi se kuchh kam ho jaati hai. yadi kisi thos ki vileyata uchch taap par adhik hai, to kristalan dvaara us thos ka shodhan kiya ja sakta hai. ooainche taap par santrupt vilyan banaakar, usako thandha karne se adhik maatra mein vileya padaarth ke kristal pruthak hokar shuddh roop mein praapt hote hain. ashuddhiyon ki maatra kam rahane se santrupt vilyan naheen banta aur thandha karne se kristal naheen nikalte hain.

thoson ka thoson mein bhi vilyan banta hai. ya to ye poora ghul kar mishraneeya thos ban sakte hain athva anshat: ghulakar sanyugmi star (conjugate layer) bana sakte hain. anek mishradhaatueain thoson ke vilyan hai, ya anshat: mishraneeya mishran hain. thoson ke vilyan maatr thoson ke milaane se naheen bante, apitu inhein poora galaakar milaane par bante hain.

vilyanon ka saandran

saadhaaranataya kisi vastu ki vileyata ko uske pratishat sanghatan mein pradarshit karte hain. jab ham kehte hain ki namak ka amuk vilyan 15% vilyan hai, to iska aashay yahi hota hai ki 100 aayatan vilaayak mein 15 gram namak ghula hua hai. yeh reeti vaigyaanik naheen hai. vaigyaanik reeti mein saandran ko gram-anu-saandran dvaara pradarshit karte hain. ek liter vilyan mein jitni gram-anu-bhaar ki maatra ghuli hui hoti hai usi se saandran ki maap jaani jaati hai. ise gram-anukata (molarity) kehte hain. chooainki taap aur daab se vilyan ka aayatan ghatata badhta hai, at: saandran pradarshit karne ke liye yeh upayukt naheen hai. iske sthaan mein gram aanvata (molality) ka vyavahaar hota hai. 100 gram vilyan mein vileya ka kitna gram anu (moles) ghula hua hai yeh gram aanvata darshaati hai. yadi vilyan tanu hai, to kisi vishisht vileya aur vilaayak ke liye gram anukata aur aanvata vibhinn saandran ke liye ek doosare ke samaanupaat mein hote hain. vishleshan mein vilyanon ka saandran naurmalata (normality, N) dvaara pradarshit kiya jaata hai. naurmal vilyan ke ek liter mein kisi vileya ka ek graamatulyaank ghala rahata hai. vilyanon ke anya saandran naarmalata mein hi soochit kiye jaate hain, jaise 2 naarmal, 5 naarmal 10 naarmal, dashaansh naarmal, sahasraansh naarmal ityaadi.

inhein bhi dekhein