vilvanan

skimaiyik of a malti-stage flaish diselinetaraA - steem inaB - seevautar inaC - potebal vautar aautaC - vest aautai - steem aautaF - hit eksacheinjaG - kandeinseshan kalekshanaH - braain vautar

vilvaneekaran (angreji: desalination; diselineshan ya diselinaaijeshan) un kai prakriyaaon ko sandarbhit karta hai jo paani se namak tatha doosare khanijon ko nikaalati hain. saadhaaranataya, lavan va khanijon ko hataane ki prakriya bhi vilvaneekaran kahalaati hai,[1] jaise mruda vilvaneekaran[2]

khaare paani ko meethe paani mein badalne ke liye diselineshan kiya jaata hai taaki yeh maanav khapat ya sinchaai ke liye upayukt bana rahe. kabhi kabhi is prakriya dvaara khaane wala namak ek sah-utpaad ke roop mein banta hai. iska prayog samudri jahaajon aur panadubbiyon mein kiya jaata hai. un kshetron mein jahaan taaje paani ki upalabdhata seemit hai ya ho rahi hai, vahaan saste dhang se taaje paani ko upalabdh karaane ke liye aajkal diselineshan par dhyaan kendrit kiya ja raha hai.

bade paimaane par diselineshan ke liye aam taur par adhik maatra mein oorja ke saath, vishesh buniyaadi suvidhaaon ki aavashyakta padti hai, jisse iski laagat nadiyon athva bhoomi se praapt taaje jal ki tulana mein atyadhik badh jaati hai.[3]

duniya ka sabse bada diselineshan sanyantr sanyukt arab ameeraat mein jebel Ali sanyantr (charan 2) hai. yeh ek dohare uddeshya waali ikaai hai jo malti stage flaish aasavan ka prayog karti hai aur prati varsh 300 million ghan meter paani ka utpaadan karne mein saksham hai. iski tulana mein sanyukt raajya America ka sabse bada diselineshan sanyantr tempa be, florida mein hai aur tempa be vaatar dvaara sanchaalit hai, jisne December 2007 mein prati varsh 34.7 million ghan meter jal ka diselineshan shuroo kiya.[4] tempa be sanyantr, jebel Ali diselineshan plant ke 12 % utpaadan par hi sanchaalit ho raha hai 17 January 2008 ko, Wall street journal ke ek lekh mein likha tha, "antarraashtreeya diselineshan association ke anusaar, duniya bhar mein 13,080 diselineshan sanyantr prati din 12 billion gailan se adhik paani ka utpaadan karte hain."[5]


ek vishisht rivers osmosis diselineshan sanyantr ki yojana

anukram

paddhatiyaaain

in sanyantron mein prayukt hone waali paaramparik prakriya nirvaat aasavan hai - anivaarya roop se kam vaayumandaleeya dabaav mein paani ko ubaalate hain aur is prakaar saamaanya se kaheen kam taapamaan praapt hota hai. aisa isliye hota hai kyonki drav tabhi ubalata hai jab vaashp dabaav aas paas ke dabaav ke baraabar ho jaata hai aur vaashp dabaav taapamaan ke saath aur badh jaata hai. is prakaar, kam taapamaan ke kaaran, oorja ki bachat ki jaati hai. malti-stage flaish aasavan, jo ek agrani aasavan vidhi hai, vah 2004 mein vishv ke kul 85 % utpaadan ke liye uttaradaayi thi.[6]

Barcelona, Spain mein rivers osmosis diselineshan sanyantr

diselineshan ke liye pramukh pratispardhi prakriyaaen, rivers osmosis prodyogiki dvaara membren ka prayog karti hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] membren prakriyaaen paani se namak nikaalne ke liye ardh-abhedya membren tatha dabaav ka prayog karti hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] rivers osmosis sanyantr membren pranaali aam taur par tharmal aasavan se kam oorja ka prayog karte hain, jisse pichhle ek dashak mein sampoorn diselineshan laagat mein kami I hai. haalaanki diselineshan oorja saghan hi rahega, tatha bhavishya ki laagat oorja tatha diselineshan takaneek, donon par nirbhar karegi.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

mahattv aur aalochna

kojenareshan

kojenareshan ek aisi prakriya hai, jismein bijli ke utpaadan mein utpann hone waali atirikt oorja ko kisi aur kaarya ko poora karne ke liye upayog mein laaya jaata hai. diselineshan ke pariprekshya mein, kojenareshan mein samudri jal ya khaare bhoojal ko ek ekeekrut ya "dohare uddeshya" waali ikaai dvaara peene yogya paani mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai, jismein diselineshan prakriya ke liye bijli sanyantr ko ek oorja srot ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai. ikaai ka oorja utpaadan poori tarah se peene yogya paani ko samarpit ho sakta hai (akeli ikaai), ya atirikt oorja ka utpaadan kiya ja sakta hai aur ise oorja grid mein prayukt kiya ja sakta hai (ek mool kojenareshan ikaai). kojenareshan ke vibhinn prakaar hain aur siddhaantat: oorja utpaadan ke kisi bhi prakaar ka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki, adhikaansh vartamaan aur bhaavi kojenareshan diselineshan sanyantr apni oorja ke srot ke roop mein jeevaashm indhan ya parmaanu shakti ka prayog karte hain. adhikaansh sanyantr madhya poorv ya uttari Africa mein unke petrolium sansaadhanon tatha kar mukt chhoot (subsidy) ke kaaran sthit hain. dohare uddeshya waali ikaaiyon ka laabh yeh hai ki ve oorja ki khapat mein adhik kushal ho sakti hain, jisse kam paani vaale kshetron mein peene ke paani ke liye diselineshan ek adhik vyavahaarya vikalp ban jaata hai.[7][8]

shevacheinko BN350 ek nyookliyr heeted diselineshan unit hai

26 December 2007 ko the Atlanta journal- kaunsteetyooshan ke rai stambh (opinion column) mein jaurjiya tech mein parmaanu tatha rediyodharmi engineering ke ek profesar nolan hartel ne likha,"... parmaanu riyektaron ka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai... badi maatra mein peene ke paani ka utpaadan karne ke liye. is prakriya ko pehle se hi duniya bhar mein, Bhaarat se le kar Japan tatha roos mein prayog mein laaya ja raha hai. akele Japan mein hi diselineshan sanyantron se jude aath parmaanu reactor kaam kar rahe hain ... parmaanu diselineshan sanyantr badi maatra mein peene ke paani ka strot ho sakte hain jise paaipalaain dvaara seema ke andar meelon door tak pahunchaaya ja sakta hai... "[9][10]

iske alaava, dohare uddeshya waali ikaaiyon mein maujooda rujhaan sankar vinyaas (haaibrid kanfigreshan) hai jismein aarao (RO) diselineshan ghatak se choone ko tharmal diselineshan se praapt ark se milaaya jaata hai. asal mein, do ya adhik diselineshan prakriyaaon ke saath bijli utpaadan dvaara joda jaata hai. aisi ikaaiyaan pehle se hi Saudi arab ke jedda tatha yaanboo mein kaaryaanvit ki ja chuki hain.[11]

ameriki sena ka ek vishesh vimaan vaahak parmaanu shakti ka upayog karke pratidin 400,000 gailan (ameriki gailan) ya 1514 ghan meter paani se namak nikaalata hai.[12]

arthashaastr

diselineshan ke liye poonji tatha parichaalan laagat ko nirdhaarit karne vaale kai kaarak hain: kshamata aur ikaai ka prakaar, sthaan, kachcha paani, shram, oorja, vitt poshan aur saghan paani ka niptaan. diselineshan sanyantr ab dabaav, taapamaan aur paani ki nikaasi ke liye namakeen saandrata ke anukoolan ka niyantran kar sakte hain. bade paimaane par parmaanu shakti se chalne vaale diselineshan adhik kifaayati ho sakte hain.[13][14]

jabki dhyaan dene yogya baat hai ki laagat kam ho rahi hai aur aam taur par samruddh kshetr, jo ki mahaasaagaron ke nikat hain, ke liye praudyogiki aam taur par sakaaraatmak hai, ek adhyayan ka tark hai ki "kam paani vaale kuchh kshetron ke liye diselineshan ek samaadhaan ho sakta hai, kintu gareeb, mahaadveep ke aantarik bhaagon mein sthit, ya adhik oonchaai par sthit sthaanon ke liye yeh samaadhaan naheen hai. aur durbhaagya se, in sthaanon mein, aise kuchh sthaan bhi shaamil hain, jahaan paani ki vikt samasyaaen hain aur "vaastav mein, 2000 meter tak paani chadhaane ya 1600 kimi tak paani bhejane ki laagat diselineshan ki laagat ke baraabar hai. is prakaar, diselineshan ki tulana mein kaheen aur se taaja paani dho kar laana adhik kifaayati ho sakta hai. samudra se door sthaanon mein, jaise nai Delhi, ya Mexico city jaise oonche sthaanon mein, uchch parivhan dar se diselineshan laagat badhegi. diselineted paani un sthaanon par bhi mahanga hai jo samudra se door hone ke saath saath oonchaai par bhi hain jaise riyaad aur haraare. kai sthaanon mein, parivhan laagat ki bajaae diselineshan prakriya adhik mahangi hai, isliye Beijing, bainkauk, jraagoja, feeniks aur, jaahir taur par tripoli jaise tateeya shaharon mein yeh prakriya apekshaakrut kam kharcheeli hogi."[15] jubel, saudi arab mein diselineshan ke baad 200 meal (320 kimi), pipe line ke maadhyam se paani ko riyaad rajdhani kshetr mein pamp kiya jaata hai.200 meal (320 kimi) tateeya shaharon ke liye, diselineshan ko teji se ek aprayukt aur aseemit paani ke srot ke roop mein dekha ja raha hai.

fir bhi, diselineshan mein paani ki risaaikiling aur toote hue moolabhoot aavashyak tatv par dhyaan naheen diya jaata.[krupaya uddharan jodein] faaunten valley, CA (CA), feyarafaiks, veee (VA), L paaso, teeeks (TX) tatha skautsadel, ejed (AZ) mein paani ka fir se upayog kiya jaata hai. yeh prakriya diselineshan ka ek vikalp hai jisme namak ki kam maatra ke kaaran 50% kam oorja ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur yeh diseleeneted samudri paani ki tulana mein 30% kam laagat par upabhoktaaon ke liye taaje paani ka utpaadan karta hai, samudri jeevan aur paaristhitiki pranaaliyon ko nuksaan pahunchaae bina, jo diselineshan sanyantron ke liye saamaanya cheej hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

ijraayal US$ 0.53 prati ghan meter ki laagat se paani ka diselineshan kar raha hai.[16] Singapore US$ 0.49 prati ghan meter ki laagat se paani ka diselineshan kar raha hai.[17] viksit deshon mein kai bade tateeya shahar, paani ki aapoorti ke anya vikalpon ki tulana mein kam laagat ke kaaran samudri paani ke diselineshan ki vyavahaarikta par vichaar kar rahe hain, jisme varsha ka paani ekatrit karne waali tankiyon ki anivaarya sthaapana ya laharon se paani ekatrit karne ke liye buniyaadi dhaanche ke vikaas ka vikalp shaamil ho sakta hai. adhyayanon ne[krupaya uddharan jodein] yeh dikhaaya hai ki peene ke liye bade paimaane par reesaaikal paani ki bajaae diselineshan vikalp adhik sasta hai aur Sydney mein varsha ka paani ekatrit karne waali tankiyon ki anivaarya sthaapana karne ya laharon se paani ekatrit karne ke liye buniyaadi dhaanche ka vikaas karne jaise kaheen mahange vikalpon ki tulana mein behad sasta hai. 2006 se hi Perth shahar safalataapoorvak rivers osmosis seevaatar diselineshan plant ka parichaalan kar raha hai[18] aur pashchimi Australiaee sarkaar ne ghoshana ki hai ki shahar ki jarooraton ko poora karne ke liye doosare sanyantr ka nirmaan kiya jaaega. ek diselineshan sanyantr Australia ke sabse bade shahar Sydney mein banaaya ja raha hai[19], tatha vonthaaggi, Victoria mein vonthaaggi diselineshan sanyantr ek prastaavit ikaai hai.

Perth diselineshan sanyantr ko aanshik roop se iemayoo daauns vind firm se praapt Akshay oorja dvaara sanchaalit kiya ja raha hai.[20] Sydney sanyantr poori tarah se Akshay sroton se sanchaalit kiya jaaega,[21] jisse paryaavaran ke liye haanikaarak greenahaaus gas utsarjan samaapt ho jaaega, jo takaneek ki oorja aavashyakataaon ke liye samudri paani ke diselineshan ke khilaaf diya jaane wala ek aam tark hai. bijli se chalne waali diselineshan sanyantron ke liye Akshay oorja ki khareed ya utpaadan se svaabhaavik roop se poonji/ya diselineshan ki sanchaalan laagat mein vruddhi hoti hai. haalaanki, Perth aur Sydney ke haal ke anubhav ingit karte hain ki logon ko atirikt laagat sveekaarya hai, kyonki tab shahar tark de sakta hai ki yeh aaspaas ke paryaavaran ko haani pahunchaae bina hone waali paani ki aapoorti hai. kveensalaind raajya sarkaar ne haal hi mein ghoshana ki ki gold kost diselineshan sanyantr poori tarah se Akshay sroton se sanchaalit kiya jaaega, jisse paryaavaran ko kam kshati hogi, jisse yeh Perth aur Sydney mein sanchaalit hone vaale pramukh sanyantron ke samaan kaam karega.

December 2007 mein dakshin Australiaee sarkaar ne ghoshana ki ki vah port staanavaak, Adelaide shahar, Australia mein ek samudri diselineshan ke liye sanyantr ka nirmaan karegi. diselineshan sanyantr ke liye vitt ki vyavastha paani ki keematein badha kar vasool ki jaayegi. [4] [5] ek online, avaijnyaaanik sarvekshan se pata chala ki diselineshan ke liye paani ki badhi hui daron ke paksh mein lagbhag 60% vote pade. [6]

17 January 2008 ke vaal street journal ke lekh mein likha hai, " November mein Connecticut mein sthit reesaaikal risorses korp. ne 300 million US$ ki laagat se banane vaale diselineshan sanyantr ke liye sain Diego ke uttar mein, kaarlsabad mein pramukh viniyaamak anumodan praapt kiya hai. prati din 50 million [ameriki] gailan [190000 ghan meter] taaje paani ka utpaadan karke, yeh ikaai pashchimi golaarddh mein sabse badi hogi, jo lagbhag 100000 gharon ko aapoorti karne ke liye paryaapt hoga... unnat praudyogiki ke kaaran pichhle ek dashak mein diselineshan ki laagat aadhi rah gayi hai, jisse pratispardha aur adhik badh gayi hai... peesaaidan ki yojana prati ekad foot [1200 ghan meter] lagbhag 950 US$ ki laagat se paani bechne ki hai. yeh prati ekad foot [1200 ghan meter] US$700 ki tulana mein hai jo vartamaan mein paani ke liye sthaaneeya agencyan bhugataan karti hain." [7] $1000 prati ekad foot ka arth hai 1000 gailan ke liye $3.06 jo paani ko maapane ki ikaai hai jiske anusaar aavaaseeya upayogakarta paani ka bill praapt karte hain.[8][9].

haalaanki is viniyaamak baadha ko paar kar liya gaya tha, kintu keliforniya ke kaanoon ke anusaar, daale jaane vaale paaipon se hone samudri jeevan ki kshati ka shaman kiye bina, mitigeshan pariyojana ke antim anumodan tak, peesaaidan risorses car shuroo karne mein samarth naheen hai. peesaaidan risorses ne tempa be desal, 2001 mein tempa be, florida ke diselineshan sanyatr ke asafal prayaas ke baavajood kaarlsabed, CA (CA) mein pragati ki hai. tempa be vaatar ke board nideshak 2001 teesari baar pariyojana ke asafal hone se bachaane ke liye peesaaidan risorses se tempa be desal ko khareedne ke liye majaboor ho gaye. tempa be vaatar ne paanch saal tak engineering samasyaaon ka saamana kiya hai aur 2007 mein iski kshamata ka poora istemaal karne se pehle samudri jeevan mein vruddhi ke kaaran iske rivers osmosis filtaron mein fansane mein kaaran 20% kshamata ka sanchaalan kiya.[22]

9 May 2008 ko forbs ke ek lekh ke anusaar, sain Leandro keliforniya company ne kaha ki enarji rikvari ink US$0.46 prati ghan meter ki dar se paani ka diselineshan kar rahi hai.[23]

5 June 2008 ko globe end mel ke ek lekh ke anusaar, otaava university ke Jordan mein janme kemikl engineering dauktaret chhaatr, mohammad rasool taisha ne nai diselineshan takaneek ka aavishkaar kiya hai jisse vartamaan takaneek ki tulana mein membren ke prati varg meter mein 600% se 700% adhik paani ka utpaadan hota hai. lekh ke anusaar general ilektrik bhi samaan takaneek par vichaar kar rahi hai aur America ke raashtreeya vigyaan foundation ne is par achhi tarah se adhyayan karne ke liye Michigan university ko anudaan dene ki ghoshana ki hai. choonki peteint par abhi bhi kaam ho raha tha, at: lekh mein is praudyogiki ke baare mein bahut aspasht vivran diya gaya tha.[24]

jabki 1000 gailan paani ke diselineshan ke liye adhik se adhik $3 ki laagat aa sakti hai, itni hi maatra mein botalaband paani ki keemat $7,945 hai.[25]

paryaavaran sambandhi

samudri paani ke diselineshan sanyantron ka ek pramukh paryaavarneeya chintan ka vishay khule samudri paani ko peene se hone wala prabhaav hai,[krupaya uddharan jodein] visheshakar jab ye bijli ke sanyantron ke paas sthit hote hain. samudri paani ke sanyantron ki kai prastaavit shurooaati yojanaaen samudri jeevan par padne vaale prabhaav par dhyaan dene ki bajaae peene se hone vaale prabhaav par nirbhar theen.[krupaya uddharan jodein] sanyukt raajya America mein, svachh jal adhiniyam ke anusaar haal hi mein diye gaye adaalat ke faisale ke anusaar, pleinktan, machhali ke ande aur machhali laarva ke roop mein samudri jeevan ki mrutyu dar ko nabbe pratishat tak kam kiye bagair is paani ko peena vyavahaarya naheen hai.[26] kai vikalp upalabdh hain, jinme samadr tat par sthit kuen shaamil hain jo in chintaaon ka nivaaran karte hain, kintu inke liye adhik oorja tatha uchch laagat ki aavashyakta hoti hai jabki utpaadan seemit maatra mein hota hai.[27] anya paryaavaraneeya chintaaon bijli ke sanyantron se hone wala vaayu pradooshan aur greenahaaus gas utsarjan shaamil hai.

samudri paani mein vaapas namak milaane se hone vaale paryaavaraneeya prabhaav ko seemit karne ke liye, ise samudra mein milne vaale paani ki anya dhaara, jaise kisi apashisht jal treetameint sanyantr ya bijli ke sanyantr ke mein mila kar kam namakeen kiya ja sakta hai. haalaanki samudri jal vidyut sanyantr paani se nikaalne wala thanda paani apashisht jal upachaar sanyantr se nikalne vaale paani jaisa meetha naheen hota, namakeen paani ki lavanata fir bhi kam ho jaati hai. agar bijli sanyantr madhyam se bade aakaar tak ka hai aur diselineshan sanyantr vishaal naheen hai, to jaahir hai ki bijli sanyantr ke thande paani ka pravaah, diselineshan sanyantr ki tulana mein kaheen adhik hoga. lavanata mein vruddhi ko kam karne ki ek anya vidhi namakeen paani ko ek bahut bade kshetr mein failaana hai taaki khaarepan mein keval maamooli badhat ho. udaaharan ke liye, ek baar namakeen paani yukt pipe line samudra tal tak pahunchati hai, to yeh kai shaakhaaon mein vibhaajit ho sakti hai, jismein se pratyek apni lambaai mein sthit chhote chhedon ke maadhyam se dheere dheere namakeen paani chhod sakti hai. is vidhi ko sanyukt roop se namakeen paani ko bijli ke sanyantr ya apashisht jal sanyantr se nikalne vaale paani mein mila kar kiya ja sakta hai.

gaadhe samudri paani mein paaristhitiki tantr ko nuksaan pahunchaane ki kshamata hai, vishesh roop se aise samudri kshetr jahaan kam talachhat tatha uchch vaashpeekaran ke kaaran pehle se hi atyadhik khaaraapan hai. aise sthaanon ke udaaharanon mein faaras ki khaadi, laal saagar aur vishesh roop se, etol ke koral laigoon aur duniya bhar mein sthit anya ushnakatibandheeya dweep hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] kyonki lavaneeya paani uchch maatra mein ghule hue padaarthon ki vajah se aaspaas ke samudri paani se adhik saghan hota hai, ise paani ke stroton mein chhodne ka arth paani ke strot ki paaristhitiki ko khatre mein daalna hai kyonki namakeen paani doob jaata hai aur paaristhitiki ko nuksaan pahunchaane ke liye lambe samay tak bana rahata hai. saavadhaani se pun: shurooaat is samasya ko kam kar sakti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] udaaharan ke liye, 2007 mein Sydney mein banane vaale diselineshan sanyantr aur samudri aautalet sanrachanaaon ke jal adhikaariyon ne kaha ki samudri aautalet samudra ki atyadhik gaharaai vaale sthaanon par sthit honge jo saghan paani ke failaav mein is prakaar vruddhi kareinge ki aautalet binduon ke 50 se 75 meter ke daayare mein ismein aur saamaanya samudri paani mein antar karna sambhav naheen hoga. Sydney apne samudra tat se door sthit vishesh samudri paristhitiyon ke liye bhaagyashaali hai jo saghan sahautpaadon ko teji se kam kar dete hain, jisse paryaavaran ko hone wala nuksaan kam ho jaata hai.

2007 mein, Australia ke Perth mein, kvinna diselineshan sanyantr khola gaya tha. samudra se paani keval prati second 0.1 meter ki dar se kheencha jaata hai, jo kaafi dheemi gati hone ke kaaran machhali ke bach kar nikalne ke liye paryaapt hai. sanyantr prati din lagbhag 140,000 ghan meter svachh paani pradaan karta hai. [10]

paani ki aapoorti ke anya vikalpon ki tulana mein diselineshan

jal sanrakshan karna aur jal ko kushalata se upayog karna duniya ke un bhaagon mein sabse adhik laagat prabhaavi praathamiktaaen hain jahaan paani ki kshamata mein sudhaar karne ki badi sambhaavnaaen hain.[28] peene ke paani ke liye apashisht jal ki apeksha samudri paani ka upayog diselineshan ko pratham vikalp ke roop mein darshaata hai, jabki apashisht paani ko sinchaai tatha udyogon mein prayog karne ke kai laabh hain.[29] shahar se nikaalne vaale aur barasaati paani par niyantran upachaar, sanrakshan aur bhoojal ka star badhaane mein bhi laabhadaayak hai.[30] America ke dakshin pashchim kshetr aur California mein deeselinaaijeshan ka ek prastaavit vikalp bade poton ko paani dhone vaale vaahakon ke roop mein parivrtit karke ya pipe line ke maadhyam se badi maatr mein paani ka vaanijyik roop se aayaat karna hai. yeh sujhaav Canada mein raajaneetik roop se alokapriya hai, jahaan sarkaarein north American free trade egreemeint (naafta/NAFTA) ke 11vein adhyaaya ke tahat 1999 mein san belt vaatar ink dvaara daayar kiye gaye mukadame ke kaaran, badi maatra mein paani ke niryaat par vyaapaarik pratibandh lagaane ke liye joojh rahi hain, company Santa baarabara, keliforniya mein us kshetr mein padne vaale bhayankar sookhe ke kaaran sthaaneeya jarooraton ko poora karne ke liye 1990 mein sthaapit hui thi. san belt ek vebasaait chalti hai jahaan vivaad se sambandhit dastaavej online post kiye gaye hain.[31]

praayogik takaneekein aur anya vikaas

ateet mein, vibhinn prakaar ki safalataaon ke saath kai nayi diselineshan takaneekon ki khoj ki gayi hai. forward osmosis jaisi kuchh anya abhi bhi draaing board par hain jabki anyon ne anusandhaan ke liye dhan dene vaalon ko aakarshit kiya hai. udaaharan ke liye, diselineshan ke liye oorja jarooraton ki bharpaai ke liye ameriki sarkaar vyaavahaarik saur diselineshan ko viksit karne par kaam kar rahi hai.

diselineshan ke nae saiddhaantik drushtikon ke udaaharan ke ek roop mein, oorja ki kushalata ko badhne aur laagat ko kam karne par dhyaan kendrit karne ke liye paasarel prakriya (Passarell Process) ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

anya prakriyaaon mein jiyotharmal oorja ka upayog shaamil hai. paryaavaran aur aarthik drushtikon se, kai sthaanon par manushyon ki aavashyakataaon ko poora karne ke liye jeevaashm bhoojal ya satahi jal ke liye jiyotharmal diselineshan ko praathamikta di ja sakti hai, kyonki kai kshetron mein maujooda satahi aur bhoojal sansaadhanon mein pehle se hi gambhir kami I hai.

America mein haal ke anusandhaan darshaate hain ki paani ko chhaanane ke liye nainotyoob membren atyadhik prabhaavi ho sakti hai aur paani ke diselineshan ki ek vyavahaarya prakriya kar sakti hai jisme rivers osmosis ki tulana mein kam oorja ki aavashyakta hogi.[32]

paani ke diselineshan ke liye baayomimetik membren ko ek anya vidhi ke taur par dekha ja raha hai.[33]

23 June 2008 ko yeh soochana mili thi ki seemans vaatar technology ne samudri paani par bijli ka kshetr laagoo karne par aadhaarit ek nai takaneek viksit ki thi, jo ek ghan meter paani se namak nikaalne ke liye 1.5 kWh oorja ki ka prayog karti thi, jo ki report ke anusaar anya prakriyaaon ki tulana mein aadhi hai.[34]

samudi paani ko jama (freej) kar bhi taaje paani ka utpaadan kiya ja sakta hai, jaisa ki praakrutik roop se dhruveeya kshetron mein hota hai aur ise freej-thaav (freeze-thaw) diselineshan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

emaesaenabeesi (MSNBC) ke mutaabik, laks research ki ek report ke anumaan ke anusaar, duniya bhar mein 2008 aur 2020 ke beech deeseleeneted paani ki aapoorti tiguni ho jaayegi.[35]

nimn taap ooshmeeya diselineshan (lo temprechar tharmal diselineshan)

lo temprechar tharmal diselineshan (LTTD) is tathya ka laabh leta hai ki kam dabaav par, yahaan tak ki vaataavaran ke taapamaan par bhi paani ubalata hai. pranaali mein kam dabaav banaane ke liye vaikyoom panp ka upayog kiya jaata hai, ek aisa kam dabaav, kam taapamaan ka vaataavaran, jisme 8 se 10 degree ke taapamaan ke utar chadhaav ke beech paani ubalata hai. samudra ki gaharaai se adhik se adhik thande paani ki aapoorti ki jaati hai 600 meter (2,000 fut). is thande paani ko kauil ke maadhyam se paani ke vaashpon ko sanghanit karne ke liye pamp kiya jaata hai. parinaamasvaroop praapt hone wala paani shuddh hota hai. elateeteedi (LTTD) prakriya bijli ke sanyantron mein upalabdh taapamaan ke utaar chadhaav ka laabh praapt kar sakti hai, jahaan sanyantr se bade paimaane par faalatoo garm jal ki nikaasi ki jaati hai, jisse taapamaan ke utaar chadhaav ko banaaye rakhane ke liye oorja ki khapat kam ho jaati hai.[36]

elateeteedi (LTTD) ko Bhaarat ke raashtreeya mahaasaagar praudyogiki sansthaan (enaaaioti) dvaara viksit kiya gaya hai. duniya ka pehla elateeteedi (LTTD) sanyantr 2005 mein lakshadveep samooh par kavaratti mein khola gaya tha. aaienaaar/INR 50 million (€ 922,000) ki poonji laagat ke saath sanyantr ki kshamata 100000 liter/din hai. sanyantr gahre paani ke 7 se 15 degree celcius ke taapamaan ka upayog karta hai.[37] 2007 mein, enaaaioti ne chennai ke tat se hat kar 1 million liter/din ki kshamata ke saath ek tairata hua prayogaatmak elateeteedi (LTTD) sanyantr khola. elateeteedi (LTTD) ki kaaryakshamata ko siddh karne ke liye 2009 mein ek chhota sanyantr uttari chennai ke vidyut station par khola gaya tha jahaan power plant ka thanda jal upalabdh hai..[38][39][36]

tharmo-aayonik prakriya

October 2009 mein, ek Canadai farm, saaltavarks technology ne ek prakriya ki ghoshana ki jisme aayonik karant utpann karne ke liye saur taapeeya ya anya tharmal heet ka prayog kiya jaata hai jo paani se saare sodiym aur kloreen aayan sokh leta hai.[40]

vartamaan ikaaiyaan aur nirmaanaadheen ikaaiyaan

Abu Dhabi, sanyukt arab ameeraat

  • taaveelaah A1 power aur diselineshan sanyantr prati din 385 million liter svachh paani ka utpaadan karta hai.
  • umm al naar diselineshan sanyantr prati din 394 million liter svachh paani ka utpaadan karta hai.
  • fujairah F2, jo July 2010 tak poora hoga, ki prati din ki paani utpaadan kshamata 492 million liter hogi (130 million gailan).[41]

arooba

arooba ke dweep par vishaal diselineshan sanyantr hai jiski kul sthaapit kshamata prati din 42000 meetrik tan (11.1 million gailan ya 42 x 103 m3) hai.[42]

Australia

paani ke upayog mein vruddhi tatha kam varsha ke sanyojan ne ne Australia mein raajya sarkaar ko kai diselineshan sanyantr banaane ke liye majaboor kar diya hai, jisme haal hi mein Sydney kshetr mein sthaapit karnel diselineshan sanyantr bhi shaamil hai. jabki diselineshan raajya sarkaaron dvaara paani ki aapoorti surakshit karne ke liye apnaaya gaya hai, yeh oorja ki atyadhik khapat (~$ 140 oorja ki maang/mi.li.) karta hai aur Australia ke koyala aadhaarit oorja utpaadan ke kaaran atyadhik kaarban utsarjit karta hai.

saaipras

saaipras mein bhi diselineshan sanyantr hain, jinme se ek larnaaka shahar ke paas hai.[43] yeh dhekeliya diselineshan sanyantr kahalaata hai, jo rivers osmosis pranaali ka prayog karta hai.[44]

ijraayal

ijraayal mein hadera si jal rivers osmosis (esadablyooaarao (SWRO)) diselineshan sanyantr duniya mein apni tarah ka sabse bada sanyantr hai.[45][46] pariyojana ko teen antararaashtreeya companiyon ke samooh : veoliya jal, aaideei teknolojis tatha elaraan dvaara beeoti (BOT) (nirmaan-sanchaalan-hastaantaran) ke roop mein viksit kiya gaya tha.[47]

(| claas = "wikitable sortable" |+ ijaraayali paani ki maujooda diselineshan ikaaiyaan[48]

|-
! sthaan udghaatan!! kaaryakshamata 
mln m3/varsh)!! kaaryakshamata
(million gailan/din)!! kaaryakshamata
(megaaleetar)!! paani ki laagat (prati m3)!! nots |- | ashkalon || August 2005 || 111 (2008 tak)|| 83.2 || 315 || NIS 2.60 ||[49] |- | paalmaachim || May 2007 || 30 (45 tak vistaar ki yojana banaai gayi hai[50])|| 32.6 || 123.4 || NIS 2.90 ||[51] |- | hadera || December 2009 || 127 || 91.9 || 349 || NIS 2.60 ||[52] |}
sthaan udghaatan kaaryakshamata
(mln m3/varsh)
paani ki laagat (prati m3) nots
ashadod 2012 100 (150 tak vistaar sambhav hai) NIS 2.55 [53][54]
sorek 2013 150 (300 tak vistaar ke liye anumodit hai) NIS 2.01-2.19 [55]

Britain

bektan diselineshan sanyantr

Britain mein pehla jal diselineshan sanyantr, thems diselineshan sanyantr,[56] ekiona ekva dvaara thems ke jal ke liye bektan, poorvi London mein banaaya gaya hai.

sanyukt raajya America

L paaso (Texas) diselineshan sanyantr

khaare bhoojal ka upachaar L paaso sanyantr mein 2004 ke aaspaas kiya gaya. rivers osmosis dvaara prati din 27.5 million gailan (104000 ghan meter) taaje paani ka upachaar karke (kul taaje paani ke utpaadan ka lagbhag 25%), yeh paani par atyadhik nirbhar shahar mein paani ki aapoorti mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan karta hai.[57]

tempa be diselineshan pariyojana

tempa be diselineshan pariyojana moolat: peesaaidan risorses netrutv mein niji udyam tha. yeh pariyojana udyam mein peesaaidan risorses ke kramik bhaageedaaron ston end vebastar, iske baad kovaanta (poorv mein ogden ke naam se jaani jaati thi) tatha iske pramukh upathekedaar haaidraanautiks ke divaaliyepan ke kaaran vilanbit hui. S end dablyoo vaatar elaelasi ke maadhyam se peesaaidan ki ston end vebastar ke saath June 2000 mein sambandh samaapt ho gaya jab ston end vebastar ko divaaliya ghoshit kar diya gaya tatha peesaaidan risorses ne S end dablyoo vaatar elaelasi mein ston end vebastar ki hissedaari khareed li. peesaaidan risorses ne sangh ke naam ko tempa be desal ke roop mein parivrtit karte hue 2001 mein kovaanta va haaidraanautiks ke saath bhaageedaari ki. kovaanta dvaara pariyojana ka nirmaan poora karne mein akshamata ke kaaran, 15 May 2002 ko tempa be vaatar agency peesaaidan se pariyojana khareedne aur apni kredit rating ke tahat pariyojana vittaposhan karne ke liye majaboor ho gayi. iske baad tempa be vaatar ne kovaanta tempa construction ke saath anubandh kiya, jiske parinaamasvaroop aisi pariyojana ka nirmaan hua jo pradarshan pareekshanon par khari naheen utari. October 2003 mein kovaanta tempa construction ki mool company ne tempa be vaatar ke saath anubandh khone se bachane ke liye divaaliyepan ki yaachika daayar ki. iske baad naveekaran karne se pehle kovaanta tempa ne divaaliyepan ki yaachika daayar ki jo anubandh ke samjhauton ke anusaar ki gayi thi. iske parinaamasvaroop kovaanta tempa construction aur tempa be vaatar ke beech chhah maheene tak mukdama chala. 2004 mein, tempa be vaatar ne sanyantr ko iske mool, pratyaashit design ke anusaar banaane ke liye ek naveekaran team, American vaatar/ekiona ekva ko kiraae par liya. aisa maana gaya tha ki 2007 tak sanyantr poori tarah se kaam karega[22] aur ise prati din 25 million gailan ki adhiktam kshamata par chalne ke liye design kiya gaya.[58] baavajood iske, sanyantr mein samasyaaen jaari hain jisse 2009 mein iski utpaadan kshamata is maatra ki lagbhag aadhi (14 million gailan prati din ya 42 eef / din) rah gayi.[59]

yuma disaalting plant (erijona)

yuma disaalting sanyantr 1974 ke Colorado rivr besin lavanata niyantran adhiniyam ke adhikaar ke tahat veltan-mohaavk sinchaai se krushi mein prayukt bache hue khaare paani tatha jile se hone waali khaare paani ki nikaasi ke upachaar ke liye banaaya gaya tha. iska uddeshya upachaarit paani ko Mexico ko hone waali jal aapoorti mein sammilit karna hai taaki meed jheel mein aavashkataanusaar jal ka sanrakshan ho sake. sanyantr ka nirmaan 1992 mein poora kiya gaya aur yeh tab se do avsaron par sanchaalit hua hai. sanyantr ko banaae rakha gaya hai, lekin bade paimaane par aavashyakta se adhik kharch tatha Colorado nadi mein paani ki saamaanya aapoorti sthitiyon ke kaaran sanchaalit naheen kiya gaya hai.[60] April 2010 mein southern nevaada vaatar othoriti, metropolitan vaatar distrikt of southern keliforniya, sentral erijona project tatha you.S. bureau of riklaameshan ke beech ek saal ki badi pariyojana ke roop mein sanyantr ko chalaane ki laagat par ek samjhauta hua.[61]

Trinidad end Tobago

Trinidad aur Tobago ganaraajya diselineshan ka upayog dweep ki jal aapoorti ko peene laayak banaane ke liye kar raha hai. yeh diselineshan ikaai March 2003 mein kholi gayi aur yeh apni tarah ki pehli maani jaati hai. yeh America ki sabse badi diselineshan ikaai hai aur prati din 28.8 million gailan paani ka upachaar karegi aur prati 1000 gailan paani ko $ 2.67 ke moolya par bechegi.[62] yeh ikaai Trinidad ke point liss industrial estate mein sthit hogi, ek aisa sthaan jahaan 12 se adhik companiyaan vibhinn prakaar ke nirmaanon aur prakriyaaon mein lagi hui hain tatha isse desh ke kaarkhaanon tatha nivaasiyon, donon tak paani ki pahunch sulabh ho jaaegi.[63]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • lavanata niyantran
  • mruda lavanata
  • mitti diselineshan model
  • mruda lavanata aur bhoojal model

sandarbh

nots

  1. "diselineshan" (paribhaasha), the American heritej science dikshaneri, haufatan mifin company, ke dvaara dictionary.com. 19-08-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  2. "Australia eds China in vautar management project." peepals daily online, 03-08-2001, ke dvaara english.people.com.cn. 19-08-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  3. Fischetti, Mark (September 2007). "Fresh from the Sea". Scientific American (Scientific American, Inc.) 297 (3): pp. 118–119. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0907-118. http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=fresh-from-the-sea. abhigman tithi: 2008-08-03 not: onali the first too pairaagraafs aar avelebal on-line for no chaarj.
  4. aplaus, eight laast, for diselineshan plant, the tribyoon, 22 December 2007
  5. kaithreen krainhold, vautar, vautar, evareeveyar..., the Wall street journal, 17 January 2008
  6. srot: vautar-technology.net
  7. haamed, usmaan A. (2005). "ovaravyoo of haaibrid diselineshan sistams - kareint status end future prospekts." diselineshan, 186, 207-214.
  8. mishra, bi.M. (B.M.), J. kupitj. (2004). "the rol of nyookliyr diselineshan in meeting potebal vautar needs in vautar skers area in the next dikeds." diselineshan, 166, 1-9.
  9. http://gift.kisti.re.kr/GTB/infoboard/download.jsp?down_url=data/file/GTB/shleegift/shleegift_1198793876096.doc&cn=GTB2007120672
  10. nyookliyr diselineshan. 07/01/2010 ko pun:praapt.
  11. ludavig, haainj. (2004). "haaibrid sistams in diselineshan - practical design espekts, preseint status end develapameint parsapektivs." diselineshan, 164, 1-18.
  12. how eyarakraaft kairiyrs varks
  13. "Nuclear Desalination". World Nuclear Association. January 2010. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf71.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-02-01.
  14. baarlo, maud aur toni kalaark, "ho ons vautar?" the nation, 02-09-2002, ke maadhyam se thenation.com. 20/08/2007 ko pun:praapt.
  15. jhoaa, yuaan aur richrd S.J. tolb. "diselineshan aur paani ke parivhan ki laagat ka moolyaankan." (kaarya kaagaj). Hamburg vishvavidyaalaya mein ek website ke maadhyam se. 09-12-2004. 20-08-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  16. sitban, shirli. "isaraail mein fraanseesi-run vaitar plant praarambh." yooropiyn juish press, ejpress.org ke maadhyam se, 28-12-2005. 20-08-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  17. "black end vech dijaind diselineshan plant vins global vautar distinkshan." (press release). black end vech limited., edie.net ke maadhyam se, 04-05-2006. 20-08-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  18. http://www.water-technology.net/projects/perth/
  19. "Sydney diselineshan plant too double in saaij," ABC (ABC) news (Australian braudakaasting kaurporeshan), abc.net.au ke maadhyam se, 25-06-2007. 20-08-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  20. Michael suliven dvaara Australia tarns too diselineshan aur enarji rikvari ink. dvaara peeeks (PX) preshar eksacheinjar enarji rikvari divaais. N invaairanmentali green plant design. maurning sanskaran, naishanal pablik radio, 18 June 2007
  21. faikt sheets
  22. a aa http://www.tampabaywater.org/watersupply/tbdesalhistory.aspx
  23. haaidro-elkemi, Forbes, 9 May 2008
  24. otaava studeint mein hold seekret too vautar for all, globe end mel, 5 June 2008
  25. the erid vest-wear vautar is skeyars - diselineshan-a groing vautar saplaai sors, laaibreri soochakaank
  26. http://www.desalresponsegroup.org/files/RiverkeepervEPA1-25-07_decision.pdf
  27. upaadhirhit
  28. glik, pitr H., daana haasj, kristin henges-jek, vina shreenivsan, Gary volf, Cathrine kaao krashing aur amaradeep maan. (November 2003). "vest not, vaant not: the poteinshiyl for urban vautar kanjrveshan in California." (website) paisifik instityoot . 20-09-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  29. kooli, Heather, Peter H. glik aur Gary volf. (June 2006.) "diselineshan, vith a gren of sault - ek California pariprekshya." (website) paisifik instityoot . 20-09-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  30. glik, Peter H., Heather kooli, David grovs. (September 2005.) "California vautar 2030: ek kushal bhavishya." (website) paisifik instityoot . 20-09-2007 ko pun:praapt.
  31. http://www.sunbeltwater.com/docs.shtml Sun Belt Inc. kaanooni dastaavej
  32. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Public Affairs (2006-05-18). Nanotube membranes offer possibility of cheaper desalination. press release. http://www.llnl.gov/pao/news/news_releases/2006/NR-06-05-06.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-07.
  33. baayomimetik membren for vautar diselineshan
  34. samudra-jal vilvaneekaran mein mahatvapoorn praudyogiki dvaara team ne $4m jeeta$, the strets times, 23 June 2008
  35. jal praudyogiki ki nai vilvaneekaran karne ke liye ek raaijing taaid, emaesaenabeesi (MSNBC), 17 March 2009
  36. a aa Sistla, Phanikumar V.S.; et al. "Low Temperature Thermal DesalinbationPLants". International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. http://www.isope.org/publications/proceedings/ISOPE_OMS/OMS%202009/papers/M09-83Sistla.pdf. abhigman tithi: 22 June 2010.
  37. diselineshan: duniya ke sabse pehle kam taapamaan ke tharmal diselineshan plant ko Bhaarat ne udghaatan kiya
  38. floting sanyantr, Bhaarat
  39. mobile diselineshan sanyantr, Bhaarat
  40. vartamaan soch, 29 October 2009, arthashaastri
  41. http://www.pump-zone.com/global-news/global-news/abu-dhabi-to-build-three-power-and-water-desalination-plants-by-2016-to-meet-demand.html
  42. dablyoo.i.bi. (W.E.B.) arooba N.vi. (N.V.) - paani ke sanyantr
  43. [1]
  44. [2]
  45. ijaraail is nan. 5 on top 10 kleenatek list in ijaraail 21c a focus biyaund 21-12-2009 ko pun:praapt
  46. eshkelan diselineshan plant sivautar rivers osmosis (esadablyooaarao (SWRO)) plant
  47. A shkelan diselineshan plant - ek safalapoorvak chunauti
  48. pablik-private paartanaraship projekts, lekhaakaar saarvalaukik, vitt mantraalaya
  49. vautar-technology.net:"eshkelan diselineshan plant sivautar rivers osmosis (esadablyooaarao (SWRO)) plant, ijaraail"
  50. Euro-medeetereniyn vautar infaurmeshan system (iemadablyooaaies (EMWIS)):"ijaraail: faainains sekyord for palmchim diselineshan eksapainshan", 19 August 2009
  51. benaami blaugar "ijaraayali vautar engineer":"ijaraayal ke diselineshan udyog", 6 September 2007
  52. globs vyaapaar aur praudyogiki samaachaar:"funding agreed for ekspainding hadera diselineshan plant", 6 November 2009
  53. diselineshan end vautar riyuj:"spainish/Israeli jevi (JV) avaurded eshdaud diselineshan kauntrekt", 24 November 2009
  54. globas bijnis end technology news:"mekorot, gavarnameint niyr diselineshan vautar price kaumpromais", 20 June 2010
  55. diselineshan end vautar riyuj:"aaideei (IDE) riported winner of sorek diselineshan kauntrekt", 15 December 2009
  56. thems vautar diselineshan plant: vautar-technology.net
  57. http://www.epwu.org/water/desal_info.html
  58. http://www.tampabaywater.org/facilities/desalination_plant/index.aspx
  59. http://www.tampabay.com/news/environment/water/article984409.ece
  60. yuma diselting plant" yu.S. bureau of riklemeshan, 1 May 2010
  61. [3]"a fresh vautar staart for yuma diselting plant" loss Angeles times, 1 May 2010.
  62. http://www.bizjournals.com/boston/stories/1999/10/04/story7.html"
  63. http://www.waterindustry.org/New%20Projects/ionics-2.htm"

aage padhein

anuchhed

baahari links