vikipeediya:shreni

vikipeediya ke lekh kai shreniyon mein vibhaajit hain. kuchh shreniyaaain milkar ek oopari shreni ke antargat aa sakti hain. aur is tarah shreniyon ka ek vruksh ban jaata hai. shreni ke sambandh mein nimnalikhit baatein mahattvapoorn hain:

  • prushthon par seedhe-seedhe harek sambhav shreni taaaink dena theek naheen hai. unhein kisi shaakha ki sabse sainkari kintu uchit shreni mein hi daalna chaahiye. arthaat yadi koi lekh shreni "k" ki kisi upashreni ke liye (ya upashreni ki upashreni ke liye) jainchata hai to use seedhe-seedhe "k" mein na daalkar us upashreni mein daala jaana chaahiye aur "k" mein naheen daalna chaahiye.
  • kisi bhi lekh mein koi gair-maujood shreni taaainkakar naheen chhod deni chaahiye (yaani shreni ki laal kadi kabhi naheen aani chaahiye). ya to aisi shreni ko bana diya jaana chaahiye ya fir us link ko hata dena chaahiye, ya sudhaarakar kisi maujood shreni ke link mein badal dena chaahiye.
  • ek prushth par shreniyaaain kis kram mein aayein ispar koi akela niyam naheen hai (udaaharan ke liye, ise varnamaala kram mein hona jaroori naheen hai, haalaaainki jahaaain koi kram na ho pa raha ho, to varnamaala kram behtar hai). saamaanyat: sabse zaroori aur saarthak shreniyaaain sabse pehle aati hain. yadi kisi lekh mein usi naam ki ya milte-julate naam ki shreni ho, to vah shreni sabse pehle aani chaahiye. jaise angreji vikipeediya par George Orwell lekh mein Category:George Orwell anya saari shreniyon se pehle aayi hai.
  • mool prushth ki tarah kisi punarnirdesh prushth ko bhi shreneebaddh (categorize) kiya ja sakta hai, basharte uske mool prushth ka naam us shreni mein aana jyaada na jainchata ho. jaise- yadi british kaaleen bhaarateeya nagar shreni mein Kolkata likhna theek naheen hoga, kyonki us samay is shahar ka naam yeh naheen tha. at: Calcutta hi likha jaayega, jo Kolkata ko punarnirdeshit hoga. jabki Bhaarat ke mahanagar shreni mein yahi lekh apne Kolkata naam ke saath aa sakta hai.
  • shreniyaaain isliye banaayi jaati hain ki paathak jude hue lekhon ko dhooaindhane va unamein bhraman karne mein suvidha paayein. kisi bhi lekh ko unheen shreniyon mein rakhana chaahiye, jinke liye yeh sabse jyaada sambhav ho ki us lekh ka naam sahi-sahi yaad na hone par koi paathak khangaalane ke liye us shreni mein jaayega. kisi lekh ki shreniyaaain uske vishay ke maulik lakshanon par tatha uske paribhaashi lakshanon (defining features) par aadhaarit honi chaahiye; jaise raashtreeyata ya ullekhaneeya pesha (logon ke maamale mein), sthiti ya kshetr ka prakaar (sthaanon ke maamale mein) ityaadi.
  • kabhi bhi sanyogavash dikhne vaale lakshanon ya aise lakshanon jo drushtikon par aadhaarit hon, par shreniyaaain naheen baaaintani chaahiye.
  • nayi shreni banaane se pehle yeh pakka kar lein ki vaisi koi shreni kisi aur naam se pehle se to maujood naheen hai. yeh kaarya in tareekon se kiya ja sakta hai:
    • pehle se maujood kuchh pratinidhi prushth (yaani shreni ke ang banane laayak prushth) dekhkar,
    • sambhaavit oopari shreniyon mein dhooaindhakar, ya
    • sarchabauks mein shreni: shabd ke saath sambhaavit naam ke pehle kuchh akshar type karke.
  • shreni ko hataaya, naamaantarit athva vilay bhi kiya ja sakta hai. parantu yeh kaarya paryaapt sochavichaar ke baad ya charcha karke hi kiya jaana chaahiye.
    • shreni prushthon ko seedhe sthaanaantarit karne se unamein shreneebaddh prushth nai shreni mein apne-aap naheen judte. unhein ek-ek karke puraani shreni se hataakar nai shreni mein daalna padta hai. aisa karne mein baut sahaayak hote hain.
    • shreniyon ko hataane par jo bhi prushth hataai gayi shreni mein the, un sab pe us shreni ki laal kadi dikhne lagti hai. at: shreni hataane se pehle usamein shreneebaddh sabhi prushthon ko usamein se hataaya jaana chaahiye.
    • shreniyaaain vilay karne ke liye ek shreni ko doosari shreni par punarnirdeshit karna padta hai aur usamein vidyamaan sabhi prushthon ko doosari shreni mein daalna padta hai. ve apne-aap ek shreni se doosari shreni mein naheen jaate.
  • jab ek shreni ko doosari ki upashreni banaana ho to pehle sunishchit kar lein ki pehli shreni ke avayav lekhon ko doosari shreni mein hone ki sahaj hi aasha ki jaati ho (thode bahut apavaad hon to chalega). is tarah shreni-upashreni ki janjeer mein chakr naheen banana chaahiye. agar do shreniyaaain bahut ghanishth sambandh rakhati hon lekin unamein upasamuchchaya ka sambandh na ho (yaani ek mein doosari theek se shaamil na hoti ho) to upashreni banaane ke bajaay oopari shreni prushth ke paath mein hi nichhli shreni ki kadi dena kaafi hai.

shreni ka upashaakhan (ya upashreniyon mein baaaintana)

  • haalaaainki shreni ke aakaar ke baare mein koi seema nishchit naheen hai, fir bhi badi shreniyon ko todkar praay: chhoti aur spashtatar shreniyon mein upashaakhit kiya jaata hai. jaise- Europe ki nadiyaaain shreni ko upashreniyon jaise- albaaniya ki nadiyaaain, Germany ki nadiyaaain aadi mein baaainta ja sakta hai.
  • ek shreni ko ek saath kai saari upashaakhan paripaatiyon dvaara baaainta ja sakta hai. aisi sthiti mein paripaati k aur paripaati kh se praapt upashreniyon ko seedhe us shreni mein na rakhakar pehle pratyek paripaati ke liye ek dhaarak shreni bana lete hain, aur un dhaarak shreniyon ko oopari shreni mein rakh dete hain. jaise- Bhaarat ke shahar shreni mein shaharon ka vibhaajan janasankhya ke aadhaar par bhi kiya ja sakta hai, unke prakaarya (mukhya peshe) ke aadhaar par bhi. aise mein Bhaarat ke shahar shreni mein janasankhya ke aadhaar par bhaarateeya shahar aur prakaarya ke aadhaar par bhaarateeya shahar naam ki upashreniyaaain hongi aur fir - janasankhya ke aadhaar... mein 1 karod se adhik janasankhya vaale shahar, 10 lakh se adhik janasankhya vaale shahar aadi upashreniyaaain hongi.
isi prakaar prakaarya ke aadhaar... mein prashaasanik shahar, dhaarmik mahattv ke shahar, audyogik shahar aadi upashreniyaaain hongi.
  • kisi shreni ko kin aadhaaron par upashreniyon mein baaainta gaya hai, yeh baat uske shreni prushth par likhi ja sakti hai.
  • kisi shreni ka aanshik upashaakhan bhi kiya ja sakta hai- yaani kuchh avayav lekh usaki upashreniyon mein hon, aur kuchh mukhya shreni mein hi hon.

saaainche dvaara shreneekaran

  • kai saaainchon mein bhi unke traansklyoodebal paath mein shreneebaddh karne ka code paaya jaata hai, jiska matlab hai ki jin prushthon par bhi ve saaainche honge ve sabhi us shreneevishesh mein shaamil ho jaayeinge. is takaneek ka upayog kuchh prashaasanik saaainchon mein kiya jaata hai- jaise aadhaar shreni ya rakharakhaav shreniyon mein.
  • yeh salaah di jaati hai ki saaainchon dvaara shreneebaddh karne ki is takaneek ka prayog saadhaaran saamagri shreniyon mein naheen kiya jaana chaahiye. iske bahutere kaaran hain - sampaadak vikitekst mein shreni naheen dekh paayeinge; shreni ko hataana ya usaki punarrachana kathintar ho jaayega (anshataya aisa isliye ki svachaalit prakram kaam naheen kareinge); ek shreni se asangat lekh ya gair-lekh prushth judne ka khatra bana rahata hai; us prushth par shreniyon ka kram se rakhana kam niyantrit rah jaata hai: aur "incategory" khojashabd dvaara aise prushth naheen mileinge.
  • jab prashaasanik shreniyaaain jodne ke liye saaainchon ka prayog kiya jaata hai tab dhyaan rakhein ki us code se arthaheen athva avidyamaan shreni na ban jaaye, khaaskar tab jabki shreni ka naam kisi praachal (pairaameetar) se nirdhaarit hota ho. saath hi kuchh prushthon par saaaincha-janit shreneebandhan se bachane ke liye kaitegari sappreshan (category suppression) ka prayog bhi kiya ja sakta hai.