vikipeediya:pramukh lekh/puraalekh/2009

10. sookshmajaiviki (16 January 2009)

सूक्ष्मजीवों से स्ट्रीक्ड एक अगार प्लेट
sookshmajaiviki un sookshmajeevon ka adhyayan hai, jo ekakoshikeeya ya sookshmadarsheeya koshika-samooh jantu hote hain. inmein yookairyots jaise kavak evam protist, aur prokairyots, jaise jeevaanu aur aarkiya aate hain. vishaanuon ko sthaayi taur par jeev ya praani naheen kaha gaya hai, fir bhi isi ke antargat inka bhi adhyayan hota hai. sankshep mein sookshmajaiviki un sajeevon ka adhyayan hai, jo ki nagn aaainkhon se dikhaai naheen dete hain. sookshmajaiviki ati vishaal shabd hai, jismein vishaanu vigyaan, kavak vigyaan, parajeevi vigyaan, jeevaanu vigyaan, va kai anya shaakhaaeain aateen hain. sookshmajaiviki mein tatpar shodh hote rahate hain evam yeh kshetr anvarat pragati par agrasar hai. abhi tak humne shaayad poori pruthvi ke sookshmajeevon mein se ek pratishat ka hi adhyayan kiya hai. haaainlaaainki sookshmajeev lagbhag teen sau varsh poorv dekhe gaye the, kintu jeev vigyaan ki anya shaakhaaon, jaise jantu vigyaan ya paadap vigyaan ki apeksha sookshmajaiviki apne ati praarambhik star par hi hai. vistaar se padhein...

11. prakaash-sanshleshan (4 March 2009)

हरी पत्तियाँ प्रकाश संश्लेषण का प्रधान अंग हैं।
sajeev koshikaaon ke dvaara prakaasheeya oorja ko raasaayanik oorja mein parivrtit karne ki kriya ko prakaash sanshleshan (fotosinthesis) kehte hai. prakaash sanshleshan vah kriya hai jismein paudhe apne hare rang vaale angon jaise patti, dvaara soorya ke prakaash ki upasthiti mein vaayu se kaarbanadaaioksaaid tatha bhoomi se jal lekar jatil kaarbanik khaadya padaarthon jaise kaarbohaaidrets ka nirmaan karte hain tatha aakseejan gas (O2) baahar nikaalate hain. prakaash sanshleshan ki prakriya mein soorya ke prakaash ki upasthiti mein paudhon ki hari pattiyon ki konshikaaon ke andar kaarban daaiaaksaaid aur paani ke sanyog se pehle saadhaaran carbohydrate aur baad mein jatil kaabohaaidret ka nirmaan hota hai. is prakriya mein aakseejan evam oorja se bharpoor carbohydrate (sookroj, glookoj, staarch (mand) aadi) ka nirmaan hota hai tatha aakseejan gas baahar niklati hai. jal, kaarbanadaaioksaaid, soorya ka prakaash tatha klorofil (haritlavak) ko prakaash sanshleshan ka avayav kehte hain. vistaar se padhein...

12. rangoli (1 May 2009)

रंगोली पर सजे दीप।
rangoli Bhaarat ki praacheen saanskrutik parampara aur lok-kala hai. har pradesh mein iska bhinn naam aur shaili ho sakti hai lekin mool bhaavana aur sanskruti bahut milti julati hai. yeh ise vividhta deti hai aur iske vibhinn aayaamon ko bhi pradarshit karti hai. ise saamaanyat: tyohaar, vrat, pooja, utsav vivaah aadi shubh avsaron par sookhe aur praakrutik rangon se banaaya jaata hai. ismein saadhaaran jyaamitik aakaar ho sakte hain ya fir devi devataaon ki aakrutiyaaain. inka prayojan sajaavat aur sumangal hai. inhein praay: ghar ki mahilaaeain banaati hain. vibhinn avsaron par banaai jaane waali in paaramparik kalaakrutiyon ke vishay avsar ke anukool alag-alag hote hain. iske liye prayog mein laae jaane vaale paaramparik rangon mein pisa hua sookha ya geela chaaval, sindoor, roli, haldi, sookha aata aur anya praakrutik rango ka istemaal kiya jaata hai par raasaayanik rangon ka prayog bhi hone laga hai. vistaar se padhein...

13. ganga nadi (June 2008)

रंगोली पर सजे दीप।
Bhaarat ki sabse mahattvapoorn nadi ganga, jo Bhaarat aur Bangladesh mein milaakar 2,510 kimi ki doori tay karti hui uttaraanchal mein himaalaya se lekar Bengal ki khaadi ke sundaravan tak vishaal bhoo bhaag ko seenchati hai, desh ki praakrutik sanpada hi naheen, jan jan ki bhaavanaatmak aastha ka aadhaar bhi hai. 2,071 ki.mi tak Bhaarat tatha uske baad Bangladesh mein apni lambi yaatra karte hue yeh sahaayak nadiyon ke saath das lakh varg kilometer kshetrafal ke ati vishaal upajaaoo maidaan ki rachana karti hai. saamaajik, saahityik, saanskrutik aur aarthik drushti se atyant mahattvapoorn ganga ka yeh maidaan apni ghani janasankhya ke kaaran bhi jaana jaata hai. 100 feet (31 mi) ki adhiktam gaharaai waali yeh nadi Bhaarat mein pavitra maani jaati hai tatha iski upaasana maaain aur devi ke roop mein ki jaati hai. bhaarateeya puraan aur saahitya mein apne saundarya aur mahatva ke kaaran baar-baar aadar ke saath vandit ganga nadi ke prati videshi saahitya mein bhi prashansa aur bhaavukataapoorn varnan kiye gaye hain. vistaar se padhein...

14. Africa (September 2009)

ड्रेकेन्सबर्ग पर्वत।
afreeka Asia ke baad vishv ka sabse bada mahaadveep hai. yeh 37014' uttari akshaansh se 34050' dakshini akshaansh evam 17033' pashchimi deshaantar se 51023' poorvi deshaantar ke madhya sthit hai. Africa ke uttar mein bhoomadhyasaagar evam Europe mahaadveep, pashchim mein andh mahaasaagar, dakshin mein dakshin mahaasaagar tatha poorv mein arab saagar evam hind mahaasaagar hain. poorv mein svej bhoodamaroomadhya ise Asia se jodta hai tatha svej nahar ise Asia se alag karti hai. jibraaltar jaladamaroomadhya ise uttar mein Europe mahaadveep se alag karta hai. is mahaadveep mein vishaal marusthal, atyant ghane van, vistrut ghaas ke maidaan, badi-badi nadiyaaain va jheelein tatha vichitr jangali jaanavar hain. mukhya madhyaahn rekha (00) Africa mahaadveep ke Ghana desh ki rajdhani akra shahar se hokar gujarati hai. yahaaain serenageti aur krujar raash‍aatreeya udyaan hai to jalaprapaat aur varshaavan bhi hain. vistaar se padhein...

15. koshikeeya shvasan (November 2009)

आक्सी श्वसन का क्रिया स्थल माइटोकान्ड्रिया
sajeev koshikaaon mein bhojan ke aakseekaran ke falasvaroop oorja utpann hone ki kriya ko koshikeeya shvasan kehte hain. yeh ek ketaabolik kriya hai, jo aakseejan ki upasthiti ya anupasthiti donon hi avasthaaon mein sampann ho sakti hai. is kriya ke dauraan mukt hone waali oorja ko ATP naamak jaiv anu mein sangrahit karke rakh liya jaata hai, jiska upayog sajeev apni vibhinn jaivik kriyaaon mein karte hain. yeh jaiv-raasaayanik kriya paudhon evam jantuon donon ki hi koshikaaon mein din-raat har samay hoti rahati hai. koshikaaeain bhojya padaarth ke roop mein glookoj, ameeno aml tatha vaseeya aml ka prayog karti hain jinko aakseekrut karne ke liye aakseejan ka parmaanu ilektraan grahan karne ka kaarya karta hai. koshikeeya shvasan evam shvaas kriya mein abhinn sambandh hai evam ye donon kriyaaeain ek-doosare ki poorak hain. vistaar se padhein...