vikipeediya:pramukh lekh/puraalekh/2008

4. rakshaabandhan (January 2008)

राखियाँ जिन्हें रक्षाबंधन के अवसर पर बहनें भाई के हाथ में बांधती हैं

rakshaabandhan ek bhaarateeya tyauhaar hai jo shraavan maas ki poornima ke din manaaya jaata hai. saavan mein manaae jaane ke kaaran ise saavani ya saloono bhi kehte hain. rakshaabandhan mein raakhi ya rakshaasootr ka sabse adhik mahatva hai. raakhi kachche soot jaise sasti vastu se lekar rangeen kalaave, reshami dhaage, tatha sone ya chaandi jaisi manhagi vastu tak ki ho sakti hai. raakhi saamaanyat: bahanein bhaai ko baandhati hain parantu braahamanon, guruon aur parivaar mein chhoti ladkiyon dvaara sammaanit sanbandhiyon (jaise putri dvaara pita ko) bhi baandhi jaati hai. kabhi kabhi saarvajanik roop se kisi neta ya pratishthat vyakti ko bhi raakhi baandhi jaati hai.

prakruti sanrakshan ke liye vrukshon ko raakhi baandhane ki parampara ka bhi praarambh ho gaya hai aur raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh ke purush sadasya paraspar bhaaichaare ke liye ek doosare ko bhagava rang ki raakhi baandhate hain. rakshaasootr baandhate samay aachaarya ek shlok ka uchchaaran karte hain, jismein rakshaabandhan ka sambandh raaja bali se spasht roop se drushtigochar hota hai. yeh shlok rakshaabandhan ka abheesht mantra hai. shlok mein kaha gaya hai ki jis rakshaasootr se mahaan shaktishaali daanavendr raaja bali ko baandha gaya tha, usi rakshaabandhan se main tumhein baandhata hoon jo tumhaari raksha karega. sampoorn lekh padhein…

5. holi (April 2008)

होली के अवसर पर गुलाल से रंगीन चेहरा।
holi vasant ritu mein manaaya jaane wala ek mahatvapoorn bhaarateeya tyohaar hai. yeh parv hindu panchaang ke anusaar faalgun maas ki poornima ko manaaya jaata hai. rangon ka tyohaar kaha jaane wala yeh parv paaramparik roop se do din manaaya jaata hai. pehle din ko holika jalaayi jaati hai, jise holika dahan bhi kehte hai. doosare din, jise dhuraddi, dhuleindi ya dhoolivandan kaha jaata hai, log ek doosare par rang, abeer-gulaal ityaadi feinkate hain, dhol baja kar holi ke geet gaaye jaate hain, aur ghar-ghar ja kar logon ko rang lagaaya jaata hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki holi ke din log puraani katuta ko bhool kar gale milte hain aur fir se dost ban jaate hain. ek doosare ko rangane aur gaane-bajaane ka daur dopahar tak chalta hai. iske baad snaan kar ke vishraam karne ke baad nae kapde pahan kar shaam ko log ek doosare ke ghar milne jaate hain, gale milte hain aur mithaaiyaaain khilaate hain. raag-rang ka yeh lokapriya parv vasant ka sandeshavaahak bhi hai. raag arthaat sangeet aur rang to iske pramukh ang hain hi, par inko utkarsh tak pahuainchaane waali prakruti bhi is samay rang-birange yauvan ke saath apni charam avastha par hoti hai. faalgun maah mein manaae jaane ke kaaran ise faalguni bhi kehte hain. holi ka tyohaar vasant panchami se hi aarambh ho jaata hai. sampoorn lekh padhein…



6. paryatan bhoogol (June 2008)

vaaskodagaama.
paryatan bhoogol ya bhoo-paryatan, maanav bhoogol ki ek pramukh shaakha hain. is shaakha mein paryatan evam yaatraaon sambandhit tatvon ka adhyayan, bhaugolik pahaluon ko dhyaan me rakhakar kiya jaata hai. national jiyogrefik ki ek paribhaasha ke anusaar kisi sthaan aur uske nivaasiyon ki sanskruti, suruchi, parampara, jalavaayu, paryaavaran aur vikaas ke svaroop ka vistrut gyaan praapt karne aur uske vikaas mein sahayog karne vaale paryatan ko "paryatan bhoogol" kaha jaata hai. bhoo paryatan ke anek laabh hain. kisi sthal ka saakshaatkaar hone ke kaaran tatha usase sambandhit jaankaari anubhav dvaara praapt hone ke kaaran paryatak aur nivaasi donon ka anek prakaar se vikaas hota hain. paryatan sthal par anek prakaar ke saamaajik tatha vyaapaarik samooh milkar kaam karte hain jisse paryatak aur nivaasi donon ke anubhav adhik praamaanik aur mahattvapoorn ban jaate hai. bhoo paryatan paraspar ek doosare ko soochana, gyaan, sanskaar aur paranparaaon ke aadaan-pradaan mein sahaayak hota hai, isse donon ko hi vyaapaar aur aarthik vikaas ke avsar milte hain, sthaaneeya vastuon kalaaon aur utpaad ko nae baajaar milte hain aur maanavata ke vikaas ki dishaaeain khulati hain saath hi bachchon aur parijanon ke liye sachchi kahaaniyaaain, chitr aur filmein bhi milti hain jo paryatak apni yaatra ke dauraan banaate hain. vistaar se padhein...

7. premachand (July 2008)

प्रेमचंद
premachand (31 July 1880 - 8 October 1936) ke upanaam se likhne vaale dhanapat rai hindi aur urdoo ke mahaanatam bhaarateeya lekhakon mein se ek hain. unhein munshi premachand va navaab rai naam se bhi jaana jaata hai aur upanyaas samraat ke naam se sammaanit kiya jaata hai. is naam se unhein sarvapratham Bengal ke vikhyaat upanyaasakaar sharatachandr chattopaadhyaaya ne sambodhit kiya tha. premachand ne hindi kahaani aur upanyaas ki ek aisi parampara ka vikaas kiya jis par poori shati ka saahitya aage chal saka. isne aane waali ek poori peedhi ko gaharaai tak prabhaavit kiya aur saahitya ki yathaarthavaadi parampara ki neev rakhi.

unka lekhan hindi saahitya ek aisi viraasat hai jiske bina hindi ka vikaas sambhav hi naheen tha. ve ek safal lekhak, deshbhakt naagrik, kushal vakta, jimmedaar sampaadak aur samvedansheel rachanaakaar the. beesaveen shati ke poorvaardh mein jab hindi mein kaam karne ki takaneeki suvidhaaeain naheen theen itna kaam karne wala lekhak unke siva koi doosra naheen hua. unke rachana karm ne anek paravarti lekhakon ko disha pradaan ki. vistaar se padhein...


8. deharaadoon jila (September 2008)

देहरादून जिला।
deharaadoon, Bhaarat ke uttaraakhand raajya ki rajdhani hai iska mukhyaalaya deharaadoon nagar mein hai. is jile mein 6 tahaseelein, 6 saamudaayik vikaas khand, 17 shahar aur 764 gaaainv hain jo aabaad hain. iske atirikt yahaaain 18 gaaainv aise bhi hain jahaaain koi naheen rahata. desh ki rajdhani se 230 kilometer door sthit is nagar ka gauravashaali pauraanik itihaas hai. praakrutik saundarya se bharpoor yeh nagar anek prasiddh shiksha sansthaanon ke kaaran bhi jaana jaata hai. yahaaain tel evam praakrutik gas aayog, sarve of India, bhaarateeya petrolium sansthaan aadi jaise kai raashtreeya sansthaan tatha van anusandhaan sansthaan, bhaarateeya raashtreeya militri kaalej aur Indian militri ekedami jaise kai mahattvapoorn shikshan sansthaan hain. yeh ek prasiddh paryatan sthal hai. apni sundar drushyaavali ke kaaran deharaadoon paryatakon, teerthayaatriyon aur vibhinn kshetr ke utsaahi vyaktiyon ko apni or aakarshit karta hai. vishisht baasamati chaaval, chai aur leechi ke baag iski prasiddhi ko aur badhaate hain tatha shahar ko sundarata pradaan karte hain. vistaar se padhein...

9. maleriya (November 2008)

मलेरिया फैलाने वाली मादा एनोफ़िलीज़ मच्छर
maleriya vaahak-janit sankraamak rog hai jo protojoaa parajeevi dvaara failata hai. yeh mukhya roop se America, Asia aur Africa mahaadveepon ke ushn tatha uposhn katibandhi kshetron mein faila hua hai. pratyek varsh yeh 51.5 karod logon ko prabhaavit karta hai tatha 10 se 30 lakh logon ki mrutyu ka kaaran banta hai jinmein se adhiktar up-sahaara Africa ke yuva bachche hote hain. maleriya ko aamtaur par gareebi se jod kar dekha jaata hai kintu yeh khud apne aap mein gareebi ka kaaran hai tatha aarthik vikaas ka pramukh avarodhak hai. maleriya sabse prachalit sankraamak rogon mein se ek hone ke saath hi bhanyakar jan svaasthya samasya hai. yeh rog plaasmodiym gan ke protojoaa parajeevi ke maadhyam se failata hai. keval chaar prakaar ke plaasmodiym parajeevi manushya ko prabhaavit karte hai jinmein se sarvaadhik khatarnaak plaasmodiym failseepairam tatha plaasmodiym vivaiks maane jaate hain, saath hi plaasmodiym ovel tatha plaasmodiym maleriya bhi maanav ko prabhaavit karte hain. vistaar se padhein...