vikipeediya:hindi mein saamaanya galatiyaaain

saamaanya jeevan mein, computer, intaranet tatha chitthon par hindi mein vartani sambandhi anek galatiyaaain dekhi jaati hain. ashuddh vartani bhaasha ki sundarata ko kharaab karti hai. isaliye is lekh mein hindi mein ki jaane waali saamaanya galatiyon ke baare mein bataaya gaya hai.

taaiping ki galatiyaaain

ye ve ashuddhiyaaain hain jo aamtaur computer athva anya kampyooting divaaison par taaiping ke dauraan hoti hain. angreji mein is prakaar ki ashuddhiyon ko taaipo kaha jaata hai. kai baar to in par taaipakarta ka dhyaan naheen jaata, kai baar dhyaan jaane par bhi aalasyavash vah najaraandaaj kar deta hai. ek anya kaaran yeh bhi hai ki kai baar taaipakarta ko prayog kiye ja rahe taaiping aujaar dvaara vah varn ya chinh type karne ka tareeka pata naheen hota. aisa suvidha ke chakkar mein, kisi chinh ko type karne ka sahi tareeka na jaanane ke kaaran athva chinh vishesh ko type karne ki sulabhata upalabdh na hone ke kaaran hota hai.

fulastaup tatha poornaviraam ki galati

computer par tankan ke samay adhiktar log aalasyavash ya varn ko type karne ka tareeka na jaanane/sulabh na hone ke kaaran poornaviraam (.) ke sthaan par fulastaup (.) ka prayog karte hain. poornaviraam ke sthaan par fulastaup ka prayog karne se devanaagari ki sundarata bhi prabhaavit hoti hai tatha kampyooting mein anya jatiltaayein bhi aati hain. [1][2]

viraam chihnon se pehle space dene ki galati

hindi mein kisi bhi viraam chinh yatha poornaviraam, prashnachihn aadi se pehle space naheen aata. aajkal kai mudrit pustakon, patrikaaon mein aisa hone ke kaaran log aisa hi type karne lagte hain jo ki galat hai. kisi bhi viraam chinh se pehle space naheen aana chaahiye.[3]

fulastaup tatha laaghav chinh ki galati

angreji mein sankshepeekaran (abbreviation) ke liye fulastaup ka prayog kiya jaata hai, hindi mein is kaarya ke liye laaghav chinh (॰) hota hai. praay: yeh chinh keebord par sulabh na hone se log iske sthaan par fulastaup ka hi prayog kar lete hain jabki vah ashuddh hai.

is chinh ko type karne ka saralatam tareeka hai ki kisi bhi vard prosaisar mein iske yoonikod koot 0970 ko type karein tatha use salaikt karke Alt-X daba dein, vah laaghav chinh mein badal jaayega.

udaaharan: sahi - Dr॰ Rajendra prasaad, galat - Dr. Rajendra prasaad, sahi - ऍm॰ A॰, galat - ऍm. A.

hindi shoonya ank ka chinh (0, yoonikod koot 0966) bhi isse milta-julata hone se kai baar log galati se laaghav chinh ki jagah hindi ke shoonya ank ka prayog kar lete hain. inmein antar ye hai ki ek to laaghav chinh shoonya se chhota hota hai doosra shoonya jahaaain kshaitij rup se pankti ke madhya mein hota hai, laaghav chinh kshaitij rup se neeche ki taraf hota hai.

poornaviraam tatha double dande ki galati

kai log jaankaari ke abhaav mein sanskrut mein shlokon ke ant mein likhe jaane vaale double dande ke sahi chinh (.) ke sthaan par do poornaviraam (..) daal dete hain. sahi chinh daalne hetu yadi aapke taaiping aujaar mein ye chinh na ho to kisi bhi vard prosaisar mein iske yoonikod code 0965 ko type karein tatha use salaikt karke Alt-X daba dein, vah double dand chinh mein badal jaayega.

vaakya-ant hetu poornaviraam/dand (. - U0964) nirdhaarit hai. pairaagraaf-ant (chhand) hetu double-dand (. - U0965) nirdhaarit hai, jiska saamaanyata kavita/padya mein tukabandi ke ant mein (paira ke ant mein hota hai.), kintu pratyek pairaagraaf ke ant mein double dand type kiya jaae to paath adhik vaigyaanik aur takaneeki roop se parishuddh hoga.[4]

kaulan tatha visrg ki galati

kai baar taaipakarta visrg (:) ke sthaan par usase milte julate chinh kaulan (:) ko type kar dete hain jo ki sarvatha ashuddh hai. maanak hindi keebord inaskript mein visrg shift ke saath - kunyaji dabaakar praapt kiya ja sakta hai. anya vikalp ke taur par kisi bhi vard prosaisar mein iske yoonikod code 0903 ko type karein tatha use salaikt karke Alt-X daba dein, vah visrg chinh mein badal jaayega.

dashamlav chinh tatha ful-stop ki galati

kai baar taaipakarta dashamlav chinh (.) ke sthaan par usase milte julate chinh fulastaup () ko type kar dete hain jo ki sarvatha ashuddh hai. in donon ka antar dekhna ho to donon ko kisi vard prosaisar mein type kar faunt saaij bahut bada karke dekhein.

dashamlav chinh ke liye Middle Dot (U00B7) ka prayog kiya jaana chaahiye jo Numerical Keypad mein Del key ke oopar hai. jabki Full stop ke liye sirf (U002E) code nirdhaarit hai.[5]

vartani ki galatiyaaain

panyachamaakshar ki galatiyaaain

panyachamaaksharon ke niyam ka sahi gyaan na hone se bahudha log inke aadhe aksharon ki jagah aksar 'n' ka hi galat prayog karte hain jaise 'pandit' ke sthaan par 'pandit', 'vindoj' ke sthaan par 'vindoj', 'chanyachal' ke sthaan par 'chanchal' aadi. ye adhiktar ashuddhiyaaain 'nya' tatha 'n' ke sthaan par 'n' ke prayog ki hoti hain.

niyam: varnamaala ke har vyanyajan varg ke pehle chaar varnon ke pehle yadi anusvaar ki dhvani ho to us varg ka paaainchava varn aadha (halant) hokar lagta hai. arthaat kavarg (k, kh, g, gh, ङ) ke pehle chaar varnon se pehle aadha (ङ), chavarg (ch, chh, j, jh, nya) ke pehle chaar varnon se pehle aadha nya (nya), tavarg (t, th, d, dh, n) ke pehle chaar varnon se pehle aadha n (n), tavarg (t, th, the, dh, na) ke pehle chaar varnon se pehle aadha na (n) tatha pavarg (p, f, b, bh, m) ke pehle chaar varnon se pehle aadha m (m) aata hai. udaaharan:

  • kavarg - paङakaj, gaङaga
  • chavarg - kunyaji, chanyachal
  • tavarg - vindoj, printar
  • tavarg - kunti, shaanti
  • pavarg - parampara, sambhav

aadhunik hindi mein panyachamaaksharon ke sthaan par suvidha hetu keval anusvaar ka bhi prayog kar liya jaata hai yadyapi yeh devanaagari ki sundarata ko kam karta hai. jaise: panyakaj - pankaj, shaanti - shaanti, parampara - parampara. visheshakar nya tatha ka prayog kaafi kam ho gaya hai.

vikipeediya ki parampara ke anusaar sanskrut, dharm tatha bhaarateeya sanskruti sambandhi lekhon mein panyachamaaksharon ka prayog hona chaahiye jabki vigyaan, ganit, takaneek aadi sambandhi lekhon mein saralata hetu aadhunik hindi ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai. haaain lekh ke sheershak (naam) ko shuddh uchchaaran tatha vartani ki drushti se panyachamaakshar mein rakha jaaya, chaahe vah kisi bhi vishay se sambandhit ho. khoj tatha punarnirdeshan hetu aadhunik vartani vaale naam ko paaramparik (shuddh) panyachamaakshar vaale sheershak par punarnirdeshit kar dena chaahiye taaki shuddh uchchaaran evam vartani rahe. udaaharan ke liye pandit ko pandit par punarnirdeshit kiya jaana chaahiye.

aagat dhvani "o" athva iski maatra (au) ke baad shuddh vartani ka prayog hi upayukt hai kyonki usamein anusvaar ki bindi dikhaayi naheen deti. udaaharan - faunt (bindi dikhti naheen, taikst saaij kaafi bada karne par dikhegi) ke sthaan par faunt upayukt hai. isi prakaar doosari aagat dhvani "ऍ" tatha iski maatra (ai) ke baad bhi anusvaar ki bindi ya to dikhti naheen ya chandrabindu ka bhram hota hai at: iske sthaan par bhi shuddh vartani ka prayog hi upayukt hai. udaaharan - ऍnd ke sthaan par ऍnd upayukt hai.

panyacham varn ki sandhi se banane vaale sanyuktaaksharon mein baad wala varn "ङ" tatha "nya" ke neeche lagta hai. is prakaar banane vaale sanyuktaaksharon ko mangal aadi adhiktar yoonikod faunt sahi prakaar se naheen dikha paate, baayeen taraf dikhaate hain. sanskrut 2003 naamak yoonikod faunt aise sanyuktaaksharon ko sahi prakaar se pradarshit karta hai. udaaharan - gaङaga ka sahi rup गंगा.JPG hai.

angreji shabdon ko hindi mein likhne par hone waali galatiyaaain

o ki galatiyaaain

lekhan ki galati: 'o' tatha 'ऍ' ye donon aagat dhvaniyaaain kahi jaati hain jo ki hindi mein videshi bhaashaaon visheshakar angreji se aayi hain. inka upayog angreji ki do vishisht dhvaniyon ke liye hota hai. 'o' ki dhvani 'O' tatha 'au' ke lagbhag beech ki hai, udaaharan: boss (Boss), haut (Hot) aadi.

bahudha log saamaanya lekhan mein bhi tatha computer paऱ tankan me bhi 'au' (o ki maatra) ke sthaan par 'a' (aa ki maatra) likh dete hain. aisa do kaaranon se hai ek to videshi dhvaniyaaain hone se bhaarateeya kai baar inhein aatmasaat naheen kar paate aur doosra computer par taaiping aujaar mein 'o' (athva iski maatra) ka chinh sulabh na hone se. kai baar taaiping aujaar mein sulabh hone par bhi log aalasyavash 'aa' ki hi maatra laga dete hain.

haalaaainki kuchh shabd aise hain jinke hindi mein 'aa' vaale rup bhi prachalit hain jaise daaktar (Doctor se bana) tatha kaalej (college se bana). in maamalon mein 'aa' wala rup bhi chal jaata hai kyonki inka 'aa' wala uchchaaran bhi prachalit hai, yadyapi 'o' wala hi likhna behtar hai. lekin jin shabdon ke uchchaaran mein keval 'o' ki hi dhvani ho unhein 'aa' rup mein likhna bilkul galat hai. udaaharan ke liye intaranet par 'blog' ko bahudha galat rup se 'blaag' likh diya jaata hai yadyapi 'blaag' bolata koi naheen.

uchchaaran ki galati: chooainki 'o' videshi dhvani hai isaliye kai bhaarateeya ise aatmasaat naheen kar paate tatha 'o' vaale shabdon ka uchchaaran 'aa' ki tarah karte hain. udaaharan ke liye 'all' ke sthaan par 'aal', 'olaso' ke sthaan par 'aalaso', 'baudi' ke sthaan par 'baadi' aadi.

ऍ ki galatiyaaain

aagat dhvani 'ऍ', 'A' tatha 'ai' ke lagbhag beech ki hai, udaaharan 'jaik' (Jack), 'maik' (Mac). hindi mein aamtaur par iske liye niktatam varn 'ai' ka upayog kar liya jaata hai jaise 'jaik' ki bajaay 'Jack' aadi. yeh itna ashuddh naheen lekin 'ऍ' ki maatra ke sthaan par 'A' ki maatra ka upayog sarvatha anuchit hai tatha devanaagari ki dhvanyaatmakata gun - uchchaaran aur lekhan ki samarupata ke viruddh hai. is tarah ke galat prayog ke udaaharan hain 'raid' (Red) ke sthaan par 'red' likhna jo ki Raid ka sahi lekhan hai. isi prakaar 'taist' (Test) ke sthaan par 'test' likhna jo ki Taste ka sahi lekhan hai, 'gaist' (Guest) ke sthaan par 'guest' jo ki galat hai.

ek anya ashuddhi jo ki print media mein dekhne ko milti hai - 'ऍ' ke sthaan par 'a' ke oopar 'ai' chinh laga varn. aisa varn yoonikod faunt mein banaana sambhav naheen hai lekin naun-yoonikod faunt mein ban jaata hai. aisi galati aam taur par 'ऍ' se shuru hone vaale varnon mein dikhaayi deti hai.

anusvaar tatha anunaasik ki galatiyaaain

bahudha anusvaar (n) ke sthaan par anunaasik (ain) tatha anunaasik (ain) ke sthaan par anusvaar (n) likh diya jaata hai. visheshakar anunaasik ke sthaan par anusvaar ko likhe jaane ki galati adhik prachalit hai aur ise ek prakaar ki aghoshit sveekruti bhi mil gayi hai. kuchh udaaharan hain, hansana ke sthaan par hainsana, painkh ke sthaan par pankh aadi.[6]

in donon ke antar ko spasht karne ke liye bahudha hans (hansana kriya wala) tatha hains (pakshi) ka udaaharan diya jaata hai. anusvaar tatha anunaasik ke upayog sambandhi jaankaari yahaaain dekhein.

nukte ki galatiyaaain

urdoo se hindi mein liye gaye shabdon mein nukta lagaaya jaata hai. iske atirikt angreji aadi videshi bhaashaaon ke kuchh shabdon mein bhi nukte ka upayog hota hai. nukta bhaasha vishesh ki sahi dhvani ko prakat karta hai lekin hindi mein likhte samay praay: kai baar log nukta lop kar dete hain.[7] yadyapi ise gambheer galati naheen maana jaata. nukta chhod dena vishesh notice naheen kiya jaata lekin jahaaain nukta na lagana ho vahaaain laga dena ajeeb lagta hai jaise 'fal' ke sthaan par 'fl' tatha 'fir' ke sthaan par 'fir' saraasar galat hai.

bevajah nukta lagaane ka ek kaaran taaiping sambandhi bhi hai. udaaharan ke liye barah aaiऍmai naamak aujaar se type karte samay 'F' kunyaji dabaane se 'f' chhapata hai jabki 'f' ke liye 'P+H' dabaana padta hai. isaliye kai log aalasyavash 'F' dvaara 'f' likhne ko hi aadat bana lete hain.

kai baar nukta aparihaarya bhi ho sakta hai. ek udaaharan dekhein: angreji ke varn 'G' ka uchchaaran hai 'ji', tatha 'Z' ka uchchaaran (ameriki) hai 'ji'. in donon ke uchchaaran ka antar nukte bina spasht naheen ho sakta.

ek anya sujhaav yeh diya jaata hai ki jahaaain arth badalne ki aashanka ho, vaheen nukta jaise vikshiptikaarak ka prayog kiya jaae. jahaaain bina nukte ke arth sahi samjha ja sake, vahaaain bina nukte ke kaam chalaaya jaana chaahiye.

nukte ke baare mein ek saamaanya niyam yaad rakha jaana chaahiye - haaain par nukte ke prayog ke vishay mein shanka ho, vahaaain nukte ka prayog na karein. 'zaroorat' ke sthaan par 'jaroorat' chal jaaega, par 'majaboori' ke sthaan par 'majboori' naheen. nukte ke sahi prayog hetu yeh lekh dekhein.

shuddh-ashuddh shabdakosh

hindi mein bahut se shabd hain jinki vartani aam taur par galat likhi jaati hai. ye vartaniyaaain print media mein maujood hone se aam aadmi inhein hi sahi samajhne lagta hai. uparokt mukhya lekh mein is prakaar ke shabdon ki soochi di gayi hai.

uchchaaran ki galatiyaaain

vyanyajanon ka ashuddh uchchaaran

k --> kai, kh --> khai aadi

s, sh tatha sh ka ashuddh uchchaaran

kai log 'sh' tatha 'sh' ka uchchaaran bhi 's' ki tarah hi karte hain jaise 'english' ko 'ingalis' bolna, 'shadayantr' ko 'sadayantr' bolna aadi.

ri ka ashuddh uchchaaran

'ri' ka uttar Bhaarat mein uchchaaran 'ri' ki tarah tatha dakshin Bhaarat mein 'Ru' ki tarah hota hai. iska sahi uchchaaran kaalakram mein lupt ho chuka hai.[8]

jnya ka ashuddh uchchaaran

'jnya' ka Bhaarat ke vibhinn hisson mein uchchaaran bhinn-bhinn tareeke se hota hai, uttar Bhaarat ke hindi bhaasha kshetron mein praay: iska uchchaaran 'gya' ki tarah kiya jaata hai. iska sahi uchchaaran bhi vartamaan mein lupt ho chuka hai.[9]

ksh ka ashuddh uchchaaran

aajkal 'ksh' ka uchchaaran 'chh' ki tarah aam taur par sunane ko milta hai jaise 'kshatriya' ko 'chhatriya' bolna.

ङ ka ashuddh uchchaaran

praay: panyachamaaksharon se aparichit log 'ङ' ka uchchaaran 'd' ki tarah karte hain.

aadhe aksharon ka poore aksharon ki tarah uchchaaran

kuchh log kuchh shabdon mein aane vaale aadhe aksharon (halant yukt) ka poore aksharon ki tarah uchchaaran karte hain. udaaharan ke liye 'prashn' ka uchchaaran 'prashan' ki tarah, 'mahatva' ka uchchaaran 'mahatav' ki tarah, 'prayatn' ka uchchaaran 'prayatan' ki tarah aadi.

galat arth mein prayukt hone vaale shabd

kai aise shabd hain jinka arth to kuchh aur tha lekin ve galat arth samajhe jaane se bhinn arth mein prayukt hone lage hain. udaaharan ke liye khilaaft ka arth "khleefa ka pad aur usaki satta" hota hai lekin aam janta jismein padhe-likhe patrakaar bhi shaamil hain, khilaaft ko mukhaalift (virodh) ke arth mein hi dhadlle se istemaal kar rahe hain.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain