vikipeediya:aaj ka aalekh - puraalekh/2010/December

1 December 2010

भारतीय रुपये का आधिकारिक प्रतीक-चिह्न
bhaarateeya rupaya Bhaarat ki raashtreeya mudra hai. iska baajaar niyaamak aur jaareekarta bhaarateeya rijrv bank hai. naye prateek chinh ke aane se pehle roopaye ko hindi mein darshaane ke liye 'Ru' aur angreji mein Re. (1 rupaya), Rs., aur Rp. ka prayog kiya jaata tha. aadhunik bhaarateeya rupaye ko 100 paise mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. sikkon ka moolya 5, 10, 20, 25 aur 50 paise hai aur 1, 2, 5 aur 10 rupaye bhi. bainkanot 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 aur 1000 ke moolya par hain. Bhaarat ke adhikaansh bhaagon mein rupaye ko in naamon se jaana jaata hai: hindi mein rupaya, gujaraati (રaaૂaaપaaિaaયaaો) mein rupiyo, telugu (రaaూaaపaaాaaయaaి), tuloo bhaasha (ರaaೂaaಪaaಾaaಯaaಿ) aur kannad (ರaaೂaaಪaaಾaaಯaaಿ) mein roopaai, tamil (ரaaூaaபaaாaaயaa்) mein rubaai, malayalam (രaaൂaaപ) mein roopa, maraathi (rupaye) mein rupaye ya sanskrut se nikle anya shabd jaise roopyakam, roopyakan ityaadi.[1] sanskrut mein raupya ka arth hota hai chaaaindi; roopyakan ka arth hota hai chaaaindi ka sikka. haalaanki pashchim Bengal, tripura, mijoram, udeesa, aur asam mein rupaye ko aadhikaarik roop se sanskrut ke tanak naam se jaana jaata hai. isliye rupaye ko bangaali mein taka (টaaাaaকaaা), asamiya mein toka (টaaকaaা), aur udiya mein tanka (ଟaaଙaa୍aaକaaା) ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur roman akshar 'T' se bhaarateeya bainkanoton mein darshaaya jaata hai. vistaar mein...

2 December 2010

सैक्रामेन्टो का ध्वज
saikraamento, sanyukt raajya America ke kailiforniya raajya ki rajdhani hai. yeh nagar kailiforniya ki sarkaar aur vidhaanamandal ka gruh-nagar hai. yahaaain ki anumaanit janasankhya 4,50,000 (2007) se adhik hai. iske atirikt iske aaspaas ke kshetron mein (upanagaron mein) 17 lakh ke lagbhag log aur rahate hai. 2004 mein time patrika ne is nagar ko sanraaamerika ke sabse vividh nagar ka darja diya tha.[1] saikraamento shabd speni aur purtagaali bhaashaaon se aaya hai jiska arth hota hai pavitra vidhiyaaain. saikraament ek prakaar ka dhaarmik anushthaan hai jisse logon ko ishvareeya prem praapt hota hai. saikraamento ki sthaapana 1848 mein John suttar dvaara ki gayi thi. yeh sthaan kailiforniya ki svarn hod (the gold rash) ke dauraan bahut mahatvapoorn tha. svarn hod vah samay tha jab kailiforniya mein sone ki khoj hui. bahut se log sona paane ki laalasa mein kailiforniya aae. us samay mein, saikraamento vah sthaan tha jahaaain par relamaarg ka ant hota tha. isi sthaan par pauni eksapes ka antim station tha. vistaar mein...

3 December 2010

बांजुल किंग फ़हद मस्जिद और उसका परिवेश
baanjul (bhootapoorv baatharst), jiska aadhikaarik naam baanjul nagar hai, afreeka mahaadveep ke gaambiya ki rajdhani, jo usi naam ke vibhaag mein sthit hai. baanjul nagar ki janasankhya maatr 34,828 hai jabki vruhadatar baanjul kshetr, jismein baanjul nagar aur kaanifing nagarapaalika parishad sammilit hain, ki janasankhya 3,57,238 (2003 ki janaganana anusaar) hai.[1] yeh nagar seint mairi dweep (jise baanjul dweep bhi kehte hain) par sthit hai. yaheen par gaambiya nadi, andh mahaasaagar mein milti hai. yeh dweep mukhyabhoomi se uttar ki or yaatri aur vaahan naukaaon se aur dakshin ki or pul se juda hua hai. vartamaan gaambiya raashtra kabhi Ghana saamraajya aur songhaai saamraajya ka bhaag hua karta tha. is kshetr ke sambandh mein upalabdh pratham likhit pramaan 9veen aur 10veen shataabdiyon mein arab vyaapaariyon ke likhe milte hain. arab vyaapaariyon ne is kshetr mein daason, sone, aur haathi-daaaint ke vyaapaar ke liye traans-sahaara vyaapaar maarg ki sthaapana ki thi. 15veen shataabdi mein purtagaaliyo ne samudri vyaapaar maargon ki sthaapana ki. us samay gaambiya, maali saamraajya ka bhaag tha.[2] san 1816 mein angrejon ne baajunl ki sthaapana ek vyaapaar-gaah ke roop mein aur das vyaapaar ko kuchalane ke liye ki thi. iska sarvapratham naamakaran britaani aupaniveshik kaaryaalaya ke sachiv henari baatharst ke naam par baatharst hua tha, lekin 1973 mein iska naam baanjul rakh diya gaya. vistaar mein...
  1. gaambiya ke vibhaag
  2. yaatra salaah par gaambiya raashtra

4 December 2010

[[chitr: |100px|right|nityaanand svaami ]]

nityaanand svaami Bhaarat ke uttaraakhand raajya ke bhootapoorv mukhyamantri hain. unke shaasanakaal mein uttaraakhand ka naam uttaraanchal tha. ve raajya ke pratham mukhyamantri the aur unka shaasanakaal 9 November, 2000 se lekar 29 October, 2001 tak chala. inka janm 27 December, 1927 ko Haryana raajya mein hua tha, lekin unhonein apna lagbhag saara jeevan deharaadoon mein bitaaya jahaaain par unke pita bhaarateeya vaaniki sansthaan mein kaaryarat the. unka vivaah chandrakaanta svaami se hua aur unki chaar betiyaaain hain. kam aayu mein hi ve raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh ke maadhyam se bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam se jud gaye aur deharaadoon mein unhonne sthaaneeya virodhon mein bhaageedaari ki. ye peshe se ek vakeel hain, aur jan sangh se judkar unhonein sakreeya raajaneeti mein pravesh kiya. vyaavasaayik roop se vakeel, svaami ne janasangh ke antargat sakriya raajaneeti mein pravesh kiya. nityaanand pehle bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress mein gaye aur baad mein bhaarateeya janta party mein pahunche hain. vistaar mein...

5 December 2010

भारतीय वानिकी संस्थान
bhaarateeya vaaniki sansthaan, bhaarateeya vaaniki shodh aur shiksha parishad ka ek sansthaan hai aur Bhaarat mein vaaniki shodh ke kshetr mein ek pramukh sansthaan hai. yeh deharaadoon, uttaraakhand mein sthir hai. iski sthaapana 1906 mein ki gayi thi aur yeh apne prakaar ke sabse puraane santhaanon mein se ek hai. 1991 mein ise vishvavidyaalaya anudaan aayog dvaara deemd vishvavidyaalaya ghoshit kar diya gaya.[1] bhaarateeya vaaniki sansthaan 4.5 kimee² ke kshetrafal mein faila hua hai, baahari himaalaya ki niktata mein. mukhya bhavan ka vaastushilp yoonaani-roman aur aupaniveshik shaili mein bana hua hai. yahaaain prayogashaalaaeain, ek pustakaalaya, vanaspatiya-sangraah, vanaspati-vaatika, mudran - yantr, aur prayogik maidaani kshetr hain jinpar vaaniki shodh kiya jaata hai. iske sangrahaalaya, vaigyaanik jaankaari ke atirikt, paryatakon ke liye aakarshan bhi hai. efaaraaai aur college area praangan ek janaganana kshetr hai, uttar mein deharaadoon chhaavani aur dakshin mein bhaarateeya sainya academy ke beech. tons nadi iski pashchimi seema banaati hai. deharaadoon ke ghantaaghar se is sansthaan ki doori lagbhag 7 kimi hai. vistaar mein...

6 December 2010

बाबा फकीर चंद
Baba fakeer chand (18 November, 1886 - 11 September, 1981) surat shabd yog arthaat mrutyu anubhav ke sachet aur niyantrit anubhav ke saadhak aur bhaarateeya guru the.[1] [2] [3] ve santamat ke pehle guru the jinhonne vyakti mein prakat hone vaale alaukik roopon aur unki nishchitta ke chha jaane vaale us anubhav ke baare mein baat ki jismein us vyakti ko chaitanya avastha mein iski koi jaankaari naheen thi jiska kaheen roop prakat hua tha. ise amareeka ke kaileeforniya mein darshanashaastr ke professor Dr. David si. len ne nai shabdaavali 'chandiyn prabhaav' ke roop mein vyakt kiya aur ullekh kiya. [4] [5] raadhaasvaami mat sahit nae dhaarmik aandolanon ke shodhakarta mark jyargansameyer ne fakeer ka saakshaatkaar liya jisne fakeer ke antartam ko ujaagar kiya. yeh saakshaatkaar fakeer ki aatmakatha ka ansh bana.[6] vistaar mein...
  1. the ananoing sej-life end vark of Baba fakeer chand.prushth 20.27 September, 2009
  2. the ananoing sej-life end vark of Baba fakeer chand.prushth 5.22 September, 2009
  3. chand.html. Baba fkeerachand, avekand teechars foram, abhigman tithi 2009-09-12, bhaasha angreji}}
  4. pru.5.abhigman tithi: 22 September, 2009
  5. chand.html "Baba fakeer chand" (angreji mein). avekand teechars forum. http://www.enjalafaayar.com/reealm/bodhisttv/baba chand.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-12.
  6. p.69. abhigman tithi 2009-10-31

7 December 2010

कन्नड़ का द्विभाषी पट्ट
kannad (ಕaaನaa್aaನaaಡ Kannaḍaa, [ˈaakʌaanːaaəaaɖaaa]) ya kainadeej[1] Bhaarat ke Karnataka raajya mein bole jaanevaali bhaasha hai aur Karnataka ki raajabhaasha hai. yeh Bhaarat ke sabse zyaada prayog ki jaane waali bhaashaaon mein se ek hai. 4.50 karod log kannad bhaasha prayog karte hain.[2] ye bhaasha enkaarta ke anusaar vishv ki sarvaadhik boli jaane waali 30 bhaashaaon ki soochi mein 27vein sthaan par aati hai.[3] ye Dravid bhaasha-parivaar mein aati hai par ismein sanskrut se bhi bahut shabd hain. kannad bhaasha istemaal karanevaale isko vishvaas se 'sirignnad' bolte hain. kannad bhaasha kuchh 2500 saal se upayog mein hai. kannad lipi kuchh 1900 saal se upayog mein hai. kannad anya Dravid bhaashaaon ki tarah hai. telugu, tamil aur malayalam is bhaasha se miltejulate hai. sanskrut bhaasha se bahut prabhaavit hui yeh bhaasha mein sanskrut mein se bahut saare shabd vahi arth se upayog kiya jaata hai. kannad Bhaarat ki 22 aadhikaarik bhaashaaon mein se ek hai.[4] vistaar mein...
  1. [1].[jaimini Bhaarat: prasiddh kannad kaavya, anuvaad evam teeka sahit (1852)].[2010-11-13].
  2. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; census naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. 1 karod se adhik logon dvaara boli jaane waali bhaashaaen. enkaarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
  4. "Karnataka aadhikaarik bhaasha adhiniyam" (PDF). sansadeeya maamalon evam vidhi ka aadhikaarik jaalasthal. Karnataka sarkaar. http://dpal.kar.nic.in/26%20of%201963%20(E).pdf. abhigman tithi: 29 July 2007.

8 December 2010

ओड़िया लिपि
odiaa udiya ya odiya (ଓaaଡaa଼aaିaaଆ, oṛaaiā odiaa) Bhaarat ke Orissa praant mein boli jaane waali bhaasha hai. yeh yahaaain ke raajya sarkaar ki raajabhaasha bhi hai. bhaashaai parivaar ke taur par odiaa ek aarya bhaasha hai aur nepaali, baangla, asamiya aur maithili se iska nikat sambandh hai. odisa ki bhaasha aur jaati donon hi artho mein udiya shabd ka prayog hota hai, kintu vaastav mein theek roop "odiya" hona chaahiye. iski vyutpatti ka vikaasakram kuchh vidvaan is prakaar maanate hain : odravishya, odravish, odish, aadisha ya Orissa. sabse pehle bharat ke naatyashaastr mein udravibhaasha ka ullekh milta hai. iski lipi ka vikaas bhi naagari lipi ke samaan hi braahmi lipi se hua hai. antar keval itna hai ki naagari lipi ki oopar ki seedhi rekha udiya lipi mein vartul ho jaati hai aur lipi ke mukhya ansh ki apeksha adhik jagah gher leti hai. vidvaanon ka kehna hai ki udiya mein pehle taalapatr par lauh lekhani se likhne ki reeti prachalit thi aur seedhi rekha kheenchne mein taalapatr ke kat jaane ka dar tha. at: seedhi rekha ke badle vartul rekha di jaane lagi aur udiya lipi ka kramash: aadhunik roop aane laga. vistaar mein...

9 December 2010

कर्नाटक की विधान सौध
Karnataka (kannad: ಕaaರaa್aaನaaಾaaಟaaಕ,uchchaaran [kəaaɾaaˈaanɑaaːaaʈaaəaakɑaaː]), jise karnaatak bhi kehte hain, dakshin Bhaarat ka ek raajya hai. is raajya ka srujan 1 November, 1956 ko raajya punarsangathan adhiniyam ke adheen kiya gaya tha. moolat: yeh Mysore raajya kahalaata tha, aur 1973 mein ise punarnaamakaran kar Karnataka naam mila tha. Karnataka ki seemaaen pashchim mein arab saagar, uttar pashchim mein goaa, uttar mein Maharashtra, poorv mein Andhra pradesh, dakshin-poorv mein tamil naadu evam dakshin mein Kerala se lagti hain. raajya ka kul kshetrafal 74,122 varg meal (1,91,976 ki.mi.²) hai, jo Bhaarat ke kul bhaugolik kshetr ka 5.83% hai. yeh raajya aathavaan sabse bada raajya hai aur ismein 29 jile hain. raajya ki aadhikaarik aur sarvaadhik boli jaane waali bhaasha hai kannad. haalaanki Karnataka shabd ke udgam ke kai sandarbh hain, fir bhi unamein se sarvaadhik sveekaarya tathya hai ki Karnataka shabd ka udgam kannad shabd karu, arthaat kaali ya oonchi aur naadu arthaat bhoomi ya pradesh ya kshetr se aaya hai, jiske sanyojan karunaadu ka poora arth hua kaali bhoomi ya ooncha pradesh. kaala shabd yahaan ke bayaaluseem kshetr ki kaali mitti se aaya hai aur ooncha yaani dakkhan ke pathaari bhoomi se aaya hai. british raaj mein yahaan ke liye kaarnetik shabd prayog kiya gaya hai, jo Krishna nadi ke dakshini or ki praayadveepeeya bhoomi ke liye prayog kiya gaya hai, aur Karnataka shabd ka apabhransh hai. vistaar mein...

10 December 2010

मोबाइल कंप्यूटर
mobile kanpyooting ek saamaanya shabd hai jo gatisheel avastha mein praudyogiki ka upayog karne ki kshamata ka varnan karta hai, portebal computer ke theek vipreet, jo keval tabhi prayog mein laaye ja sakte hain jab unhein sthir avastha mein rakha jaae.[1] mobile kanpyooting mein saamaanyataya yaatra ke dauraan Internet prayog ke liye kai takaneekon ko samaahit kiya jaata hai. notabuk computeron se lekar blackberry aur aaifon tak aur saadhaaran mobile phone upakaranon, jaise parsanal digital esisteint (peedeee) ke maadhyam se mobile kanpyooting kaafi prayog mein hai. mobile, laptop aur notabuk computer mein yaatra ke samay do tarah ki betaar yaani wireless ekses seva ka prayog sambhav hai. adhiktam hone waali aur sabse sasti seva vaaifaai hai, jiske maadhyam se ek wireless raautar ke dvaara Internet signal computer tak pahunchata hai. vaaifaai ka adhikaansh prayog saarvajanik sthaanon, jaise vimaanakshetr, companiyon, kaaryaalayon aadi mein kiya jaata hai. kintu iski kami yeh hai ki ise hautaspaut banaana hota hai aur fir use prasaaran seema ke bheetar hi seemit rakhana hota hai. vaaifaai ka vikalp ek selyular braudabaind hota hai. ismein ek mobile selyular maudam ya eyarakaard ke dvaara mobile taavaron se sampark kiya jaata hai. fir is eyarakaard ko notabuk ke PC card ya express card mein lagaaya jaata hai, jisse yaatra mein Internet ka prayog ho sakta hai. iske baad upayokta ko jahaan bhi bhi selyular seva upalabdh hoti hai, braudabaind ka signal spasht milta rahata hai. selyular braudabaind se mobile fonon ko bhi Internet signal milta hai. vistaar mein...
  1. mobile kanpyooting| Hindustan live.18 November, 2010

11 December 2010

slo food
slo food ek hai jiski sthaapana kaarlo petrini ne 1986 mein ki thi. adhikaansh logon ke anusaar slo food ki sthaapana fast food ke virodh mein hui, lekin vaastav mein is sangathan ka uddeshya kaafi vyaapak raha hai. fir bhi moolat: slo food ke sadasya siddhaant roop mein fast food ke viruddh hain. slo food moolat: tej audyogikeekaran ke kaaran masheeni hote ja rahe maanav jeevan ke virodh mein hai kyonki iske kaaran khaanapaan ki puraani anoothi paranparaaon aur khaadya padaarthon ki kai kismon ka is ke kaaran vilop hota ja raha hai.[1] slo food ka aarambh aise khaadya padaartho ke utpaadan se juda raha hai, jo na keval achhe, svachh aur uchit hon balki behatareen svaad vaale aur svaasthyavardhak bhi hon. itna hi naheen, upaj ke dauraan kaarya sthiti bhi achhi rahi ho. jaiv vividhta ka bhi ismein mahattvapoorn sthaan raha hai jisne svaad nidhi sanjone ke is kaam ko khaadya padaartho ki tamaam anoothi kismon ke sanrakshan ke prayaas mein badal diya hai. vistaar mein...
  1. slo food.Hindustan live.17 November, 2010

12 December 2010

द्विआयामी प्रोजेक्शन
saapekshikta ka siddhaant ya keval saapekshata, alabart aainstaain ke do siddhaanton ko soochit karta hai - (vishisht saapekshata) tatha (saamaanya saapekshata) ka siddhaant.[1] fir bhi kai baar saapekshikta ya riletiviti shabd ko gaileeliyn invairiyns ke sandarbh mein bhi prayog kiya jaata hai. theory of riletiviti naamak is shabd ka prayog sabse pehle san 1906 mein maiks plaink ne kiya tha. yeh angreji shabd samooh "riletiv theory" (jarman : Relativtheorie)se liya gaya tha jismein yeh bataaya gaya hai ki kaise yeh siddhaant principle of riletiviti ka prayog karta hai. isi pepar ke charcha sanbhaag mein alfred bukarar ne pratham baar "theory of riletiviti" (jarman : Relativitäatstheorie) ka prayog kiya tha.[2][3] iska pratipaadan san 1905 mein aainsteen ne apne ek shodhapatr on the ilektrodaainemiks of mooving baudeej mein ki thi. vishisht saapekshata do pariklpanaaon (pauschulets) par aadhaarit hai jo shaastreeya yaantriki (klaasikl mekainiks) ke sankalpanaaon ke viruddh (ulate) hain:
  • bhautiki ke niyam ek doosare ke saapeksh ekasamaan (yoonifaarm) gati kar rahe sabhi nirikshakon ke liye samaan hote hain. (gaililiyo ka saapekshikta ka siddhaant)
  • nirvaat mein prakaash ka veg sabhi nirikshakon ke liye samaan hota hai chaahe un sabki saapeksh gati kuchh bhi ho , chaahe prakaash ke srot ki gati kuchh bhi ho. vistaar mein...
  1. aainsteen, A (1916 (anuvaar 1920)), riletiviti: the special end general theory, new yaurk: H holt end company
  2. plaink, maiks (1906), "the mejrmeint of kaufamain on the diflektibiliti of beeta rej in deyar impaurtains faur the daayanemiks of the ilektrauns", Physikalische Zeitschrift 7: 753-761
  3. Miller, arthar, I (1981), albart aainshteens special theory of riletiviti. imarjens (1905) end arli intarpriteshan (1905-1911), reeding: edeesan-velesli, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-201-04679-2

13 December 2010

{{{4}}}
shekh abu al-faij, prachalit naam:faiji (24 September 1547, Agra–5 October, 1595, Lahore[1]) madhyakaaleen Bhaarat ka faarasi kavi tha. 1588 mein vah Akbar ka malik-ush-shu'aara (vishesh kavi) ban gaya tha.[2] faiji abul fajal ka bada bhaai tha. samraat Akbar ne use apne bete ke ganit shikshak ke pad par niyukt kiya tha. baad mein Akbar ne use apne navaratnon mein se ek chuna tha. faiji ke pita ka naam shekh mubaarak naagauri tha. ye sindh ke sivistaan, sahavaan ke nikat rel naamak sthaan ke ek sindhi shekh, shekh moosa ki paanchaveen peedhi se the.[2] inka janm Agra mein 954 hi. (1547 E.) mein hua. poori shiksha apne pita se praapt ki. shekh mubaarak sunni, shiya, mahadavi sabse sahaanubhooti rakhate the. faiji tatha abul fjl isi drushtikon ke kaaran Akbar ke raajyakaal mein sulah kul (dhaarmik sahishnuta) ki neeti ko spasht roop de sake. humaayooain ke pun: Hindustan ka raajya praapt kar lene par Iran ke anek vidvaan Bhaarat pahuainche. ve shekh mubaarak ke madarase, Agra mein bhi aae. faiji ko unke vichaaron se avagat hone ka avsar mila. vistaar mein...
  1. orsini, fraannseska (sanpa.) (2006). love in south Asia: a kalcharal hinstri. Cambridge: Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya press. pp. 112-114. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521856787. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=kWG6wH4lDqUC&pg=PT127&dq=Love+in+South+Asia:+a+cultural+history+By+Francesca+Orsini+Notes+on+Faizi&lr=&ei=-MRBS4iqFojokASYi7moAQ&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false.
  2. a aa blaukmain, H. (tr.) (1927, punarmudran 1993). the aain-A-akabari bye abul-fjl allaami, khand-1, Calcutta:the eshiyaatik society, pru. 548-50

14 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 14 December 2010

15 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 15 December 2010

16 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 16 December 2010

17 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 17 December 2010

18 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 18 December 2010

19 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 19 December 2010

20 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 20 December 2010

21 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 21 December 2010

22 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 22 December 2010

23 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 23 December 2010

24 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 24 December 2010

25 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 25 December 2010

26 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 26 December 2010

27 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 27 December 2010

28 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 28 December 2010

29 December 2010

saaaincha:aaj ka aalekh 29 December 2010

30 December 2010

गुजरात में स्थिति
kaathiyaavaad (gujaraati: કaaાaaઠaaીaaયaaાaaવaaાaaડ; uchchaaran: [kaʈaaʰaaijaʋaaaɽ]) pashchim Bhaarat mein ek praayadveepahai. ye Gujarat ka bhaag hai, jiske uttari or kachh ke ran ki nam bhoomi, dakshin aur pashchim ki or arab saagar aur dakshin-pashchim ki or kaimbe ki khaadi hai. is kshetr ki do pramukh nadiyaaain bhaadar aur shataranji hain jo kramash: pashchim aur poorv ki or bahti hain. is pradesh ka madhyavarti bhaag pahaadi hai.[1] is sthaan ka naam rajput shaasak varg ki kaathi jaati se pada hai. gurjar pratihaar shaasak mihir bhoj ke kaal mein gurja saamraajya ki pashchimi seema kaathiyaavaad aur poorvi seema Bengal ki khaadi thi. [2] haddola shilaalekhon se yeh sunishchit hota hai ki gurjar pratihaar shaasakon ka shaasan mahipaal 2 ke kaal tak bhi utkarsh par raha.kaathiyaavaad kshetr ke pramukh shaharon mein praayadveep ke madhya mein morabi Rajkot, kachh ki khaadi mein jaamanagar, khanbaat ki khaadi mein bhaavanagar madhya-Gujarat mein sureindranagar aur vadhaavan, pashchimi tat par porabandar aur dakshin mein joonaagadh hain. purtagaali upanivesh ka bhaag rahe aur vartamaan mein bhaarateeya sangh mein jude daman aur deev sangh shaasit kshetr kaathiyaavaad ke dakshini chhor par hain. somanaath ka shahar aur mandir bhi dakshini chhor par sthit hain. is mandir mein hindu dharm ke baarah jyotirlingonmein se ek jyotirling sthaapit hai. iske alaava doosra prasiddh hindu teerth dvaaraka bhi yaheen sthit hai, jahaan Bhagwan Krishna ne apni nagari basaayi thi. paalitaana prasiddh jain teertathahai jahaan parvat shikhar par sainkado mandir bane hain. vistaar mein...
  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; .E0.A4.B5.E0.A5.89.E0.A4.9F.E0.A4.B0 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. baijanaath puri (1986). the history of gurjar pratihaars. munshi raamamanoharalaal prakaashan. pa॰ xvii.

31 December 2010

गुजरात में खंभात
khanbhaat ki khaadi (poorv naam: kainbe ki khaadi) arab saagar sthit ek tikoni aakruti ki khaadi hai. yeh dakshini or arab saagar mein khulati hai. yeh bhaarateeya raajya Gujarat ke saagar tat, pashchimi Bhaarat ke shahar Mumbai aur kaathiyaavaad praayadveep ke beech mein sthit hai aur use poorv aur pashchimi, do bhaagon mein baantati hai. kendra shaasit pradesh daman aur deev ke nikat iska muhaana lagbhag 190 kilometer chauda hai, jo teevrata sahit 24 kimi tak sankara ho jaata hai. is khaadi mein saabaramati, maahi, narmada aur taapti sahit kai nadiyon ka vilay hota hai.[1] dakshin disha se dakshin pashchimi monsoon ke saapeksh iski aakruti aur iski avasthiti, iski lagbhag 10-15 meter ooainchi uthati aur pravesh karti laharon ki 6-7 nauts ki drut gati ke kaaran hai. ise shaivaal aur reteele tat nauparivhan ke liye durgam banaate hain saath hi khaadi mein sthit sabhi bandaragaahon ko laharon va nadiyon mein baadh dvaara laai gayi gaad ka baahulya milta hai. Gujarat se 4 badi, 5 madhyam, 25 chhoti evam 5 marusthaleeya nadiyaan khaadi man girti hain evam khaadi mein prativrsh 71,000 ghan mi.mi jal chhodti hain.[2] vistaar mein...