vikipeediya:aaj ka aalekh - puraalekh/2009/September

1 September 2009

“भारतीय रेल” का मुखपृष्ठ
bhaarateeya rel patrika rel mantraalaya (railway board) dvaara prakaashit maasik hindi patrika hai. is patrika ka pehla ank 15 August 1960 ko prakaashit hua tha aur is patrika ki shurooaat ke peechhe tatkaaleen rel mantri sv.shri laal bahaadur shaastri tatha babu jagajeevan Ram ka vishesh prayaas tha. is patrika ka uddeshya bhaarateeya railway mein kaaryarat logon mein saahitya ke prati ruchi badhaana, lekhakon ko protsaahit karna, bhaarateeya rel se sambandhit jaankaari aur soochanaaon ka prakaashan karna tatha hindi ka vikaas karna tha. is varsh 2009 mein yeh patrika apni gauravashaali yaatra ke svarn jayanti varsh mein pravesh kar rahi hai. beete paanch dashakon mein is patrika ne rel karmiyon ke saath anya paathak varg mein bhi apni ek vishisht pehchaan kaayam ki hai. iski saaj-sajja, vishay saamagri aur mudran mein bhi nikhaar aaya hai. iske paathakon ki sankhya mein bhi nirantar vruddhi hui hai. relon mein hindi ke prachaar-prasaar mein is patrika ka aitihaasik yogadaan raha hai. vistaar se padhein...

2 September 2009

शंकर अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय गुड़िया संग्रहालय
shankar antarraashtreeya gudiya sangrahaalaya nai Delhi mein sthit hai. is sangrahaalaya ki sthaapana mashahoor kaartoonist ke shankar pillai-(1902-1989) ne ki thi. yahaaain vibhinn paridhaanon mein saji gudiyon ka sangrah vishv ke sabse bade sangrahon mein se ek hai. yeh sangrahaalaya bahaadur shaah jafar maarg par children book trast ke bhavan mein sthit hai. is gudiya ghar ke nirmaan ke peechhe ek rochak ghatna hai. javaaharalaal Nehru jab desh ke pradhaanamantri the to desh ke prasiddh kaartoonisht ke0 shankar pillai unke saath jaane vaale patrakaaron ke dal ke sadasya the. ve har videsh yaatra mein Nehru ji ke saath jaaya karte the. kaartoonisht ke0 shankar pillai ki ruchi gudiyon mein thi. ve pratyek desh ki tarah-tarah ki gudiyaaain ekatr kiya karte the. dheere-dheere unke paas 500 tarah ki gudiyaaain ikatthi ho gain. ve chaahate the ki in gudiyon ko desh bhar ke bachche dekhein. unhonne jagah-jagah apne kaartoonon ki pradarshani ke saath-saath in gudiyon ki bhi pradarshani lagaai. vistaar se padhein...

3 September 2009

तितली
titli keet varg ka ek prachalit tatha lokapriya praani hai jo bahut sundar tatha aakarshak hoti hai. din ke samay jab yeh ek fool se doosare fool par udti hai aur madhupaan karti hai tab iske rang-birange pankh baahar dikhaai padte hain. iske shareer ke mukhya teen bhaag hain sir, vaksh tatha udar. inke do jodi pankh tatha teen jodi sandhiyukt pair hote hain at: yeh ek keet hai. iske sir par ek jodi sanyukt aaainkhe hoti hain tatha muainh mein ghadi ke spring ki tarah provosis naamak khokhali lambi sooaindnuma jeebh hoti hai jisse yeh foolon ka ras (nektar) choosati hai. ye entina ki madad se kisi vastu evam usaki gandh ka pata lagaati hai. titli ekalingi praani hai arthaat nar tatha maada alag-alag hote hain. maada titli apne ande patti ki nichli satah par deti hai. ande se kuchh dinon baad ek chhota-sa keet niklata hai jise kaitarapilr laarva kaha jaata hai. vistaar se padhein...

4 September 2009

उत्तरी मालाबार में सूर्योदय
maalaabaar Kerala raajya me avasthit pashchimi ghaat aur arab saagar ke beech bhaarateeya praayadveep ke pashchim tat ke samaanaantar ek sankeern tatavarti kshetr hai. jab s‍aavatantr Bhaarat mein chhoti riyaasaton ka vilay hua tab traavanakor tatha kocheen riyaasaton ko milaakar 1 July, 1949 ko traavanakor-kocheen raajya bana diya gaya, kintu maalaabaar Madras praant ke adheen raha. raajya punargathan adhiniyam, 1956 ke tahat traavanakor-kocheen raajya tatha maalaabaar ko milaakar 1 November, 1956 ko Kerala raajya banaaya gaya. Kerala ke adhikaansh dweep jo traavanakor-maalaabaar raajya mein aate the, ab ernaakulam jile mein aate hain. maalaabaar kshetr ke antargat parvaton ka atyadhik aardr kshetr aata hai. vaneeya vanaspati mein prachur hone ke saath-saath is kshetr mein mahatvapoorn vaanijyik fasalon, jaise naariyl, supaari, kaali mirch, kaufi, aur chai, rabad tatha kaajoo ka ut‍aapaadan kiya jaata hai. maalaabaar kshetr Kerala ka bada vyaavasaayik kshetr maana jaata hai. yahaaain uchchakoti ke kaagaj ka bhi nirmaan hota hai. vistaar se padhein...

5 September 2009

तिरूमल्लै नंबाकम वीर राघव आचार्य
raangeya raaghav (17 January, 1923 - 12 September, 1962) hindi ke un vishisht aur bahumukhi pratibhaavaale rachanaakaaron mein se hain jo bahut hi kam umr lekar is sansaar mein aae, lekin jinhonne alpaayu mein hi ek saath upanyaasakaar, kahaaneekaar, nibandhakaar, aalochak, naatakakaar, kavi, itihaasavetta tatha riportaaj lekhak ke roop mein svanya ko pratisthaapit kar diya, saath hi apne rachanaatmak kaushal se hindi ki mahaan srujanasheelata ke darshan kara diye. Agra mein janme raangeya raaghav ne hindeetar bhaashi hote hue bhi hindi saahitya ke vibhinn dharaatalon par yugeen satya se upaja mahattvapoorn saahitya upalabdh karaaya. aitihaasik aur saanskrutik prushthabhoomi par jeevaneeparak upanyaason ka dher laga diya. kahaani ke paaramparik dhaaainche mein badlaav laate hue naveen katha prayogon dvaara use maulik kalevar mein vistrut aayaam diya. riportaaj lekhan, jeevanacharitaatmak upanyaas aur mahaayaatra gaatha ki parampara daali. vishisht kathaakaar ke roop mein unki srujanaatmak sampannta premachandottar rachanaakaaron ke liye badi chunauti bani. vistaar se padhein...

6 September 2009

संयुक्त राष्ट्र खाद्य एवं कृषि संगठन का लोगो
khaadya evam krushi sangathan, sanyukt raashtra sangh ki ek vishisht sanstha hai, jo krushi utpaadan, vaaniki aur krushi vipnan sambandhi shodh vishay ka adhyayan ka kaarya tatha sambandhi gyaan aur jaankaariyon ke aadaan-pradaan karta hai. vikaasasheel deshon mein krushi ke vikaas mein iski bhoomika mahatvapoorn hai. ef.A.O vikaasasheel deshon ko badalti takaneek jaise krushi, paryaavaran, poshak tatv aur khaadya suraksha ke baare mein jaankaari deta hai. iski sthaapana 16 October, 1945 ko hui thi aur iska mukhyaalaya rom mein sthit hai. vartamaan mein 191 raashtra iske sadasya hain, jismein yooropiyaai samudaaya evam fairo dveepasamooh bhi sammilit hain, jo esosiyet sadasya hain. ef.A.O ke pratham mahaanideshak Britain ke John or the. iske vartamaan mahaanideshak senegal ke jaiks diyof hain. is sangathan ke aath vibhaag hain, prashaasan evam vitt, aarthik aur saamaajik, fishreej, vaaniki, saamaanya vishay aur soochana, satat vikaas, krushi aur upabhokta suraksha aur takaneeki sahayog hain. efaeo ka aam vitt-poshan uske sadasyon dvaara vahan kiya jaata hai. vistaar mein...

7 September 2009

विष्णु प्रभाकर
vishnu prabhaakar ( 21 June 1912- 11 April 2009) hindi ke suprasiddh lekhak ke roop mein vikhyaat hue. unka janm uttarapradesh ke mujaffaranagar jile ke gaanv meeraapur mein hua tha. unke pita durga prasaad dhaarmik vichaaron vaale vyakti the aur unki maata mahaadevi padhi-likhi mahila theen jinhonne apne samay mein parda pratha ka virodh kiya tha. unki patni ka naam susheela tha. vishnu prabhaakar ki aaranbhik shiksha meeraapur mein hui. baad mein ve apne maama ke ghar hisaar chale gaye jo tab Punjab praant ka hissa tha. ghar ki maali haalat theek naheen hone ke chalte ve aage ki padhaai theek se naheen kar paae aur gruhasthi chalaane ke liye unhein sarkaari naukri karni padi. chaturth vargeeya karmachaari ke taur par kaam karte samay unhein pratimaah 18 rupaye milte the, lekin medhaavi aur laganasheel vishnu ne padhaai jaari rakhi aur hindi mein prabhaakar va hindi bhooshan ki upaadhi ke saath hi sanskrut mein prajnyaa aur angreji mein bi.A ki degree praapt ki. vistaar se padhein

8 September 2009

अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय अन्तरिक्ष स्टेशन
antarraashtreeya antariksh station ya kendra (sankshep mein ISS, angreji: International Space Station intarnaishanal spes steshan, ISS) baahari antariksh mein anusandhaan suvidha ya shodh sthal hai jise pruthvi ki niktavarti kaksha mein sthaapit kiya ja raha hai. is pariyojana ka aarambh 1998 mein hua tha aur yeh 2011 tak ban kar taiyaar hoga. vartamaan samay tak ISS ab tak banaaya gaya sabse bada maanav nirmit upagrah hoga. ISS kaaryakram vishv ki kai space agencyon ka sanyukt upakram hai. ise banaane mein sanyukt raajya ki naasa ke saath roos ki rashiyn Federal space agency (aarakee), Japan eyarospes eksaploreshan agency (jeeeksae), Canada ki kanediyn space agency (seeesae) aur Europeeya deshon ki sanyukt yooropeeyan space agency (iesae) kaam kar rahi hain. inke atirikt braajeeliyn space agency (eibi) bhi kuchh anubandhon ke saath naasa ke saath kaaryarat hai. isi tarah itaaliyn space agency (eesaaai) bhi kuchh alag anubandhon ke saath kaaryarat hai. pruthvi ki nichli kaksha mein sthaapit hone ke baad ISS ko nangi aankhon se dekha ja sakega. vistaar se padhein...

9 September 2009

वाशिंगटन डी.सी. में मुख्यालय
international mauneetari fund (aaiemaef) ek antarraashtreeya sanstha hai, jo apne sadasya deshon ki vaishvik aarthik sthiti par nazar rakhane ka kaam karti hai. yeh apne sadasya deshon ko aarthik aur takaneek sahaayata deti hai. yeh sangathan antarraashtreeya vinimay daron ko sthir rakhane ke saath-saath vikaas ko sugam karne mein sahaayata karta hai. iska mukhyaalaya vaanshigtan di.si, sanyukt raajya mein hai. is sangathan ke prabandh nideshak daumanik straus hai. aaiemaef ki vishesh mudra esadeeaar (special draaing raaits) hai. antarraashtreeya vyaapaar aur vitt ke liye kuchh deshon ki mudra ka istemaal kiya jaata hai, ise esadeeaar kehte hain. esadeeaar mein Euro, pound, yen aur dollar hain. aaiemaef ki sthaapana 1944 mein ki gayi thi. vibhinn deshon ki sarkaar ke 45 pratinidhiyon ne America ke Britain buds mein baithak kar antarraashtreeya aarthik samajhote ki rooparekha taiyaar ki. 27 December, 1945 ko 29 deshon ke samajhote par hastaakshar karne ke baad aaiemaef ki sthaapana hui. aaiemaef ke kul 186 sadasya desh hain. vistaar se padhein...

10 September 2009

बड़े स्क्वैमस कार्सिनोमा (चित्र के नीचे) ने योनिद्वार को घेरकर निचले गर्भाशय तक पहुंच गया है।
garbhaashaya greeva Cancer (angreji:sarvaaikal Cancer) mahilaaon ki ek beemaari hai. yeh garbhaashaya mein koshikaaon ki aniyamit vruddhi hone ke kaaran hoti hai. adhikaansh sarvaaikal Cancer ke maamale flaitand aur skvaimsh koshikaaon ki badhotri ke kaaran hoti hai. shesh das pratishat maamale glaindular, myukas aadi ke kaaran hote hain. sarvaaikal Cancer ki Cancer se pehle waali sthiti ko displesiya kaha jaata hai. is sthiti mein iska sau pratishat ilaaj sambhav hai. kintu jab yeh beemaari Cancer ban jaati hai, to ise kaarkeenoma kaha jaata hai. aise vishaanu ke sankraman ki vajah se, jisse echapeevi (hyooman pepeeloma) ho jaae, to isse displesiya aur Cancer ka khatra badh jaata hai. aise saathi, jisne kai logon ke sang sanbhog kiya ho; ke saath sanbhog karne se is Cancer ki sambhaavana bahut badh jaati hai. jin mahilaaon ka tantrika tantr kamjor hota hai, saath hi jin mahilaaon ka ang pratyaaropan hua ho, unhein ye beemaari hone ki sambhaavana adhik rahati hai. vistaar se padhein...

11 September 2009

एक क्रेडिट कार्ड के सामने का फलक
kredit card ya udhaar card ek chhota plastic card hai, jo ek vishishth bhugataan pranaali ke upayogakartaaon ko jaari kiye jaate hai. is card ke dvaara dhaarak is vaade ke saath vastuen aur sevaayein khareed sakte hain ki, baad me vo in vastuon aur sevaaon ka bhugataan karega. card ka jaareekarta, card ke dvaara upabhokta ko udhaar ki seema deta hai jiske antargat ek upayogakarta khareedi hui vastuon ke bhugataan ke liye paise praapt kar sakta hai, aur nakad bhi nikaal sakta hai. kredit card aadhunik yug mein kredit card dainik aavashyakta ban gaya hai. khareedaari se lekar kai jaroori kaaryo mein log kredit card ka prayog karte hain, lekin ek taraf jahaan yeh suvidha kai arthon mein logon ke liye laabhaprad hai, to iske kai nuksaan bhi dekhne mein aa rahe hain. aajkal kai kredit card companiyon ne mobile phone ke jariye bhi kredit card ka kaam chalaane ka praavadhaan kiya hai. unke anusaar ye lenaden poori tarah surakshit hai, aur iske liye ek pin sankhya ki aavashyakta hoti hai. vistaar mein...

12 September 2009

एक टी३ अल्ट्रा-हाई रिज़ॉल्यूशन टेलिप्रेसेन्स कक्ष।
video kaunfreinsing aadhunik sanchaar takaneek hai, jiske maadhyam se do ya isse adhik sthaanon se ek saath audio-video maadhyam se kai log jud sakte hain. ise video teleekaunfreins bhi kaha jaata hai. iska prayog khaaskar kisi baithak ya sammelan ke liye tab kiya jaata hai, jab kai log alag-alag sthaanon mein baithe hon. video kaunfreinsing maadhyam se abhilekhon aur computer par chal rahi soochanaaon ka aadaan-pradaan bhi kiya ja sakta hai. video kaunfreinsing mein video camera ya web kaim, computer maunitr, television ya projektar, maaikrofon, laaudaspeekar aur Internet ki aavashyakta hoti hai. jin deshon mein teleemedisin aur teleenarsig ko maanyata praapt hai, vahaan log aapaatakaal mein nurse aur doctoron se video kaunfreinsing ke maadhyam se sampark kar sakte hain. yeh seva aajkal Bhaarat sanchaar nigam limited ne apni 3-ji doorabhaash seva mein bhi deni aarambh ki hai. vistaar mein...

13 September 2009

मानव मस्तिष्क की मोटर ट्रैक्ट
serebral paalsi ek maanasik rog hota hai. yeh rog viksit hote mastishk ki motor control center ke kharaab hone ke kaaran hota hai. yeh beemaari mukhyat: garbhadhaaran (75 pratishat), bachche ke janm ke samay (lagbhag 5 pratishat) aur teen varsh tak ki aayu ke bachchon ko hoti hai. serebral paalsi par abhi shodh chal raha hai, kyonki vartamaan upalabdh shodh sirf paidiyaatrik rogiyon par kendrit hai. is beemaari ki vajah se sanchaar mein samasya, samvedna, poorv dhaarana, vastuon ko pehchaanana aur anya vyavahaarik samasyaaen aati hai. is beemaari ke baare mein pehli baar angreji surgeon William little ne 1860 mein pata lagaaya tha. is rog ke mukhya kaarano mein bachche ke mastishk ke vikaas mein vyavadhaan aane ya mastishk mein chot hote hain. vistaar mein...

14 September 2009

vartani ka arth bhaasha mein kisi shabd ko varnon se vyakt karne ki kriya ko kehte hain. hindi bhaasha ka pehla aur bada gun dhvanyaatmakata hai, jisse ismein uchcharit dhvaniyon ko vyakt karna bada saral hai. hindi mein vartani ki aavashyakta kaafi samay tak naheen samajhi gayi; jabki angreji va urdoo aadi anya kai bhaashaaon mein iska mahattv tha. kintu kshetreeya va aanchalik uchchaaran ke prabhaav, anekaroopata, bhram, parampara ke nirvaah aadi ke kaaran jab yeh laga ki ek hi shabd ki kai vartaniyaaain milti hain to inko vyakt karne ke liye kisi saarthak shabd ki talaash hui. is kaaran se maanakeekaran ki aavashyakta mahasoos ki gayi. is arth mein vartani shabd maanya ho gaya aur keindreeya hindi nideshaalaya, ne is shabd ko maanyata di, evam ekaroopata ki drushti se kuchh niyam bhi sthir kiye hain. hindi ke, kai raajyon ki raajabhaasha sveekrut ho jaane ke falasvaroop Bhaarat ke bheetar, baahar ise seekhane vaalon ki sankhya mein paryaapt vruddhi ho jaane se hindi vartani ki maanak paddhati nirdhaarit karna aavashyak aur kaalochit laga, taaki hindi shabdon ki vartaniyon mein adhikaadhik ekaroopata laai ja sake. tab shiksha mantraalaya ne 1961 mein hindi vartani ki maanak paddhati nirdhaarit karne ke liye ek visheshagya samiti dvaara hindi bhaasha ke maanakeekaran ki sarkaari prakriya ka praarambh kiya. is satat prakriya ke mukhya nirdesh tay ho chuke hain jo Bhaarat ke sabhi sarkaari kaaryaalayon mein prasaarit kiye gaye hain. inka anupaalan sunishchit karne hetu bhi sansthaan kaaryarat hai. vistaar mein...

15 September 2009

[[chitr:|100px|right|ek andaanu]]

in vrito fartilaaijeshan (aaiveeef) ek takaneek hai, jismein mahilaaon mein krutrim garbhaadhaan kiya jaata hai. is prakriya mein kisi mahila ke andaashaya se ande ko alag kar usaka sampark drav maadhyam mein shukraanuon se karaaya jaata hai. iske baad nishechit ande ko mahila ke garbhaashaya mein rakh diya jaata hai. vishv mein pehli baar is prakriya ka prayog sanyukt raajashaahi mein paitrik stepo aur Robert Edwards ne kiya tha. aur isse janme bachche luis brown ne 25 July, 1978 ko Manchester mein janm liya. Bhaarat mein pehli baar Doctor subhaash mukhopaadhyaaya ne is prakriya ka istemaal kiya tha. inke dvaara taiyaar ki gayi parakhanali shishu durga thi, jo vishv ki doosari parakhanali shishu thi. is takaneek dvaara manachaahe gunon waali santaan aur bahut se rogon se jeevan paryant surakshit santaan utpann karne ke prayaas bhi jaari hai. bahut se prayaas safal bhi ho chuke hain. vistaar mein...

16 September 2009

उत्तरी एवं दक्षिणी गोलार्ध में रेडियोकार्बन स्तर
kaarban kaal-nirdhaaran vidhi ka prayog puraatatv-jeev vigyaan mein jantuon evam paudhon ke praapt avasheshon ke aadhaar par jeevan kaal, samay chakr ka nirdhaaran karne mein kiya jaata hai. ismein kaarban-12 evam kaarban-14 ke madhya anupaat nikaala jaata hai. kaarban ke do sthir arediyodharmi samasthaanik: kaarban-12 (12C), aur kaarban-13 (13C) hote hain. inke alaava ek asthir rediyodharmi samasthaanik (13C) ke ansh bhi pruthvi par milte hain. arthaat kaarban-14 ka ek nirdhaarit maatra ka namoona 5730 varshon ke baad aadhi maatra ka ho jaata hai. aisa rediyodharmita kshaya ke kaaran hota hai. kaarban ke doosare samasthaakanikon ka vaayumandal se sampark vichhed aur kaarban-dvi-oshid na banane ke kaaran unke aapas ke anupaat mein antar ho jaata hai. pruthvi mein dabe kaarban mein uske samasthaanikon ka anupaat jaanakar uske dabane ki aayu ka pata lagbhag shataabdi mein kar sakte hain. vistaar mein...

17 September 2009

विश्व में आईपीटीवी प्रयोक्ता देश।
Internet protokaul television (aaipeeteevi) mein Internet, braudabaind ki sahaayata se television kaaryakram gharon tak pahunchata hai. is pranaali mein television ke kaaryakram DTH ya kebal network ke bajaay, computer network mein prayog hone waali technology ki sahaayata se dekhte hain. varsh 1994 mein A.bi.si ka va‌aarld news naau pehla television kaaryakram tha, jise Internet par prasaarit kiya gaya tha. 1995 mein Internet ke liye ek video utpaad taiyaar kiya gaya, jiska naam I.pi.ti.vi rakha gaya tha. lekin sabse pehle sanyukt raajashaahi mein television ke kaaryakram Internet braudabaind ki sahaayata se prasaarit kiye gaye aur is faurmet ko bhi aaipeeteevi naam diya gaya. 20 August, 2008 ko Bhaarat sarkaar ne bhi ise manjoori de di hai, va Bhaarat ke kai shaharon mein ye seva chaaloo ho chuki hai. is seva ke Bhaarat mein vartamaan pradaataaon mein Bhaarat sanchaar nigam limited, mahanagar telephone nigam limited aur bhaarati Airtel hain. yeh seva vishv bhar mein bahut se deshon mein prachaalan mein hai. vistaar mein...

18 September 2009

नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय के अवशेष
naalanda vishvavidyaalaya Bhaarat ke Bihar raajya mein Patna se 90 ki॰mee॰ door naalanda shahar mein sthit ek praacheen vishvavidyaalaya tha. desh videsh se yahaaain vidyaarthi adhyayan ke liye aate the. aaj iske keval khandahar dekhe ja sakte hain. naalanda vishvavidyaalaya ke avasheshon ki khoj alekjeindar kaningham ne ki thi. maana jaata hai ki is vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana 450-470 E. mein gupt shaasak kumaaragupt pratham ne ki thi. is vishvavidyaalaya ko iske baad aane vaale sabhi shaasak vanshon ka sahayog mila. mahaan samraat harshavarddhan aur paal shaasakon ka bhi sanrakshan mila. ise keval yahaan ke sthaasaneeya shaasak vanshon se hi naheen varan videshi shaasakon se bhi daan mila tha. is vishvavidyaalaya ka astitv 12veen shataabdi tak bana raha. iske oopar pehla aaghaat hun shaasak mihirkul dvaara kiya gaya, va 1199 mein mein turk aakramanakaari bakhtiyaar khilji ne isko jala kar poori tarah samaapt kar diya. is vishvavidyaalaya ke baare mein maana jaata hai ki yeh vishv ka pratham aavaaseeya vishvavidyaalaya tha. ismein kareeb 10,000 chhaatr ek saath vidya grahan karte the. yahaan 2000 shikshak chhaatron ko padhaate the. vistaar mein...

19 September 2009

आवर्त सारणी के जनक मेंडलीफ
aavart saarani athva tatvon ki aavart saarani raasaayanik tatvon ko unki sangat visheshataaon ke saath ek saarani ke roop mein darshaane ki ek vyavastha hai. vartamaan aavart saarani mai 117 gyaat tatv sammilit hain. roosi rasaayan-shaastri meindaleef (sahi uchchaaran- mendeleyev) ne san 1869 mein aavart niyam prastut kiya. iske anusaar tatvon ke bhautik aur raasaayanik gun unke paramaanubhaaron ke aavartafalan hote hain. arthaat yadi tatvon ko parmaanu bhaar ke vruddhikram mein rakha jaaya to vo tatv jinke gun samaan hote hain ek nishchit avadhi ke baad aate hain. meindaleev ne is saarani ke sahaare tatvon ke bhautik evam raasaayanik gunon ke aavarti hone ke pahaloo ko pradarshit karne ka prayatn kiya. 1815 se 1913 tak ismein bahut se sudhaar hue taaki naye aavishkrut tatvon ko uchit sthaan diya ja sake aur saarani nayi jaankaariyon ke anuroop ho. rasaayan shaastriyon ke liye aavart saarani atyant mahatvapoorn evam upayogi hai. vistaar mein...

20 September 2009

महाकालेश्वर मंदिर, उज्जैन
mahaakaaleshvar mandir Bhaarat ke baarah jyotirlingon mein se ek hai. yeh Madhya Pradesh raajya ke ujjain nagar mein sthit, mahaakaaleshvar Bhagwan ka pramukh mandir hai. puraanon, mahaabhaarat aur kaalidaas jaise mahaakaviyon ki rachanaaon mein is mandir ka manohar varnan milta hai. svayanbhoo, bhavya aur dakshinmukhi hone ke kaaran mahaakaaleshvar mahaadev ki atyant punyadaayi mahatta hai. iske darshan maatr se hi moksh ki praapti ho jaati hai, aisi maanyata hai. mahaakavi kaalidaas ne meghadoot mein ujjayini ki charcha karte hue is mandir ki prashansa ki hai. 1235 E. mein iltutmish ke dvaara is praacheen mandir ka vidhvans kiye jaane ke baad se yahaan jo bhi shaasak rahe, unhonne is mandir ke jeernoddhaar aur saundaryeekaran ki or vishesh dhyaan diya. vistaar mein...

21 September 2009

कार्ब्युरेटर का चित्र
kaarbyuretar ek aisi yaantrik yukti hai jo aantarik dahan engine ke liye hava aur dravya indhan ko mishrit karti hai. iska aavishkaar kaarl benj ne san 1885 ke pehle kiya tha. baad mein 1886 mein ise peteint bhi karaaya gaya.kaarl benj marsideej benj ke sansthaapak hain. iska adhik vikaas Hungary ke abhiyaantrik jainor soenska aur donait bainki ne 1893 mein kiya tha. Birmingham, ingalaind ke fredrik William lainkestar ne kaarbyuretar ka pareekshan kaaron par kiya aur 1896 mein usane apne bhaai ke saath ingalaind ki pratham petrol car banaai. is car mein ek hi silindar 8 haurs power (4 kilovaut) ka antardahan engine chen drive ke sang laga tha. agale hi varsh unhonne ise do kshaitij virodhak cylinderon sahit naye kaarbyuretar dijaain ke saath nikaala. is pratiroop ne varsh 1900 mein 1000 meal (1600 ki.mi.) ki doori nirvighn tay ki. vistaar mein...

22 September 2009

आलू का परांठा
paraantha bhaarateeya roti ka vishisht roop hai. yeh uttar Bhaarat mein jitna lokapriya hai, lagbhag utana hi dakshin Bhaarat mein bhi hai, bas mool fark ye hai, ki jahaan uttar mein aate ka banta hai, vaheen dakshin mein maida ka banta hai. pratidin ke uttari bhaarateeya upamahaadveepeeya naashte mein sabse lokapriya padaarth agar koi hai to vah paraantha hi hai. ise banaane ki jitni vidhiyaan hain vaise hi hindi mein iske kai roop prachalit hain jaise paraatha, parautha, paraavatha, paraantha aur paraanvatha. haan svaasthya ki drushti se ye avashya vasa se bharpoor hote hain. paraantha lagbhag roti ki tarah hi banaaya jaata hai, fark sirf iski sinkaai ka hai. roti ko jahaan tave par seinkane ke baad seedhe aanch par bhi fulaaya jaata hai vaheen paraantha sirf tave par hi seinka jaata hai. roti ko banaane ke baad oopar se shuddh ghi lagaaya ja sakta hai, vaheen paraanthe ko tave par seinkate samay hi ghi ya tel laga kar seinka jaata hai. vistaar mein...

23 September 2009

वाजश्रवा के बहाने का मुखपृष्ठ
kuainvar Narayan ka vaajashrava ke bahaane apne samakaaleenon aur paravartiyon ke kaavya sangrahon ke beech ek alag aur vishisht svaad dene wala hai jise praudh vichaarasheel man se hi mahasoos kiya ja sakta hai. yeh gahari antadrushti se kiye gaye jeevan ke utsav aur haahaakaar ka saakshaatkaar hai. rigved, upanishd aur geeta ki na jaane kitni daarshanik anugoonjein hain ismein, jo kuchh sunaayi padti hain, kuchh naheen sunaayi padteen. achhor ateet hai peechhe, anant andhakaar hai aage. beech mein athaah jeevan hai, jo keval maanavon ka naheen, sampoorn srushti ka hai, aur jo khand mein naheen balki akhand kaal ki nirantarata mein pravahamaan hai. kunvar Narayan ke is sangrah mein bhi mrutyu ka gahra bodh hai. bhale hi ismein jeevan ki or se mrutyu ko dekhne ki koshish hai. yadi mrutyu na hoti to jeevan ko is prakaar dekhne ki aakaanksha bhi na hoti. mrutyu hi jeevan ko arth deti hai aur nirrthak mein bhi arth bharati hai' yeh kathan asangat naheen hai. vistaar se padhein...

24 September 2009

डा. पीताम्बर दत्त बड़थ्वाल का एक छायाचित्र
da. peetaanmbaradatt badthvaal ( 13 December, 1901-24 July, 1944) hindi mein di.lit. ki upaadhi praapt karne vaale pehle shodh vidyaarthi the. unhonne anusandhaan aur khoj parampara ka pravartan kiya tatha aachaarya raamachandr shukl aur babu shyaamasundar das ki parampara ko aage badhaate hue hindi aalochna ko majabooti pradaan ki. unhonne bhaavon aur vichaaron ki abhivyakti ke liye bhaasha ko adhik saamarthyavaan banaakar vikaasonmukh shaili ko saamane rakha. apni gambhir adhyayanasheelata aur shodh pravrutti ke kaaran unhonne hindi me pratham di. lit. hone ka gaurav praapt kiya. hinndi saahitya ke falak par shodh pravrutti ki prerana ka prakaash bikherane vaale badthvaalaji ka janm tatha mrutyu dono hi uttar pradesh ke gadhvaal kshetr mein lains daaun anchal ke sameep paali gaaainv mein hue. badthvaalaji ne apni saahityik chhavi ke darshan bachapan mein hi kara diye the. baalyakaal me hi ve 'anbar'naam se kavitaaeain likhne lage the. vistaar se padhein...

25 September 2009

sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala' (21 February 1899 - 15 October 1961) hindi kavita ke chhaayaavaadi yug ke chaar pramukh stambhon mein se ek maane jaate hain. apne samakaaleen anya kaviyon se alag unhonne kavita mein kalpana ka sahaara bahut kam liya hai aur yathaarth ko pramukhata se chitrit kiya hai. ve hindi mein muktachhand ke pravartak bhi maane jaate hain. hindi saahitya ke sarvaadhik charchit saahityakaaron me se ek sooryakaant tripaathi 'niraala' ka janm Bengal ki riyaasat mahishaadal (jila medineepur) mein maagh shukl ekaadashi samvat 1955 tadanusaar 21 February san 1899 mein hua tha. unki kahaani sangrah lili mein unki janmatithi 21 February 1899 ankit ki gayi hai. unka janm ravivaar ko hua tha isliye surjakumaar kahalaae. unke pita panndit raamasahaaya tivaari unnaav (baisavaada) ke rahane vaale the aur mahishaadal mein sipaahi ki naukri karte the. ve mool roop se uttar pradesh ke unnaav jile ka gadhkola naamak gaaainv ke nivaasi the. vistaar mein...


26 September 2009

मालाबार सागर मे भारतीय नौसेना पोत विराट

bhaarateeya nausena pot viraat (I N S viraat) bhaarateeya nausena mein seintaur shreni ka ek vaayuyaan vaahak pot hai. bhaarateeya sena ki agrim pankti (flegaship) ka yeh pot lambe samay se sena ki seva mein hai. 1997 mein bhaarateeya nausena pot vikraant ke sevaamukt kar diye jaane ke baad isi ne vikraant ke rikt sthaan ki poorti ki thi. is samay yeh hind mahaasaagar mein upasthit do vaayuyaan vaahak poton mein se ek hai. is pot ne san 1959 raayal navy (british nausena) ke liye kaarya karna shuru kiya evam 1985 tak vahaan sakriya raha. is ka pratham naam H M S harmas tha. tadapashchaat 1986 me bhaarateeya nausena ne kai desho ke yuddh poton ki sameeksha karne ke baad ise royal navy se khareed liya. is saude ke baad is pot me kai takaneeki sudhaar kiye gaye jisse ise agale ek dashak tak kaaryasheel rakha ja sake. ye takaneeki sudhaar evam rakharakhaav devenaport daukayaard par hue.......vistaar mein...


27 September 2009

चमगादड़

chamagaadad aakaash mein udne wala ek stanadhaari praani hai, jo apni 1000 se bhi adhik prajaatiyon ke saath stanadhaariyon ke doosare sabse bade kul ka nirmaan karta hai. ye poorn roop se nishaachar hote hain aur pedon ki daali athva aaindhereegufaaon ke andar ulta latake rahate hain. inko do samoohon me vibhaajit kiya jaata hai, pehla samooh falabhakshi bade chamagaadad ka hota hai, jo dekh kar aur soongh kar apna bhojan dhoondhate hain jabki doosra samooh keetabhakshi chhote chamagaadad ka hota hai, jo pratidhvani dvaara sthiti nirdhaaran vidhi ke dvaara apna bhojan talaashate hain. yeh ekamaatr aisa stanadhaari hai jo ud sakta hai tatha raat mein bhi ud sakta hai. iske agrabaahu pankh me parivrtit ho gaye hain jo dekhne mein jhilli (petaajiym) ke samaan lagte hain. tvacha ki yeh jhilli garadan se lekar haath ki aainguliyon tatha shareer ke paarshvabhaag se hoti hui pooainchh tak chali jaati hai evam pankh ka nirmaan karti hai. ......vistaar mein...


28 September 2009

दशहरे पर रावण-दहन
dashahara (vijyadashami ya aayudh-pooja) hinduon ka ek pramukh tyohaar hai. Ashwin maas ke shukl dashami ko iska aayojan hota hai. Bhagwan Ram ne isi din raavan ka vadh kiya tha. ise asatya par satya ki vijay ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai. is din log naya kaarya praarambh karte hain, shastr-pooja ki jaati hai. praacheen kaal mein raaja is din vijay ki praarthana kar ran-yaatra par nikalte the. is din jagah-jagah mele lagte hain. raamaleela ka aayojan hota hai. raavan ka vishaal putala banaakar use jalaaya jaata hai. vijyadashami Bhagwan Ram ki vijay ya durga pooja ke roop mein manaaen, donon hi roopon mein yeh shakti-pooja ka parv hai, shastr poojan ki tithi hai, harsh aur ullaas tatha vijay ka parv hai. bhaarateeya sanskruti veerata ki poojak hai, shaurya ki upaasak hai. vyakti aur samaaj ke rakt mein veerata prakat ho isliye dashahare ka utsav rakha gaya hai. yeh parv das prakaar ke paapon ko kaam, krodh, lobh, moh mad, matsar, ahankaar, aalasya, hinsa aur chori ke parityaag ki sadprerana pradaan karta hai. vistaar mein...

29 September 2009

छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य के संरक्षित स्मारक

Chhattisgarh raajya ke raayagadh jile mein singhanapur naamak sthaan par ek chitrit shailaashraya sthit hai. yeh shailaashraya dakshinaabhimukhi hai aur raayagadh se 20 kilometer pashchim mein ek pahaadi par varshon poorv prakruti dvaara nirmit hai. madhya dakshin poorvi relamaarg ke bilaasapur jhaarasaguda sekshan par sthit bhoopadevapur naamak station se yeh sthal dakshin mein ek kilo meter ki doori par hai. yeh Chhattisgarh mein praapt praacheen shailachitr yukt shailaashrayon mein se ek hai, jiski tithi lagbhag isaapoorv 30 hajaar varsh nirdhaarit ki gayi hai. inki khoj Anderson dvaara 1910 ke aaspaas ki gayi thi. India peintigs 1918 mein tatha insaaiklopidiya britenika ke 13vein ank mein raayagadh jile ke singhanapur ke shailachitron ka prakaashan pehli baar hua tha. tatpashchaat shri amaranaath datt ne 1923 se 1927 ke madhya raayagadh tatha sameepasth kshetron mein shail chitro ka sarvekshan kiya. Dr N. ghosh, di. H. garden dvaara is sambandh mein mahatvapoorn jaankaari di gayi. tatpashchaat sv. pandit shri lochanaprasaad paandeya dvaara bhi shailachitro ke sambandh mein mahatvapoorn jaankaari upalabdh karaayi gayi.......vistaar mein...


30 September 2009

sachchidaanand heeraanand vaatsyaayan "ajnyaeya" (7 March, 1911- 4 April, 1987) ko pratibhaasampann kavi, shaileekaar, katha-saahitya ko ek mahattvapoorn mod denevaale kathaakaar, lalit-nibndhakaar, sampaadak aur safal adhyaapak ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. inka janm 7 March 1911 ko uttar pradesh ke devariya jile ke kusheenagar naamak aitihaasik sthaan mein hua. bachapan Lucknow, Kashmir, Bihar aur Madras mein beeta. bi.S.si. karke angreji mein M.A. karte samay kraantikaari aandolan se judkar faraar hue aur 1930 E. ke ant mein pakad liye gaye. ajnyaeya prayogavaad evam nai kavita ko saahitya jagat mein pratishthit karne vaale kavi hain. anek Japani haaiku kavitaaon ko ajnyaeya ne anoodit kiya. bahuaayaami vyaktitv ke ekaantamukhi prakhar kavi hone ke saath-saath ve ek achhe photographer aur satyaanveshi paryatak bhi the. ......vistaar mein...