vikipeediya:IPA for Vietnamese

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Vietnamese language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. There are two major standards, one of Hanoi and one of Saigon. Each makes distinctions that the other does not; represented here are the central dialects that make the distinctions of both. Following the examples are common alternate transcriptions of these sounds in the IPA for comparison.

See Vietnamese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Vietnamese.

IPA Examples
ʔ -
ɓ b [ʔaab]
c ch [tɕ] (Saigon final [t] after e/i/y [1])
ɗ đ [ʔaad]
f ph
h h
j y (may follow all vowels but e/i/y [1])
k c, qu
kp c (after u, ô) [kʷ]
l l
m m
n n (Saigon final [ŋ] after a/o/u [2])
ɲ nh (Saigon final [n] after after e/i/y [1])
ŋ ng
ŋaam ng (after u, ô) [ŋaaʷ]
p p
s x
ʂ s (Hanoi [s])
t t (Saigon final [k] after a/o/u [2])
ʈaaʂ tr [ʈ] (Hanoi c)
v v (Saigon [j])
w u (Hanoi initial [ʔaaw]) (may follow all vowels but a/o/u [2])
x kh
ɣ g (before a/o/u [2]), gh (before e/i/y [1])
z d (Saigon [j])
ʐ r (Hanoi z)
ʒ g (before e/i [1])
IPA Examples
a ă [ɐ]
a [ɐaaː]
e ê
ɛ e
ə â [ɜ]
əaaː ơ [ɤaaː]
i i, y
ɨ ư [ɯ]
o ô
ɔ o
u u
IPA Examples
, final ia
ɯaaə ưaơ, final ưaa [ɉaaə]
, final ua
Vj (see /j/ above)
Vw (see /w/ above)
CʷaiV uy: khuyêaan
IPA Examples
a ə a (Hanoi [˧], Saigon [˧])
â əaâ à (Hanoi [˧a˩], Saigon [˧a˩])
ǎ əaǎ á (Hanoi [˧aˀa˥], Saigon [˧a˥])
a᷉ əaa᷉ [3] (Hanoi [˧a˩a˧], Saigon [˧a˩a˧])
ǎaaˀ əaǎaaˀ ã (Hanoi [˧aˀa˥], Saigon [˧a˩a˧])
âaˀ əaâaaˀ (Hanoi [˧aˀa˩], Saigon [˧a˩a˧aˀ])
əaáaak[4] ấac (Hanoi [], Saigon [])
əaàaak[4] ậac (Hanoi [˨], Saigon [])


  1. a aa i E u The front vowels ([i], [e], [ɛ], [j]) which are based on the letters e, i, and y.
  2. a aa i E The non-front vowels, which are based on the letters a, o, and u.
  3. This is a dipping tone. It looks similar to ã əaã ([ ̃ ] (nasalized mark). The dipping tone differs only in being angular in shape, but is not widely supported by IPA fonts.
  4. a aa Before a final /p, t, c, k/, the six tones of Vietnamese are reduced to two.