vikipeediya:IPA for Swedish and Norwegian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish and Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Swedish phonology and Norwegian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages. Examples in the table are Swedish unless otherwise noted.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Swed.
Flag of Sweden.svg
Norw.
Flag of Norway.svg
b abort ('abortion') about
ɕ ç Kina ('China') she (Swedish), hue (Norwegian)
d dag do
ɖ[1] nord ('north') order
f fot ('foot') fold
ɡ god ('good') ago
h hatt ('hat') hoot
ɧ[2] ʃ Swedish: sjok ('chunk'), Norwegian: sjø ('sea')
loch etc. (Swedish)
shoe (Norwegian)
j jojo ('yo-yo') you
k kafé ('café') coo
l lake (Norwegian: 'brine', Norwegian and Swedish: 'burbot') love
ɭ[1] Karl (male first name) twirl
m man ('mane') mood
n natt ('night') noon
ɳ[1] barn ('child') turner
ŋ ting ('thing') long
p pappa ('father') pool
r[3] år ('year') A flapped or trilled R.
s sabel ('sabre') soon
ʂ[1] torsdag ('Thursday') marshal (in some dialects)
t torsdag ('Thursday') too
ʈ[1] parti ('political party') cartel
v ʋ vaktel ('quail') vote in Swedish;
between v and w in Norwegian
Vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Swed.
Flag of Sweden.svg
Norw.
Flag of Norway.svg
ɑaaː mat [ˈaamɑaaːaat] "food" bra
a ɑ fast [ˈaafast]/[ˈaafɑaast] "steady, unmoving" father
æaaː[4] äara [æaaːaara]/"æaare" [æaaːaare] "honor" Australian ham
æ[4] fersk [ˈaafæaaʂaaːaak] "fresh" trap
hel [ˈaaheːaal] "whole" Scottish save
ɛaaː häal [ˈaahɛaaːaal] "heel" there
ɛ häall/helle [ˈaahɛaal] "flat rock" hell
sil [ˈaasiːaal] "sieve" leaf
ɪ sill/sild [ˈaasɪaal]/[ˈaasɪaal(d)] "herring" hill
måal [ˈaamoːaal] "goal" Scottish/Canadian stove
ɔ moll [ˈaamɔaal] "minor" (music) moll, with round lips
øaaː dö/dø ['døaaː] "die" No English equivalent; German long ö
œ nöatt [ˈaanœaat] "worn" in Swedish
nøaatt "nut" in Norwegian
No English equivalent; German short ö
œaaː[4] öara [œaaːaara] "ear" British learn or fur
ɵ ʉ full [ˈaafɵaal] "full" bird, with tight lips[5]
[5] bot [ˈaabuːaat] "penance" boot
ʉaaː[5] ful [ˈaafʉaaːaal] "ugly, cunning, sly" fuel, Australian food, with tight lips[6]
ʊ[5] bott [ˈaabʊaat] "lived" in Swedish put, with tight lips
[5] syl [ˈaasyːaal] "awl" No English equivalent; French u
ʏ[5] syll [ˈaasʏaal] "sleeper" (railroad) in Swedish;
fylle "fill" in Norwegian
No English equivalent; German short ü
unstressed
ə begå [bəaaˈaagoː] "commit" about
Stress and tone
IPA Examples
Swedish
ˈaaa [ˈaaandɛaan]
"the duck"
Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Single stress with single falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈaâandɛan]
• Low tone [ˈaà] in Oslo and falling tone [ˈaâ] in western Norway
ˈaaa.ˈaaa [ˈaaanˈaadɛaan]
"the spirit"
Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Double stress with double falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈaaâaanˈaadɛaâaan]
• Falling tone [ˈaâ] in Oslo and rising-falling tone in western Norway

Notes

  1. a aa i E u In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish and many Southern and Western Norwegian dialects these are [ʀaad], [ʀaal], [ʀaan], [ʀaas], [ʀaat].
  2. Swedish /ɧ/ is a regionally variable sound, sometimes [xʷ], [ɸaaˠ], or [ʂ]
  3. /r/ is regionally variable, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  4. a aa i Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed in Swedish. /ɛaaː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æ]; /øaaː/, and /œ/ are lowered to [œaa̞], though the diacritic is not included in the chart above for simplicity.
  5. a aa i E u oo Vowels spelled u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelled ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.
  6. [ʉaaː] is a central vowel in Oslo, but a front vowel in Stockholm.

Bibliography

  • Duden 6: Das Aussprachewöarterbuch (3d edition, 1990, ISBN 3-411-20916-X).