vikipeediya:IPA for Spanish

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia best
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva [1] between baby and bevy
d dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
ð diva; arder; admirar [1] this
f fase; café [2] face
ɡ gato; lengua; guerra got
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo [1] between a light go and ahold
ʝ ayuno; poyo [1] as in yes
or between beige and due in RP English
k cañaa; laca; quise; kilo scan
l lino; alhaja; principal lean
ʎ llave; pollo [3] roughly like million (merged with /ʝ/ in
most dialects)
m madre; comer; campo; convertir [4] mother
n nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; áaalbum [4] need
ɲ ñandú; cabaña; enyesar [4] roughly like canyon
ŋ cinco; venga; conquista; enjambre [4] sink
p pozo; topo spouse
r rumbo; carro; honra; subrayo; amor [5] trilled r
ɾ caro; bravo; amor eterno [5] ladder in American English
s saco; casa; deshora; espita[6] xenóan sack
θ cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz [7][6] thing (in Peninsular Spanish only;
elsewhere, merged with /s/)
t tamiz; átomo stand
chubasco; acechar choose
x jamóan; eje; reloj[6] general; México loch (pronounced [h] in many dialects;
like ham)
z isla; mismo; deshuesar [8][6] prison
Marginal phonemes[9]
IPA Examples English approximation
ʃ Kirchner; Xelajú; sherpa [10] shack
tlapaleríaaa; cenzontle; Popocatéapetl somewhat like cattle
ts Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a azahar father
e vehemente play (Yorkshire dialect)[11]
i dimitir; mío; y see
o boscoso coat (Yorkshire dialect)[12]
u cucurucho; dúo food
Semivowels[13]
IPA Examples English approximation
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad you
w cuadro; fuego; Huila[14] arduo wine
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ ciudad [θaajuˈaaðaaað] / [sjuˈaaðaaað] domain
ˌ elo [ˈaaleeˌaalo] intonation
. míao [ˈaami.o] moai

Notes

Other than in loanwords (e.g. háaamster; hachíaas; hawaiano), the letter ‹ah› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as [h] or [x] (halar / jalar; hara).[15]
  1. a aa i E /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are between fricatives and approximants ([βaa̞, ðaa̞, ɣaa̞, ʝaa̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pause, after an /n/ or /m/, or—aain the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—aafter an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, g, ɟaaʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j (Martíanez-Celdráan, Fernáandez-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. The phoneme /f/ is often pronounced as [ɸ], with the lips touching each other rather than the front teeth.
  3. In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeíaasmo and saaaincha:Harvcoltxt for more information.
  4. a aa i E The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ occurs.
  5. a aa The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹ar› and /r/ ‹arr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹ar›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, before consonants, and word-finally; [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  6. a aa i E For many speakers, fricatives (/s/, /θ/ and /x/) may debuccalize or be deleted in the syllable coda (at the end of words and before consonants); e.g. reloj [reˈaalo].
  7. In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia /θ/ has merged into /s/. See seseo and saaaincha:Harvcoltxt for more information.
  8. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  9. The marginal phonemes are found in loanwords, largely from Basque, English, and Nahuatl.
  10. In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [tʃ] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃaaou]~[sou].
  11. The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  12. The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  13. In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  14. Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /g/; e.g. Huila [ˈaagwila]~[ˈaawila].
  15. "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispáaanico de dudas. Real Academia Españaola. http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltGUIBusDPD?lema=h.

See also

  • Spanish phonology
  • Spanish dialects and varieties
  • History of the Spanish language

References

  • Martíanez-Celdráan, Eugenio; Fernáandez-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255-259

External links