vikipeediya:IPA for Russian

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Russian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Russian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Russian.

IPA Examples IPA Examples[1] English equivalents
Consonants
b боaaк; нaaебо беaaлaaыaaй; вaaоaaрaaобеaaй boot; beautiful
d доaм; дaaеда деaaлaaаaaеaaт; Вaaлaaадиaaмaaиaaр do; dew (for some dialects)
f фаaaтaaа; вaaыaaсaaтaaавкaа;[2] Чaaеaaхaaов;[3] шaaуaaрф феaaя; чaaеaaрвaaь[3] fool; few
ɡ гоaaвaaоaaрaaю; дaaрaaугоaaй ɡaaʲ геaaрaaбaaаaaрaaиaaй; нaaоги goo; argue
ɣ Гоaaсaaпaaоaaдaaь, Гоaaсaaпaaоaaдaaи;[4] interj. ага, ого[4]
j есaaтaaь; юлaа; я; тaaоaaлaaсaaтaaый [5] yes, boy
k коaaсaaтaaь; кнaaиaaгaaа; рaaука; бaaок киaaшaaкaaи; кaaоaaрaaоaaткиaaй cool; cute
l луaaнaaа; сaaтaaула ; сaaтaaвaaол[6] леaс; кaaолеaaнaaо; мaыaслaaь pill; least
m мыaaлaaо; дaумаaaтaaь; тaaам мяaaсaaо; дaaоме moot; mute
n ноaaс; он нёaс; они; кaоaрaенaaь noon; newt (for some dialects)
p пыaaлaaь; сaaтaaопа; сaaкaaрaaип; зaaуб[3] пепеaл; зaaыбaaь[3] pool; pew
r рыaaбaaа; шaaироaaкaaиaaй; орлaа; жaaир реaaкaaа; чaaеaaтaaыре; три; зaaвaaерaaь trilled r, like in Spanish
s соaaбaaаaaкaaа; пaaисаaaтaaь; нaaос; гaaлaaаз[3] сиaaнaaиaaй; зaaдaaесaaь; естaaь; гaaрaaызтaaь[2] soup; super (for some dialects)
ʂ шиaaрaaоaaкaaиaaй; нaaаш; хaоaрaошиaaй; мaaуж;[3] чтaaо ɕaaɕ щеaaгaaоaaл; сaaчиaaтaaаaaтaaь; мaaужaaчиaaнaaа; вaaрaaащаaaтaaь [7] shop; fresh cheese, fish show
t тот; чaитаaaю; вaaодкaа;[2] лaёд[3] теaaрaaетaaь; дaaитя; гaaрaaудaaь[3] tool; tune (for some dialects)
t͡aas цеaaлaaь; пaaтaaица; оaaтaaец t͡aaɕ чаaй; пaaечеaaнaaь; тaaечь tsunami, cats; chip
v ваaш; дaaаваaaтaaь; его[8] веaaсaaтaaи; чaaеaaлaaовеaaк voodoo; view
x хоaaдaaиaaтaaь; ухо; Бaог[4] хиaaнaaа; лaёгкaaиaaй[2][4] bach; huge (for some dialects).
z заaaеaaзaaжaaаaaтaaь; языaaк зеaaлaaёaaнaaыaaй; озеaaрaaо; пaaрaaосaaьбaа;[2] zoo; azure (for some dialects)
ʐ жеaaсaaт; тaaяжёaлaыaй ʑaaʑ дaaрaaожaaжи; зaaаaaезaaжаaaтaaь[9] rouge; asia
IPA Examples English equivalent
Stressed vowels
a тaaрaaаaaваaá ton
æ пятaaь pat
ɑ паaáлaaкaaа [10] palm
e пенaaь pay
ɛ жесaaт met
i сиaáнaaеaaгaaо meet
ɨ ты roses (for some dialects)
o оaáбaaлaaаaaкaaо chore
ɵ тётaaя audio
u пуaáлaaя moon
ʉ чутaaь choose
Unstressed vowels
ɐ парaaоaáaaм; соaaобaaрaaаaaжaaаaáaaтaaь; тaaропaaаaá bud
ə кaaоaáaaжа; шaaеaáя; оaáaaбaaлaaаaaко about
ɪ тяжaaёaaлaaыaaй; этaaаaáaaп; четaaыaáaaрaaе bit
ɨ дышaaаaáaaтaaь; женaaаaá; гaaоaáaaды dinner
ʉ ютaaиaáaaтaaьaaсaaя youth
ʊ мужaaчaaиaáaaнaaа put
Other symbols used in transcription of Russian pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable),
for example эaaтaaаaaп [ɪaaˈaatap]

Notes

  1. Russian makes contrasts between palatalized ("soft") and unpalatalized ("hard") consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript j, ‹ ʲ› , are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the y sound in yes. /j/, /ɕaaɕ/, /tɕ/, /ʑaaʑ/ are also considered "soft".
  2. a aa i E u In consonant clusters, the voicing or devoicing is determined by that of the final obstruent in the sequence (Halle 1959:31)
  3. a aa i E u oo A ai Voiced obstruents (/b/, /bʲ/, /d/, /dʲ/ /ɡ/, /v/, /vʲ/, /z/, /zʲ/, /ʐ/, and /ʑaaʑ/) are devoiced word-finally unless the next word begins with a voiced obstruent (Halle 1959:22).
  4. a aa i E In some religious words such as Бaaоaaг and Гaaоaaсaaпaaоaaдaaь, as well as interjections, ‹aгa› and ‹aкa› represent [ɣ] and [x], respectively. When /ɡ/ loses its voicing, it is also lenited (a form of dissimilation) before plosives in some words.
  5. The "soft" vowel letters <е> <ю> and <я> represent a /j/ plus a vowel when initial or following other vowels or a yer. When such vowels are unstressed, the /j/ may be deleted.
  6. /l/ is often strongly pharyngealized but this feature is nondistinctive (Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996:187-188).
  7. While some speakers pronounce words with ‹aщa› as [ɕaaɕ] and others as [ɕaatɕ], none contrast the two pronunciations. This generally includes words spelled with other letters, though speakers with the [ɕaaɕ] pronunciation may still pronounce words like сaaчaaиaaтaaыaaвaaаaaтaaь with [ɕaatɕ] because of the morpheme boundary between ‹aсa› and ‹aчa›.
  8. Intervocalic <г> can represent /v/ in certain words and affixes
  9. The phoneme /ʑaaʑ/ is in many dialects is replaced with /ʐ/.
  10. [ɑ] appears between a hard consonant (or a pause) and /l/

See also

  • Template:IPA-ru
  • Russian phonology
  • Wikipedia:Romanization of Russian

References

  • Halle, Morris (1959), Sound Pattern of Russian, MIT Press
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Blackwell Publishing, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-631-19815-6