vikipeediya:IPA for Irish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Irish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Irish phonology for detailed discussion of the phonology of Irish.

Consonants
broad[1] slender[2] English approximations
IPA Example IPA Example
bain, scuab béaal, cnáaaib boot; beautiful
d̪aaˠ dorn, nead dearg, cuid do (but dental), though in Hiberno-English; dew
fóas, graf
pholl
fíaon, stuif
phríaaosúaan
fool; fuel
ɡ gasúar, bog ɟ geata, carraig goose; argue
ɣ dhorn
ghasúar
j dhearg
gheata
(no equivalent); yellow
h[3] Shasana, shean
thaisce, theanga
hata, na héaaisc
hand
k cáais, mac c ceist, mic coot; cute
l̪aaˠ[4] labhair, balla l̠aaʲ[4] leabhair, goilleadh filth; mulch
[4] fhlaith, bealach [4] fhleasc, goile pool; leaf
móar, am milis, im moot; mute
n̪aaˠ[5] naoi, donna n̠aaʲ[5] ní, bainne tenth; inch
[5] dona [5] bainis noon; new
ŋ ngasúar ɲ ngeata long; angular
poll, stop príaaosúaan, truip poor; pure
ɾaaˠ rí, cuairt, barr, cairr ɾaaʲ fhréaaamh, tirim rule (but tapped); real (but tapped)
Sasana, tús, speal ʃ sean, cáais soon; sheet
t̪aaˠ taisce, ceart tíar, beirt tool (but dental), thorn in Hiberno-English; tune
w[6] bhain, dubh
mhóar, léaamh
vóata
bhéaal, sibh
mhilis, nimh
veidhlíaan
woo; view
x cháais, taoiseach ç cheist, deich loch (Scottish English); hue (pronounced strongly)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a mac trap
tá llama
ɛ ceist best
mé, Gael pay
ɪ ith, duine kit
mín mean
ɔ olc, deoch cloth
bó, ceol roll
ʊ dubh, fliuch good
tú too
ə solas, milis sofa
bia fear (non-rhotic accent)
fuar tour (non-rhotic accent)
əaai saghas light
əaau leabhar about
Supersegmentals
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable);
usually the first syllable except in Munster
ˌ Secondary stress (usually found only in compounds)

Comparison to other phonetic transcription schemes

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. For example, it is a longstanding tradition to leave velarized ("broad") consonants unmarked and mark palatalized ("slender") consonants with the prime, although this is not standard IPA usage.

This section compares the IPA system used at Wikipedia (which is based on that used by Ailbhe Ní Chasaide in her description of Irish in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, ISBN 0-521-63751-1) with the system used in some other works.

IPA Ní Chasaide (1999)[7]
(Gweedore)
Quiggin (1906)[8]
(Glenties)
Breatnach (1947)[9]
(Ring)
Ó Sé (2000)[10]
(Dingle Peninsula)
Mhac an Fhailigh (1968)[11]
(Erris)
Ó Siadhail (1988)[12]
(Cois Fhairrge)
Foclóair Póaca (1993)[13]
(Láarchanúaint)
a a æ, α a a a æ:, a: a
æ α: a: ɑaaː a: ɑ: a:
b b b b b b
b′ b′ b′ b′ b′ b′
c c k′ k′ k′ k′ k′ k′
ç ç ç ç x′ ç x′ x′
d̪aaˠ d̪aaˠ d d d d d d
d̠aaʲ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′
e e: e: e: e: e:
ɛ ɛ ɛ, e e e e e e
ə ə ə ə ə, ɪ ə ə ə
əaai αaai əaai ai əaai ai ai
əaau au αaau əaau ou əaau au au
f f f f f f
f′ f′ f′ f′ f′ f′
ɡ ɡ g g ɡ g g g
ɣ ɣ γ ɣ ɣ ɣ γ
h h h h, h′ h h h h
i i: i: i: i: i:
ɪ ɪ ï, i, y i i i i i
ia iːaaə i:ə
j j j j ɣa′ j ɣa′ γa′
ɟ ɟ g′ g′ ɡa′ g′ g′ g′
k k k k k k k k
l̪aaˠ l̪aaˠ L l l L L l
l l
l̠aaʲ l̠aaʲ L′ l′ l′ L′ L′ l′
l l′ l′ l′
m m m m m m
m′ m′ m′ m′ m′ m′
n̪aaˠ n̪aaˠ N n n N N n
n n n
n̠aaʲ n̠aaʲ N′ n′ n′ N′ N′ n′
n′ n′ n′
ɲ ɲ ɲ ŋa′ ŋa′ ŋa′ ŋa′ ŋa′
ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ
o o:, ɔ: o: o: o: o:
ɔ ʌ ɔ, o̤ o o o o o
p p p p p p
p′ p′ p′ p′ p′ p′
ɾaaˠ ɾaaˠ r, R r r r r r
ɾaaʲ ɾaaʲ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′
s s s s s s
ʃ ɕ ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ s′ s′
t̪aaˠ t̪aaˠ t t t t t
t̠aaʲ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′
u u: u: u: u: u:
ʊ ɤ U u u u u u
ua uːaaə u:ə
v v′ v′ v′ w′ v′
w w w v v w w v
x x χ x x x x x

Notes

  1. Irish makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ›, are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, but not in Hiberno-English. In Irish orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹aa›, ‹ao›, ‹au›.
  2. "Slender" (palatalized) consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹ay› sound in yes. In Irish orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹ae›, ‹ai›.
  3. /h/ is neither broad nor slender.
  4. a aa i E Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "l" sound. Most dialects have merged /l̪aaˠ/ and /lˠ/ as /l̪aaˠ/, and some have also merged /l̠aaʲ/ and /lʲ/ as /lʲ/. Still others have merged /lˠ/ and /lʲ/ as /l/.
  5. a aa i E Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of "n" sound. Most dialects have merged /n̪aaˠ/ and /nˠ/ as [n̪aaˠ], and some have also merged /n̠aaʲ/ and /nʲ/ as [nʲ]. Still others have merged /nˠ/ and /nʲ/ as [n]. In parts of Munster, /n̠aaʲ/ has merged with /ɲ/ in non-initial position.
  6. Also /vˠ/ in some positions in some dialects.
  7. Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Irish". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–16. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-521-63751-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=33BSkFV_8PEC&pg=PA111. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-21.
  8. Quiggin, E. C. (1906). A Dialect of Donegal: Being the Speech of Meenawannia in the Parish of Glenties. Cambridge University Press.
  9. Breatnach, Risteard B. (1947). The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-901282-50-2.
  10. Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000) (Irish mein). Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne. Dublin: Institiúaid Teangeolaíaochta Éaaireann. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-946452-97-0.
  11. Mhac an Fhailigh, Éaaamonn (1968). The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-901282-02-2.
  12. Ó Siadhail, Míacheáal (1988). Learning Irish: An Introductory Self-tutor. New Haven: Yale University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-300-04224-8.
  13. Foclóair póaaca: English-Irish/Irish-English dictionary. Dublin: An Gúam. 1993. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-85791-047-8.