vikipeediya:IPA for Hindi and Urdu

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Hindi-Urdu phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindustani.

Consonants
IPA Hindi Urdu English equivalent
b b ب abash
bʱ bh بaaھ abhor
[1] the د ado (closer to French d)
ʱ [1] dh دaaھ adhere
ɖ [1] d ڈ guard
ɖʱ [1] dh ڈaaھ guardhouse
j ج hedge
ʱ jh جaaھ hedgehog
f f ف food
ɡ g گ agate
ɡʱ gh گaaھ pigheaded
h : ح head (final only)
ɦ h ahead
j ya ي yak
k k ک scan
kʰ kh کaaھ can
l l ل leaf
m m م much
n na ن not
ɳ n ڻ burner
(Sanskrit; often [n])
ŋ n - bank
p p پ span
pʰ f پaaھ pan
(often allophonic with [f] in Hindi)
q k ق a k in the throat
(Urdu; often [k] in Hindi)
r r ر trilled r
ɽ d ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ dh ڑaaھ as [ɽ] plus h
s s س sue
ʂ sh worship
(Sanskrit; often [ʃ])
ʃ sh ش shoe
[1] t ت stable (closer to French t)
ʰ [1] th تaaھ table
ʈ [1] t ٹ art
ʈʰ [1] th ٹaaھ art-historian
ch چ catch
ʰ chh چaaھ choose
ʋ[2] va و varies between w and v
x kh خ Bach
(Urdu; often [kʰ] in Hindi)
ɣ g غ like a French r
(Urdu; often [ɡ] in Hindi)
z za ز zen
ʒ jh ژ pleasure
Vowels
IPA Hindi Urdu English equivalent
aa, pa آ, ـaaا Spanish or French a to English bra
A, pe ے between yell and Yale
ɛaaː ai, pai yell
ə a, p ـaaَ nut
[3] E, pi ی feet
ɪ [3] i, pi ـaaِ dill
O, po و old
ɔaaː au, pau law
[3] oo, poo loot
ʊ [3] u, pu ـaaُ look
̃ ain ں nasal vowel
([ãaː], [õaː], etc.)


Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant

Notes

  1. a aa i E u oo A ai To an English ear, [t̪ t̪aaʰ ʈ ʈaaʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪aaʱ ɖ ɖaaʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪aaʰ d̪] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈaaʰ ɖ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('vrat', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('pakavaan', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. a aa i E /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.