The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Today, pronunciation of Ancient Greek is mostly based on Erasmian pronunciation. However, native Greek speakers use Modern Greek pronunciations for Ancient Greek words and phrases.
See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.
Circumflex: Falling tone on long vowels and diphthongs
Stress mark: placed before the stressed syllable or vowel.
Represented in monotonic orthography by tonos.
Occurs on one of final three syllables, including any enclitics.
↑ aaaiEuoo‹aγa›, ‹aκa›, ‹aχa›, ‹aγaγa›, ‹aγaκa›, ‹aγaχa› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲaaɟ ɲaaç] only before the front vowels [i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
↑ aaa[ʎ] and [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of /li/ and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography. Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/. If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
↑‹aσa› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] eg: Σaaμaaήaaνaaοaaς[ˈaazminos]
↑ aaaiEuooAaiγaaκ, μaaπ, νaaτ usually represent [ŋaag~ɲaaɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [g~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. eg: αaaμaaπaaέaaλaaι[amˈaabe̞aali], μaaπaaαaaμaaπaaάaaς [baˈaabas]
↑The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is called Iotacism.
↑Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (eg: γaaιaaαaaγaaιaaά[ʝaaaˈaaʝaaa], κaaιaaόaaλaaαaaς[ˈaacolas], χaaιaaόaaνaaι[ˈaaçaaoni], μaaαaaγaaκaaιaaά[maˈaaɟaaa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (eg: χaaέaaρaaιaaα[ˈaace̞aarʝaaa], βaaαaaρaaιaaέaaμaaαaaι[varˈaaʝaae̞aame̞]) and [ç] follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s t͡aas] (eg: κaaαaaρaaφaaιaaά[karfˈaaçaaa], πaaοaaιaaοaaς[pçaaos], ρaaεaaβaaύaaθaaιaaα[re̞aaˈaaviθaaçaaa]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (eg: μaaιaaα[mɲaaa], κaaαaaλaaαaaμaaιaaά[kalaˈaamɲaaa]
↑When following a vowel, ‹aυa› represents a pronunciation with [f] before ‹aθa›, ‹aκa›, ‹aξa›, ‹aπa›, ‹aσa›, ‹aτa›, ‹aφa›, ‹aχa›, ‹aψa›, and a pronunciation with [v] elsewhere.