vikipeediya:IPA for Greek

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Today, pronunciation of Ancient Greek is mostly based on Erasmian pronunciation. However, native Greek speakers use Modern Greek pronunciations for Ancient Greek words and phrases.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

Consonants
Greek alphabet IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
h ἥaaρaaωaaς [hɛaǎaaːaarɔaaːaas], [ˈaairos] hero
β b v βίaaοaaς [ˈaavios] vet
γ ɡ ɣ γάaaλaaα [ˈaaɣaaala]
ʝ[1] γη [ʝaai] yellow
δ d ð δηaaμaaοaaκaaρaaαaaτaaίaaα [ðaaimokraˈaatia] then
ζ d͡aaz[2] z ζώaaνaaη [ˈaazoni] zero
θ θ θεaaοaaλaaοaaγaaίaaα [θaae̞aaoloˈaaʝaaia] thing
κ k k καaaλaaόaaς [kaˈaalos] sky
c[1] κύaaκaaλaaοaaς [ˈaaciklos] somewhat like key
λ l l λεaaξaaιaaκaaό [le̞aaksiˈaako] lie
ʎ[3] ελaaιά [e̞aaˈaaʎaaa] million
μ m m μηaaχaaαaaνaaιaaκaaόaaς [mixaniˈaakos] mine
ν n n νέaaοaaς [ˈaane̞aaos] nine
ɲ[3] νaaιόaaτaaη [ˈaaɲaaoti] onion
ξ ks ξεaaνaaοaaφaaοaaβaaίaaα [kse̞aanofoˈaavia] tax
π p πρaaόaaγaaρaaαaaμaaμaaα [ˈaaproɣaarama] spy
ρ r r[4] ρηaaτaaοaaρaaιaaκaaή [ritoriˈaaci] trilled r, as in Italian and Spanish
[5]
σ[6] s σύaaσaaτaaηaaμaaα [ˈaasistima] sea
τ t τηaaλaaέaaφaaωaaνaaο [tiˈaale̞aafono] step
φ f φαaaιaaνaaόaaμaaεaaνaaο [fe̞aaˈaanome̞aano] fly
χ x χάaaοaaς [ˈaaxaos] loch (Scottish)
ç[1] χεaaιaaρaaόaaγaaρaaαaaφaaοaaς [çaaiˈaaroɣaarafos] (often) human
ψ ps ψυaaχaaοaaθaaεaaρaaαaaπaaεaaίaaα [psixoθaae̞aaraˈaapia] tips
γaaγ ŋaaɡ, ŋaaɣ[7] αγaaγοaaύaaρaaι [aŋaaˈaaguri]/σaaυγaaγρaaαaaφaaέaaαaaς [siŋaaɣaaraˈaafe̞aaas] finger
ɲaaɟ, ŋaaʝ[1][7] άγaaγεaaλaaοaaς [ˈaaaɲaaɟaae̞aalos]/εγaaγεaaνaaήaaς [eɲaaʝaae̞aaˈaanis] angel
γaaκ ɡ, ŋaaɡ[7] εγaaκώaaμaaιaaο [e̞aaŋaaˈaagomio] good, finger
ɟ, ɲaaɟ[1][7] εγaaκυaaκaaλaaοaaπaaαaaίaaδaaεaaιaaα [e̞aaɲaaɟaaikloˈaape̞aaðaaia] argue, angular
γaaχ ŋaax[7] άγaaχοaaς [ˈaaaŋaaxos]
ɲaaç[1][7] εγaaχεaaίaaρaaιaaσaaη [e̞aaɲaaˈaaçaairisi]
γaaξ ŋaaks έaaλaaεγaaξα [ˈaae̞aale̞aaŋaaksa] thanks
μaaπ b, mb[7] εμaaπάaaθaaεaaιaaα [e̞aamˈaabaθaaia] book, amble
νaaτ d, nd[7] ενaaτάaaξaaεaaι [e̞aanˈaadaksi] duck, under
τaaσ t͡aas τaaσάaaι [ˈaat͡aasai] cats
τaaζ d͡aaz τaaζαaaζ [ˈaad͡aazaz] pads
Vowels
Greek alphabet IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
α a a αλaaφάβaaηaaτaaο [alˈaafavito] tar, spa
αaι ai̯, aj between bet and bait
ε ενέρaaγaaεaaιaaα [e̞aaˈaane̞aarʝaaia]
εaaι i[8][9] εaaνaaέaaρaaγεaaια [e̞aaˈaane̞aarʝaaia] seem
η ɛaaː ηθaaιaaκή [iθaaiˈaaci]
ι i ισaaτaaοaaρία [istoˈaaria]
υ[10] y υγaaιaaεaaιaaνaaή [iʝaaiiˈaani]
οaι ɔaai̯, oj οaικaaοaaνaaοaaμaaίaaα [ikonoˈaamia]
υaaι ui̯ υaaιόaς [iˈaaos]
ο o o ορaaγaaαaaνaaιaaσaaμός [orɣaaanizˈaamos] hope
ω ɔaaː ώρaaα [ˈaaora]
αaaυ au̯ av, af αaύρaaα [ˈaaavra] /αaaυθaaεaaνaaτaaιaaκaaόaaς [afθaaendiˈaakos] [a] then [v] / [f]
εaaυ eu̯ e̞aav, e̞aaf εaaυρaaώaaπaaη [e̞aavˈaaropi] / εaaυφaaοaaρaaίaaα [e̞aafoˈaaria] [e̞] then [v] / [f]
ηaaυ ɛaaːaau̯ iv, if εaaφηaύρaaα [e̞aaˈaafivra] / ηaaυξaaηaaμaaέaaνaaοaaς [ifksiˈaame̞aanos] [i] then [v] / [f]
οaυ u οaυτaaοaaπaaίaaα [utoˈaapia] boot
Stress and tone
IPA Examples
Ancient Greek
á Acute: High tone on short vowels
ǎaː Acute: Rising tone on long vowels and diphthongs
a Grave: low tone ([à])
âaː Circumflex: Falling tone on long vowels and diphthongs
Modern Greek
ˈaaa άaaλaaλaaοaaς
[ˈaaallos]
Stress mark: placed before the stressed syllable or vowel.
Represented in monotonic orthography by tonos.
Occurs on one of final three syllables, including any enclitics.

Notes

  1. a aa i E u oo ‹aγa›, ‹aκa›, ‹aχa›, ‹aγaγa›, ‹aγaκa›, ‹aγaχa› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲaaɟ ɲaaç] only before the front vowels [i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
  2. Also may have been /zd/.
  3. a aa [ʎ] and [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of /li/ and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography. Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/. If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
  4. May be a tap [ɾ] intervocalically.
  5. May have been /rʰ/.
  6. ‹aσa› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] eg: Σaaμaaήaaνaaοaaς [ˈaazminos]
  7. a aa i E u oo A ai γaaκ, μaaπ, νaaτ usually represent [ŋaag~ɲaaɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [g~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. eg: αaaμaaπaaέaaλaaι [amˈaabe̞aali], μaaπaaαaaμaaπaaάaaς [baˈaabas]
  8. The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is called Iotacism.
  9. Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (eg: γaaιaaαaaγaaιaaά [ʝaaaˈaaʝaaa], κaaιaaόaaλaaαaaς [ˈaacolas], χaaιaaόaaνaaι [ˈaaçaaoni], μaaαaaγaaκaaιaaά [maˈaaɟaaa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (eg: χaaέaaρaaιaaα [ˈaace̞aarʝaaa], βaaαaaρaaιaaέaaμaaαaaι [varˈaaʝaae̞aame̞]) and [ç] follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s t͡aas] (eg: κaaαaaρaaφaaιaaά [karfˈaaçaaa], πaaοaaιaaοaaς [pçaaos], ρaaεaaβaaύaaθaaιaaα [re̞aaˈaaviθaaçaaa]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (eg: μaaιaaα [mɲaaa], κaaαaaλaaαaaμaaιaaά [kalaˈaamɲaaa]
  10. When following a vowel, ‹aυa› represents a pronunciation with [f] before ‹aθa›, ‹aκa›, ‹aξa›, ‹aπa›, ‹aσa›, ‹aτa›, ‹aφa›, ‹aχa›, ‹aψa›, and a pronunciation with [v] elsewhere.

External links