vikipeediya

Wikipedia
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yoo॰aaara॰aela॰ www.wikipedia.org
naara The free encyclopedia that anyone can edit.
vyaapaarik? No
prakaar Online encyclopedia
panjeekaran Optional
bhaasha(eain) 236 active editions (267 in total)[1]
adhikaari Wikimedia Foundation (non-profit)
rachanaakaar Jimmy Wales, Larry Sanger[2]
udghaatan tithi January 15, 2001 (2001-01-15) (15 varsh pehle)
vartamaan sthiti Perpetual work-in-progress[3]
aleksa sthaan #7[4]

vikipeediya (Wikipedia) ek muft,[5] web aadhaarit aur sahayogi bahubhaashi vishvakosh (encyclopedia) hai, jo gair-laabh vikimeediya faaunadeshan se sahayog praapt pariyojana mein utpann hua. iska naam do shabdon viki (wiki) (yeh sahayogi websiton ke nirmaan ki ek takaneek hai, yeh ek havaai shabd viki hai jiska arth hai "jaldi") aur enasaaiklopeediya (encyclopedia) ka sanyojan hai. duniya bhar mein svayansevakon ke dvaara sahayog se vikipeediya ke 13 million lekh (2.9 million angreji vikipeediya mein) likhe gaye hain aur iske lagbhag sabhi lekhon ko vah koi bhi vyakti sanpaadit kar sakta hai, jo vikipeediya vebasaait ka upayog kar sakta hai.

[6] ise January 2001 mein jimmi vels aur leri seingar ke dvaara shuroo kiya gaya,[7] yeh vartamaan mein Internet par sabse lokapriya sandarbh kaarya hai. [4][8][9][10]

vikipeediya ke aalochak ise vyavasthit poorvaagrah aur asangatiyon ko doshi thaharaate hain,[11] aur aarop lagte hain ki yeh iski sampaadakeeya prakriya mein upalabdhiyon par sahamati ka paksh leti hai. [12] vikipeediya (Wikipedia) ki vishvasaneeyata aur sateekata bhi ek mudda hai.[13] anya aalochanaaon ke anusaar nakali ya asatyaapit jaankaari ka samaavesh aur vidhvansak pravruti (vandalism) bhi iske dosh hain,[14] haalaanki vidvaanon ke dvaara kiye gaye kaarya bataate hain ki vidhvansak pravruti aamtaur par alpakaalik hoti hai. [15][16]

nyuyork times ke jonaathan di,[17] aur Andrew lih ne online patrakaarita par paanchaveen antarraashtreeya sangoshthi mein,[18] vikipeediya ke mahattv ko na keval ek vishvakosh ke sandarbh mein varnit kiya balki ise ek baar baar adyatan hone vaale samaachaar srot ke roop mein bhi varnit kiya kyonki yeh haal mein hui ghatnaaon ke baare mein bahut jaldi lekh prastut karta hai.

jab time patrika ne you (You) ko varsh 2006 ke liye parsan of the iyar ki maanyata di aur bataaya ki duniya bhar mein kai million upayogakartaaon ke dvaara iska upayog kiya jaata hai aur online sahayog mein iski badhti safalta ko maanyata di, isne web 2.0 sevaao ke teen udaaharanon mein vikipeediya ko Youtube (YouTube) aur maaispes (MySpace) ke saath rakha. [19]

anukram

itihaas

vikipeediya moolat: ek aur vishvakosh pariyojana, nyoopeediya (Nupedia) se viksit hua.

vikipeediya, nyoopeediya (Nupedia) ke liye ek poorak pariyojana ke roop mein shuroo hui, jo ek muft online angreji bhaasha ki vishvakosh pariyojana hai, jiske lekhon ko visheshagyon ke dvaara likha gaya aur ek aupachaarik prakriya ke tahat iski sameeksha ki gayi.

nyoopeediya ki sthaapana 9 March 2000 ko ek web portal company bomis, ink ke svaamitv ke tahat ki gayi.

iske mukhya sadasya the, Jimmy vels, bomis CEO aur leri seingar, nyoopeediya ke editor-in-cheef aur baad ke vikipeediya. praarambh mein nyoopeediya ko iske apne nyoopeediya open kanteint license ke tahat license diya gaya aur richrd staalamen ke sujhaav par vikipeediya ki sthaapana se pehle ise GNU ke muft dokyumeinteshan license mein badal diya gaya. [20]

lairi seingar aur Jimmy vels vikipeediya (Wikipedia) ke sansthaapak hain.

[21][22] jahaan ek or vels ko saarvajanik roop se sanpaadan yogya vishvakosh ke nirmaan ke uddeshya ko paribhaashit karne ke shreya diya jaata hai,[23][24] seingar ko aamtaur par is uddeshya ko poora karne ke liye ek viki ki rananeeti ka upayog karne ka shreya diya jaata hai.

[25] 10 January 2001 ko, leri seingar ne nyoopeediya ke liye ek "feedar pariyojana" ke roop mein ek viki ka nirmaan karne ke liye nyoopeediya meling soochi ki prastaavana di. [26] vikipeediya ko aupachaarik roop se 15 January 2001 ko, www.wikipedia.com par ekamaatr angreji bhaasha ke sanskaran ke roop mein shuroo kiya gaya.[27] or iski ghoshana nyoopeediya meling soochi par seingar ke dvaara ki gayi. [23] vikipeediya ki "nyootral point of vyoo"[28] ki neeti ko iske praarambhik maheenon mein sanketabaddh kiya gaya, or yeh nyoopeediya ki praarambhik "pakshapaataheen" neeti ke samaan thi. anyatha, praarambh mein apekshaakrut kam niyam the aur vikeepeediya nyoopeediya se svatantr roop se kaarya karti thi.

[23]

angreji vikipeediya ki lekh ginti ka lekha-chitr, 10 January 2001 se, 9 sitmbar 2007 tak (das miliynavein lekh ki taareekh)

vikipeediya ne nyoopeediya se praarambhik yogadaanakarta praapt kiye, ye the sleshadaut posting aur sarch engine indeksing. 2001 ke ant tak iske lagbhag 20,000 lekh aur 18 bhaashaaoain ke sanskaran ho chuke the.

2002 ke ant tak iske 26 bhaashaaoain ke sanskaran ho gaye, 2003 ke ant tak 46 aur 2004 ke antim dinon tak 161 bhaashaaoain ke sanskaran ho gaye.[29] nyoopeediya aur vikipeediya tab tak ek saath upasthit the jab pehle vaale ke sarvar ko sthaayi roop se 2003 mein daaun kar diya gaya aur iske paathya ko vikipeediya mein daal diya gaya. 9 sitmbar 2007 ko angreji vikipeediya 2 million lekh ki sankhya ko paar kar gaya, yeh tab tak ka sabse bada sankalit vishvakosh ban gaya, yahaan tak ki isne yongal vishvakosh ke record (1407) ko bhi tod diya, jisne 600 varshon ke liye kaayam rakha tha. [30]

ek kathit angreji kendrit vikipeediya mein niyantran ki kami aur vaanijyik vigyaapan ki aashanka se, Spanish vikipeediya ke upayogakarta February 2002 mein Enciclopedia Libre ke nirmaan ke liye vikipeediya se alag ho gaye.[31] baad mein usi varsh, vels ne ghoshit kiya ki vikipeediya vijnyaaapanon ka pradarshan naheen karega aur iski vebasaait ko wikipedia.org mein sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya.

[32] tab se kai anya pariyojanaaon ko sampaadakeeya kaaranon se vikipeediya se alag kiya gaya hai.

vikiinfo ke liye kisi udaaseen drushtikon ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai aur yeh mool anusandhaan ki anumati deta hai.

vikipeediya se prerit nayi pariyojanaaen-jaise siteejeindiym (Citizendium), skaularapeediya (Scholarpedia), kanjarvaapeediya (Conservapedia) aur googals nol (Knol)[krupaya uddharan jodein]-vikeepeediya ki kathit seemaaon ko sambodhit karne ke liye shuroo ki gayi hain, jaise sahakarmi sameeksha, mool anusandhaan aur vaanijyik vijnyaaapanapar iski neetiyaan.

vikipeediya foundation ka nirmaan 20 June 2003 ko vikipeediya aur nyoopeediya se kiya gaya.

[33] ise 17 sitmbar 2004 ko vikipeediya ko tredamaark karne ke liye tredamaark kaaryaalaya aur ameriki peteint par laagoo kiya gaya. is mark ko 10 January 2006 ko panjeekaran ka darja diya gaya. 16 December 2004 ko Japan ke dvaara tredamaark sanrakshan upalabdh karaaya gaya aur 20 January 2005 ko Europeeya sangh ke dvaara tredamaark sanrakshan upalabdh karaaya gaya.

takaneeki roop se ek service mark, mark ka skop "Internet ke maadhyam se aam vishvakosh ke gyaan ke kshetr mein jaankaari ke praavadhaan" ke liye hai,[krupaya uddharan jodein] kuchh utpaadon jaise pustakon aur DVDs ke liye vikipeediya tredamaark ke upayog ko license dene ki yojanaayein banaayi ja rahi hain. [34]

vikipeediya ki prakruti

sanpaadan pratiroop

[[chitr:Wiki feel stupid v2.ogvIMAGE_OPTIONSIn April 2009, the conducted a Wikipedia usability study, questioning users about the editing mechanism.REF_START paaramparik vishvakoshon jaise ensaaiklopeediya britenika (Encyclopæadia Britannica) ke vipreet, vikipeediya ke lekh kisi aupachaarik sahakarmi sameeksha ki prakriya se hokar naheen gujarte hain aur lekh mein parivartan tunrat upalabdh ho jaate hain. kisi bhi lekh par iske nirmaata ya kisi anya sampaadak ka adhikaar naheen hai aur na hi kisi maanyata praapt praadhikran ke dvaara iska nireekshan kiya ja sakta hai.

kuchh hi aise vidhvans-pravan pej hain jinhein keval inke sthaapit upayogakartaaon ke dvaara hi sanpaadit kiya ja sakta hai, ya vishesh maamalon mein keval prashaasakon ke dvaara sanpaadit kiya ja sakta hai, har lekh ko gumanaam roop mein ya ek upayogakarta ke account ke saath sanpaadit kiya ja sakta hai, jabki keval panjeekrut upayogakarta hi ek naya lekh bana sakte hain (keval angreji sanskaran mein). iske parinaamasvaroop, vikipeediya apne avayavon "ki vaidyata ki koi guaranty naheen" deta hai. [35] ek saamaanya sandarbh kaarya hone ke kaaran, vikipeediya mein kuchh aisi saamagri bhi hai jise vikipeediya ke sampaadkon sahit kuchh log[36] aakraamak, aapattijanak aur ashleel maanate hain.

[37] udaaharan ke liye, 2008 mein, vikipeediya, ne is niti ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue, apne angreji sanskaran mein, muhammad ke varnan ko shaamil karne ke khilaaf ek ek online yaachika ko asveekaar kar diya. vikipeediya mein raajaneetik roop se samvedansheel saamagri ki upasthiti ke kaaran, people's ripblik of China ne is website ke kuchh bhaagon ka upayog ko pratibandhit kar diya.[38] (yeh bhi dekhein: vikipeediya ke IWF block)

vikipeediya ke avayav florida mein kaanoon ke adheen hain (vishesh kaupeeraait kaanoon mein), jahaan vikipeediya ke sarvaron ki mejabaani ki jaati hai aur kai sampaadakeeya neetiyaan aur dishaanirdesh is baat par bal dete hain ki vikipeediya ek vishvakosh hai. vikipeediya mein pratyek pravishti ek vishay ke baare mein honi chaahiye jo vishvakosh se sambandhit hai aur is prakaar se shaamil kiye jaane ke yogya hai.

ek vishay vishvakosh se sambandhit samjha ja sakta hai yadi yeh vikipeediya ke shabdajaal mein "ullekhaneeya" hai,[39] arthaat, yadi isne un maadhyamik vishvasaneeya sroton mein mahatvapoorn kavarej praapt kiya hai (arthaat mukhyadhaara media ya mukhya academic journal), jo is vishay ke maamale se svatantr hain. doosra, vikipeediya ko keval usi gyaan ko pradarshit karna hai jo pehle se hi sthaapit aur maanyata praapt hai.[40] doosare shabdon mein, udaaharan ke liye ise nayi jaankaari aur mool kaarya ko prastut naheen karna chaahiye.

ek daava jise chunauti di ja sakti hai, use vishvasaneeya sootron ke sandarbh ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

vikipeediya samudaaya ke bheetar, ise aksar "verifiability, not truth" ke roop mein bataaya jaata hai, yeh is vichaar ko vyakt karta hai ki paathak khud lekh mein prastut hone waali saamagri ki sachchaai ki jaanch kar sakein aur is vishay mein apni khud ki vyaakhya banaayein. [41] ant mein, vikipeediya ek paksh naheen leta hai.[42] sabhi vichaar aur drushtikon, yadi baahari sroton ko nirdisht kar sakte hain, unhein ek lekh ke bheetar kavarej ka upayukt hissa milna chaahiye.

[43] vikipeediya ke sampaadak ek samudaaya ke roop mein un neetiyon aur dishaanirdeshon ko likhte hain aur sanshodhit karte hain,[44] aur unhein dileet karke un par bal dete hain, taig laga kar unki vyaakhya karte hain, ya lekh ki us saamagri mein sanshodhan karte hain jo usaki jarooraton ko poora karne mein asafal hoti hain. (deeleet karna aur shaamil karna bhi dekhein)[45][46]

sampaadak ek pej ke do doharaanon ke beech antar ki jaanch karke lekhon mein kiye jaane vaale parivrtanon ka pata lagte hain, ise yahaan laal rang mein pradarshit kiya gaya hai.

yogadaanakarta, chaahe ve panjeekrut hon ya naheen, software mein upalabdh un suvidhaaon ka laabh utha sakte hain, jo vikipeediya ko prabal banaati hain. pratyek lekh se juda "itihaas" ka prushth lekh ke pratyek pichhle doharaan ka record rakhata hai, haalaanki abhiyogapatr ke avayavon, aaparaadhik dhamaki ya kaupeeraait ke ullanghan ke doharaan ko baad mein hataaya ja sakta hai. [47][48] yeh suvidha puraane aur nae sanskaranon ki tulana ko aasaan banaati hai, un parivrtanon ko andoo karne mein madad karti hai jo sampaadak ko anaavashyak lagte hain, ya khoye hue avayavon ko reestor karne mein bhi madad karti hai.

pratyek lekh se sambandhit "discussion (charcha)" ke prushth kai sampaadkon ke beech kaarya ka samanvaya karne ke liye prayukt kiye jaate hain. [49] niyamit yogadaanakarta aksar, apni roochi ke lekhon ki ek "vauchalist" bana kar rakhate hain, taaki ve un lekhon mein haal hi mein hue sabhi parivrtanon par aasaani se taibs rakh sakein. bots naamak computer program ke nirmaan ke baad se hi iska prayog vyaapak roop se vidhvans pravruti ko hataane ke liye kiya jaata raha hai,[16] iska prayog galat vartani aur shaileegat muddon ko sahi karne ke liye aur saankhyikeeya aankadon se maanak praaroop mein bhoogol ki pravishtiyon jaise lekh ko shuroo karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.

sanpaadan model ka khula svabhaav vikipeediya ke adhikaansh aalochakon ke liye kendra bana raha hai. udaaharan ke liye, kisi bhi avsar par, ek lekh ka paathak yeh sunishchit naheen kar sakta ki jis lekh ko vah padh raha hai usamein vidhvans pravruti shaamil hai ya naheen. aalochak tark dete hain ki gair visheshagya sampaadan gunavatta ko kam kar deta hai.

kyonki yogadaanakarta aam taur par poore doharaan ke bajaay ek pravishti ke chhote hisse ko pun: likhte hain, ek pravishti mein uchch aur nimn gunavatta ke avayav paraspar mishrit ho sakte hain. itihaasakaar Roy rojenajaveeg ne kaha: "kul milaakar, lekhan vikipeediya ka kamjor aadhaar hai.

samitiyaan kabhi kabhi achha likhti hain aur vikipeediya ki pravishtiyon ki gunavatta aksar asthir hoti hai jo bhinn logon ke dvaara likhe gaye vaakyon ya prakaranon ke paraspar milne ka parinaam hoti hain. " [50] ye sabhi sateek soochana ke ek srot ke roop mein vikipeediya ki vishvasaneeyata par savaal paida karte hain.

2008 mein, do shodhakartaaon ne siddhaant diya ki vikipeediya ka vikaas satat hai. [51]

vishvasaneeyata aur poorvaagrah

inhein bhi dekhein: Criticism of Wikipedia

vikipeediya par vyavasthit poorvaagrah aur asangati pradarshit karne ka aarop lagaaya gaya hai;[13] aalochakon ka tark hai ki adhikaansh jaankaari ke liye upayukt sroton ki kami aur vikeepeediya ka khula svabhaav ise avishvasaneeya banaata hai. [52] kuchh tippaneekaaron ka sujhaav hai ki vikipeediya aamtaur par vishvasaneeya hai, lekin kisi bhi diye gaye lekh ki vishvasaneeyata hamesha spasht naheen hoti hai.[12] paaramparik sandarbh kaarya jaise ensaaiklopeediya britenika (Encyclopæadia Britannica) ke sampaadak, ek vishvakosh ke roop mein pariyojana ki upayogita aur pratishtha par savaal uthaate hain.

[53] vishvavidyaalayon ke kai pravakta academic kaarya mein kisi bhi enasaaiklopeediya, ka praathamik srot ke roop mein upayog karne se chhaatron ko hatotsaahit karte hain;[54] kuchh to vishesh roop se vikipeediya ke upayog ko nishiddh karte hain.[55] sah sansthaapak Jimmy vels is baat par jor dete hai ki kisi bhi prakaar ka vishvakosh aamtaur par praathamik srot ke roop mein upayukt naheen hain aur praadhikrut ke roop se is par bharosa naheen kiya jaana chaahiye.[56]

John seejenathelar ne vikipeediya ko ek "ek gair jimmedaar aur trutipoorn tool" ke roop mein varnit kiya hai. [110]

upayogakartaaon ki gopaneeyata ke parinaamasvaroop lekhe-jokhe ki kshamata ki kami ke sambandh mein bhi mudde uthaaye gaye hain,[57] saath hi krutrim soochana ki pravishti, vidhvans pravruti aur isi tarah ki anya samasyaaen bhi saamane aayi hain. vishesh roop se ek ghatna, jiska bahut prachaar hua, mein ameriki raajaneetijnya John seejenathelar ki jeevani ke baare mein galat jaankaari daal di gayi aur chaar maheene tak iska pata naheen lagaaya ja saka. [58]USA tude ke faaunding editorial director aur veindarabilt vishvavidyaalaya mein freedom forum first American center ke sansthaapak John seejenathelar ne Jimmy vels ko bulaaya aur usase poochha, ".... kya aap.............jaante hain ki yeh kisne likha hai?""naheen, ham naheen jaante", Jimmy ne kaha.[59] kuchh aalochakon ka daava hai ki vikipeediya ki khuli saranchana ke kaaran Internet utpeedk, vijnyaaapanadaata aur ve log jo koi hamla bolna chaahate hain, ise aasaani se lakshya banaate hain.[47][60]ameriki pratinidhi sabha aur vishesh hit ke samoohon sahit sangathanon ke dvaara diye gaye lekhon mein raajanitik pariprekshya[14] shaamil kiya gaya hai,[61] aur sangathan jaise maaikrosoft ne vishesh lekhon par kaam karne ke liye vitteeya bhatte dene ka prastaav rakha hai.[62] in muddon ko mukhya roop se kolabart report mein Stefan kolabart ke dvaara khraab tareeke se prastut kiya gaya hai.

[63]

2009 ki pustak the vikipeediya revolushan ke lekhak Andrew lih ke anusaar, "ek viki mein iski sabhi gatividhiyaan khule mein hoti hain taaki inki jaanch ki ja sake......

samudaaya mein anya logon ki kriyaaon ke prekshan ke dvaara bharosa paida kiya jaata hai, iske liye logon ki saamaan aur poorak ruchiyon ka pata lagaaya jaata hai."

[64] arthashaastri taayalar koven likhte hain, "yadi mujhe yeh sochana pade ki arthashaastr par vikipeediya ke journal lekh sach hain ya ya meediyn sambandhi lekh sach hain, to main vikipeediya ko chunoonga, iske liye mujhe jyaada sochana naheen padega." vah tippani dete hain ki naun-fikshan ke kai paaramparik srot pranaaleegat poorvaagrahon se peedit hai.

journal lekh mein naveen parinaamon ki report jarurat se jayaada di jaati hai aur praasangik jaankaari ko samaachaar report mein se hata diya jaata hai. haalaanki, ve yeh chetaavani bhi dete hain ki Internet ki saaiton par trutiyaan aksar paayi jaati hain aur shikshaavidon tatha visheshagyon ko inhein sudhaarane ke liye satark rahana chaahiye, [65]

fravari 2007 mein, the Harvard krimsan akhbaar mein ek lekh mein kaha gaya ki Harvard vishvavidyaalaya mein kuchh professor apne paathyakram mein vikipeediya ko shaamil karte hain, lekin vikipeediya ka upayog karne mein unki avadhaarana mein matabhed hai. [66] June 2007 mein ameriki laaibreri association ke bhootapoorv adhyaksh Michael gormanane Google ke saath, vikipeediya ko nindan kiya,[67] aur kaha ki ve shikshaavid jo vikipeediya ke upayog ka samarthan karte hain "bauddhik roop se us aahaar visheshagya ke samatulya hain jo sab cheejon ke saath big maiks ke nirantar aahaar ki salaah dete hain."


unhonne yeh bhi kaha ki "bauddhik roop se nishkriya logon ki ek peedhi jo intaranet se aage badhne mein asamarth hai", use vishvavidyaalayon mein utpann kiya ja raha hai. unki shikaayat hai ki web aadhaarit srot us adhik durlabh paathya ko seekhane se rok rahe hain jo ya to keval dastaavejon mein milta hai ya sabaskripshan-onali (jinmein sadasyata li jaati hai) vebasaaits par milta hai. isi lekh mein jenni fraai (oksaford Internet sansthaan mein ek anusandhaan saathi) ne vikipeediya ki academic shiksha par tippani di ki: "aap yeh naheen kah sakte hain ki bachche bauddhik roop se aalasi hain kyonki ve Internet ka upayog kar rahein hain jabki doosari or shikshaavid apne anusandhaan mein sarch engine ka upayog kar rahe hain. antar yeh hai ki unhein jo bhi unhein praapt ho raha hai, vah adhikaarik hai ya naheen aur iske baare mein jatil hone ka unhein adhik anubhav hai. bachchon ko yeh bataane ki aavashyakta hai ki ek mahatvapoorn aur uchit tareeke se Internet ka upayog kaise kiya jaaye. "[67]

vikipeediya samudaaya ne vikipeediya ki vishvasaneeyata ko sudhaarane ki koshish ki hai. angreji bhaasha ke vikipeediya ne moolyaankan paimaane ki shuruaat ki jisse lekh ki gunavatta ki jaanch ki jaati hai;[68] anya sanskaranon ne bhi ise apna liya hai. angraji mein lagbhag 2500 lekh "feechard aartikl" ke darje ke uchchatam raink tak pahunchane ke liye maapadandon ke samuchchaya ko paas kar chuke hain;[69] aise lekh apne vishay mein sampoorn aur bhali prakaar se likha gaya kavarej upalabdh karaate hain, jinhein kai sahakarmi sameeksha prakaashanon ke dvaara samarthan praapt hai.[70] jrman vikipeediya, lekhon ke "sthir sanskaranon" ke rakh rakhaav ki ek pranaali ka pareekshan kar raha hai,[71] taaki yeh ek paathak ko lekh ke un sanskaranon ko dekhne mein madad kare jo vishisht sameekshaaon se hokar gujar chuke hain. anya bhaashaaoain ke sanskaran is "dhvajaankit sanshodhan" ke prastaav ko laagoo karne ke liye ek sahamati tak naheen pahunche hain.[72][73] ek aur prastaav yeh hai ki vyaktigat vikipeediya yogadaanakartaaon ke liye "trast rating" banaane ke liye software ka upayog aur in retings ka upayog yeh nirdhaarit karne mein karna ki kaun se parivartan tunrat dikhaayi deinge. [74]

vikipeediya samudaaya

vikipeediya samudaaya ne "a bureaucracy of sorts" ki sthaapana ki hai, jismein "ek spasht satta saranchana shaamil hai jo swayam sevi prashaasakon ko sampaadakeeya niyantran ka adhikaar deti hai.

[75][76][77] vikipeediya ke samudaaya ko "panth ki tarah (cult-like)" ke roop mein bhi varnit kiya gaya hai,[78] haalaanki ise hamesha poori tarah se nakaaraatmak abhidhaan ke saath is tarah se varnit naheen kiya gaya hai,[79] aur anubhavaheen upayogakartaaon ko samaayojit karne ki asafalata ke liye iski aalochna ki jaati hai.[80] samudaaya mein achhi pratishtha ke sampaadak swayamsevak stevardaship ke kai staron mein se ek ko chala sakte hain; yeh "prashaasak" ke saath shuroo hota hai,[81][82] visheshaadhikrut upayogakartaaon ka ek samooh jiske paas prushthon ko deeleet karne ki kshamata hai, vidhvans pravruti ya sampaadakeeya vivaadon ki sthiti mein lekh mein parivartan ko rok (lock) dete hain aur upayogakartaaon ke sampaadan ko avaruddh kar dete hain. naam ke alaava, prashaasak faisala lene mein kisi bhi visheshaadhikaar ka upayog naheen karte hain; iske bajaay ve adhiktar un lekhon ke sanpaadan tak hi seemit hote hain, jinmein pariyojana vyaapak prabhaav hote hain aur is prakaar se ye saamaanya sampaadkon ko anumati naheen dete hain aur upayogakartaaon ko vightanakaari sanpaadan (jaise vidhvans pravruti) ke liye pratibandhit kar dete hain. [83]

vikeemeniya, vikipeediya ke upayogakartaaon ke liye ek vaarshik sammalen aur vikimeediya faaunadeshan ke dvaara sanchaalit anya pariyojanaaen.

choonki vikipeediya vishvakosh nirmaan ke aparanparaagat modal ke saath viksit hota hai, "vikipeediya ko kaun likhta hai?" yeh pariyojana ke baare mein baar baar, aksar anya web 2.0 pariyojanaaon jaise dig ke sandarbh mein poochhe jaane vaale prashnon mein se ek ban gaya hai. [84] Jimmy vels ne ek baar tark kiya ki keval "ek samudaaya... kuchh sau svayansevakon ka ek samarpit samooh" vikipeediya ko bahut adhik yogadaan deta hai aur isliye pariyojana "kisi paaramparik sangathan se adhik milti julati hai" vels ne ek adhyayan mein paaya ki 50% se adhik sanpaadan keval .7% upayogakartaaon ke dvaara hi kiye jaate hain, (us samay par: 524 log)

yogadaan ke moolyaankan ki is vidhi par baad mein Aaron savaartj ne vivaad uthaaya unhonne not kiya ki kai lekh jin par unhonne adhyayan kiya, unke avayavon ke ek bade bhaag mein upayogakartaaon ne kam sampaadan ke saath yogadaan diya tha. [85] 2007 mein daartamaauth college ke shodhakartaaon ne adhyayan mein yeh paaya ki "vikipeediya ke gumanaam aur virle yogadaanakarta.........gyaan ke srot ke roop mein utane hi vishvasaneeya hain, jitne ki ve yogadaanakarta jo saait ke saath panjeekaran karte hain." [86] haalaanki kuchh yogadaanakarta apne kshetr mein praadhikaari hain, vikipeediya ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki yahaan tak ki unke yogadaanakarta ko prakaashit aur nireekshan ke sootron dvaara samarthan praapt ho.

pariyojana ki yogyata par sahamati ki praathamikta ko "utkrusht-virodhi" ke roop mein chinhit kiya gaya hai.[11]

August 2007 mein, virgeel grifith dvaara viksit ek vebasaait vikiskenar ne vikipeediya ke khaaton ke bina benaam sampaadkon ke dvaara vikipeediya mein kiye jaane vaale parivartan ke sroton ka pata lagaana shuroo kiya. is kaaryakram ne prakat kiya ki kai aise sanpaadan nigmon ya sarkaari agencyon ke dvaara kiye gaye jinmein un se sambandhit, unke karmachaariyon ya unke kaaryon se sambandhit lekhon ke avayavon ko badla gaya.[87]

2003 mein ek samudaaya ke roop mein vikipeediya ke ek adhyayan mein, arthashaastr ke pi.H.di. vidyaarthi Andre sifolili ne tark diya ki viki software mein bhaag lene ki kam len den laagat sahayogi vikaas ke liye ek utprerak ka kaam karti hai aur yeh ki ek "nirmaanaatmak rachana" drushtikon bhaageedaari ko protsaahit karta hai. [88] oksford Internet sansthaan aur Harvard law skools barkmen center for Internet end society ke jonaathan jeetaren ne apni 2008 ki pustak the future of the intaranet end how tu staap it mein kaha kaise khule sahayog mein ek case adhyayan ke roop mein vikipeediya ki safalta ne web mein navaachaar ko badhaava diya hai. [89] 2008 mein kiye gaye ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki vikipeediya ke upayogakarta, gair-vikipeediya upayogakartaaon ki tulana mein kam khule aur sahamat hone ke kam yogya the haalaanki ve adhik imaandaar the.[90][91]

vikipeediya sainapost angreji vikipeediya par samudaaya akhbaar hai,[92] aur iski sthaapana vikimediya foundation nyaasi mandal ke vartamaan adhyaksh aur prashaasak Michael sno ke dvaara ki gayi.[93] yeh site se khabaron aur ghatnaaon ko shaamil karta hai aur saath hi sambandhi pariyojanaaon jaise vikimeediya komans se mukhya ghatnaaon ko bhi shaamil karta hai. [94]

opareshan

vikimidiya foundation aur vikimidiya adhyaaya

vikeemeediya foundation prateek

vikipeediya ki mejabaani aur vittaposhan vikimeediya faaunadeshan ke dvaara kiya jaata hai, yeh ek gair laabh sangathan hai jo vikipeediya se sambandhit pariyojanaaon jaise vikibuks ka bhi sanchaalan karta hai. vikimediya ke adhyaaya, vikipeediya ke upayogakartaaon ka sthaaneeya sahayog bhi pariyojana ki padonnati, vikaas aur vitt poshan mein bhaag leta hai.

software aur haardaveyar

vikipeediya ka sanchaalan meedyaaviki par nirbhar hai. yeh ek custom-nirmit, muft aur khula srot viki software pletaform hai, jise PHP mein likha gaya hai aur MySQL detaabes par banaaya gaya hai.[95] is software mein prograaming visheshataaen shaamil hain jaise mekro leingvej, veriyebals, a traansaklujan system for tempalets aur URL reedaayarekshan. meedyaaviki ko GNU general pablik license ke tahat license praapt hai aur iska upayog sabhi vikimeediya pariyojanaaon aur kai anya viki pariyojanaaon ke dvaara kiya jaata hai. mool roop se, vikipeediya klifford edams (pehla charan) dvaara parl mein likhe gaye yoojamodaviki par chalta tha, jise praarambh mein lekh haaiparalink ke liye kemalakes ki aavashyakta hoti thi; vartamaan double breket pranaali ka samaavesh baad mein kiya gaya. January 2002 (dviteeya charan) mein shuroo hokar, vikipeediya ne MySQL detaabes ke saath ek PHP viki engine par chalana shuroo kar diya; yeh software maagnas maansake ke dvaara vikipeediya ke liye custom-nirmit tha. doosare charan ke software ko teevr gati se badhti maang ko samaayojit karne ke liye baar baar sanshodhit kiya gaya. July 2002 (teesare charan) mein, vikipeediya teesari peedhi ke software mein sthaanaantarit ho gaya, yeh midiya viki tha jise mool roop se li Daniel krokar ke dvaara likha gaya tha.

[96] meedyaaviki software ki kaaryakshamata badhaane ke liye kai meedyaaviki vistaar insataal kiye gaye hain. April 2005 mein ek lyusen vistaar[97][98] ko midiya viki ke bilt-in sarch mein joda gaya aur vikipeediya sarching ke liye MySQL se lyusen mein badal gaya. vartamaan mein lyusen sarch 2,[99] jo ki jaava mein likhi gayi hai aur lyusen laayabreri 2.0 par aadhaarit hai,[100] ka prayog kiya jaata hai.

pranaali vaastukala ka valokan, April 2009.meta-viki par sarvar leaaut chitr dekhein.

vikipeediya vartamaan mein links sarvar (mukhya roop se ubuntu), ke samarpit samoohon par,[101][102] jed ef S ke liye kuchh opanasolaaris masheenon ke saath sanchaalit hai. February 2008 mein, florida mein 300, emstaradaam mein 26 aur 23 Yahoo! ke Koreai hosting suvidha siyol mein theen.[103] 2004 tak vikipeediya ne ekamaatr sarvar ka prayog kiya, iske baad sarvar pranaali ko ek vitrit bahustareeya vaastukala mein vistrut kiya gaya. January 2005 mein, yeh pariyojana, florida mein sthit 39 samarpit sarvaron par sanchaalit thi. is vinyaas mein MySQL chalaane wala ekamaatr master detaabes sarvar, maltipl slev detaabes sarvar, apaache HTTP sarvar ko chalne vaale 21 web sarvar aur saat skveed keche sarvar shaamil hain.

vikipeediya din ke samay ke aadhaar par prati second 25,000 aur 60,000 ke beech prushth anurodhon ko praapt karta hai.

[104] prushth anurodhon ko pehle skveed kaiching sarvar ki saamane ke ant ki parat ko paas kiya jaata hai. [105] jin anurodhon ko skveed keche se sarv naheen kiya ja sakta hai, unhein links varchual sarvar software chalaane vaale lod-beleinsing sarvaron ko bhej diya jaata hai, jo badle mein detaabes se prushth pratipaadan ke liye apaache web sarvaron mein se ek ko yeh anurodh bhej deta hai. web sarvar anurodh ke anusaar prushthon ki delivery karta hai aur vikipeediya ke sabhi bhaashaaoain ke sanskaranon ke liye prushth pratipaadan karta hai.

gati ko aur badhaane ke liye, pratipaadit prushthon ko ek vitrit smruti keche mein amaanya karne tak rakha jaata hai, jisse adhikaansh aam prushthon ke upayog ke liye prushth pratipaadan poori tarah se chook jaata hai.

Netherland aur Korea mein do bade samooh ab vikipeediya ke adhikaansh trefik lod ko sanbhaalate hain.

license aur bhaasha sanskaran

inhein bhi dekhein: List of Wikipedias

vikipeediya mein sabhi paathya GNU free dokyumeinteshan license (GFDL) ke dvaara kavar kiya gaya, yeh ek kaupeeleft license hai jo punarvitran, vyutpann kaaryon ke nirmaan aur avayavon ke vaanijyik upayog ki anumati deta hai, jabki lekhak apne kaarya ke kaupeeraait ko banaaye rakhate hain,[106] June 2009 tak, jab saait kriyetiv komans etareebyooshan-share alaaik (CC-by-SA) 3.0 ko sthaanaantarit ho gayi. [107] vikipeediya kriyetiv kaumans laaisens ki or sthaanaantaran par kaarya karti rahi hai, kyonki jo GFDL praarambh mein software menaval ke liye design ki gayi, vah online sandarbh kaaryon ke liye upayukt naheen hai, or kyonki donon license asangat the. [108] November 2008 mein vikimeediya foundation ke anurodh ki pratikriya mein, free software foundation (FSF) ne GFDL ke nae sanskaran ko jaari kiya, jise vishesh roop se 1 August 2009 ko relicense its content to CC-BY-SA ke liye vikipeediya ko samaayojit karne ke liye design kiya gaya tha. vikipeediya or iski sambandhi pariyojanaaon ne ek samudaaya vyaapak janamat sangrah ka aayojan kiya taaki yeh faisala liya ja sake ki is license ko badla jaana chaahiye ya naheen. [109] yeh janamat sangrah 9 April se 30 April tak kiya gaya.[110] parinaam the 75.8% "haaain", 10.5% "naheen" aur 13.7% "koi rai naheen"[111] is janamat sangrah ke parinaam mein, vikeemeediya nyaasi mandal ne kriyetiv kaumans laaisens ko, prabhaavi 15 June 2009 se badalne ke liye matadaan kiya.[111] yeh sthiti ki vikipeediya sirf ek mejabaan seva hai, iska upayog safalataapoorvak adaalat mein ek bachaav ke roop mein kiya gaya hai.[112][113]

angreji mein sabhi vikipeediya lekhon ka pratishat (laal) aur sheersh ke das sabse badi bhaasha ke sanskaran (neela). July 2007 mein, vikipeediya lekh ke kam se kam 23% angreji mein hain.

media faailon (udaaharan chhavi faailein) ki heindaling ka tareeka bhaasha sanskaran ke anusaar alag alag hota hai. kuchh bhaasha sanskaran jaise angreji vikipeediya mein uchit upayog siddhaant ke arntagat gair muft chhavi faailein shaamil hain jabki anya mein aisa naheen hota hai.

yeh bhinn deshon ke beech kaupeeraait kaanoonon mein antar ke kaaran aanshik hai; udaaharan ke liye, uchit upayog ki dhaarana Japani kaupeeraait kaanoon mein maujood naheen hai.

muft saamagri license ke dvaara kavar ki jaane waali midiya faailein, (udaaharan kriyetiv komans cc-by-sa) ko vikimeediya komans ripojitri ke maadhyam se bhaasha sanskaranon mein share kiya jaata hai, yeh vikimeediya foundation dvaara sanchaalit pariyojana hai.

vartamaan mein vikipeediya ke 262 bhaasha sanskaran hain; inmein se 24 bhaashaaon mein 100,000 se adhik lekh hai aur 81 bhaashaaon mein 1,000 se adhik lekh hai.[1] eleksa ke anusaar, angreji upadomen (en.wikipedia.org; angreji vikipeediya) anya bhaashaaoain mein shesh vibhaajan ke saath vikipeediya ke kul trefik ka 52% bhaag praapt karta hai (Spanish: 19%, French: 5%, paulish: 3%, jarman: 3%, Japani: 3%, purtagaali: 2%). [4] July 2008 ko, paanch sabse bade bhaasha sanskaran hain (lekh ganana ke kram mein)- angreji, jarman, French, paulish aur Japani vikipeediya.[114]

choonki vikipeediya web aadhaarit hai aur isliye poori duniya mein samaan bhaasha sanskaran ke yogadaanakarta bhinn boliyon ka prayog kar sakte hain ya bhinn deshon se aa sakte hain (jaisa ki angreji sanskaran ke maamale mein hota hai) in antaron ke kaaran vartani antar (jaise rang banaam rang)[115] ya drushtikon par kuchh matabhed ho sakte hain. [116] haalaanki vaishvik neetiyon jaise "nyootral point of vyoo" ke liye kai bhaashaaoain ke sanskaran hain, ve neeti aur abhyaas ke kuchh binduon par vitrit ho jaate hain, sabse visheshakar un chhaviyon par jinhein muft license praapt naheen hua hai, unka upayog uchit upayog ke ek daave ke arntagat kiya ja sakta hai. [117][118][119]

sitmbar 2006 mein desh ke anusaar angreji vikipeediya ke liye yogadaanakarta. [241]

Jimmy vels ne vikipeediya ko is prakaar se varnit kiya hai, "grah par har ek vyakti ke liye unki apni bhaasha mein uchchatam sambhav gunavatta ka ek muft vishvakosh banaane aur vitrit karne ka ek prayaas". [120] haalaanki pratyek bhaasha sanskaran kam ya adhik svatantr roop se kaarya karta hai, un sab par nigraani rakhane ke liye kuchh prayaas kiye jaate hain. ve aanshik roop se meta viki ke dvaara samanvit kiye jaate hain, vikimeediya foundation ka viki iski sabhi pariyojanaaon (vikipeediya aur anya) ke rakh rakhaav ke liye samarpit hai. [121] udaaharan ke liye, meta-viki vikipeediya ke sabhi bhaasha sanskaranon par mahatvapoorn aankade upalabdh karta hai,[122] aur yeh har vikipeediya mein aavashyak lekhon ki soochi rakhata hai.[123] yeh soochi vishay ke anusaar mool avayavon se prasang rakhati hai: jeevani, itihaas, bhoogol, samaaj, sanskruti, vigyaan, praudyogiki, khaadya padaarth aur ganit.

shesh ke liye, vishesh bhaasha se sambandhit lekh ke liye anya sanskaranon mein samakaksh na hona durlabh naheen hai.

udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein chhote shaharon ke baare mein lekh keval angreji mein hi upalabdh ho sakte hain.

anuvaadit lekh adhikaansh sanskaranon mein lekh ke ek chhote hisse ka pratinidhitv karte hain, kyonki lekhon ke svachaalit anuvaad ki anumati naheen hoti hai. [124] ek se adhik bhaasha mein upalabdh lekh "intaraviki" link pesh kar sakte hain, jo anya sanskaranon ke samakaksh lekhon se sambandhit hote hain.

vikipeediya lekhon ke sangrah optikl disks par prakaashit kiya gaya hai. ek angreji sanskaran, 2006 vikipeediya CD salekshan mein lagbhag 2,000 lekh shaamil the.[125][126] paulish sanskaran mein lagbhag 240,000 lekh shaamil hain.[127] jarman sanskaran bhi upalabdh hain.[128]

saanskrutik mahatva

[257] ki sankhya pradarshit karta graaf
viyerd L ki myoojik video mein uske geet 'white end naradi" ke liye vikipeediya dikhaaya gaya tha.

apne lekhon ki sankhya mein taarkik vikaas ke alaava,[129] 2001 mein apni sthaapana ke baad se vikipeediya ne ek aam sandarbh website ke roop mein darja praapt kiya hai.[130] aleksa aur kaumaskor ke anusaar, duniya bhar mein vikipeediya un agrani das vebasaaiton mein hai jis par log sabse jyaada jaate hain.[10][131] sheersh das mein se, vikipeediya hi ekamaatr gair laabh website hai. Google khoj parinaamon mein iske pramukh sthaan dvaara vikipeediya ke vikaas ko protsaahit kiya gaya hai;[132] vikipeediya mein aane vaale sarch engine trefik ka lagbhag 50% Google se aata hai,[133] jismein se ek bada bhaag academic anusandhaan se sambandhit hai.[134] April 2007 mein pyoo intaranet aur American life pariyojana ne yeh paaya ki ek tihaai ameriki Internet upayogakarta vikipeediya se salaah lete hain.[135] October 2006 mein, site ka ek kaalpanik khapat moolya anumaanat: $ 580 million tha, agar saait ne vigyaapan chalaaye.[136]

vikipeediya ke avayavon ko academic adhyayan, pusktakon, sammelanon aur adaalat ke maamale mein prayukt kiya gaya hai.[137][138][139]Canada ki sansad ki website mein, civil vivaah adhiniyam ke liye, iske "aage pathan" ki soochi ke "sambandhit links" sekshan mein samaan ling vivaah par vikipeediya ke lekh se sambandh rakhati hai.[140] vishvakosh ki sveekrutiyon ko sangathanon jaise yoo॰aesa॰ Federal court aur vishv bauddhik sanpada sangathan ke dvaara prayukt kiya jaata hai[141]- haalaanki mukhya roop se inka upayog mukhya roop se ek maamale ke liye jaankaari ke faisale se adhik jaankaari ke samarthan ke liye hota hai.

[142] vikipeediya par prakat hone vaale avayav kuchh ameriki khufiya ejeinseeyon ki report mein ek srot ke roop mein uddhrut kiye gaye hain.

[143] December 2008 mein vaigyaanik patrika RNA baayoloji ne RNA anuon ke varg ke varnan ke liye ek naya sekshan shuroo kiya aur ise aise lekhakon ki jarurat hoti hai jo vikipeediya mein prakaashan ke liye RNA varg par ek draft lekh likhne mein madad karte hain.

[144]

chitr:Onion wikipedia.jpg
oneeen akhbaar ki hedalaain "Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years Of American Independence" (vikipeediya ne ameriki svatantrata ke 750 varsh poore hone ka utsav manaaya).

vikipeediya ko patrakaarita mein ek srot ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya hai,[145] kabhi kabhi bina gunadharmon ke aisa kiya gaya aur kai patrakaaron ko vikipeediya se nakl karne ke liye barkhaast kiya gaya.[146][147][148] July 2007 mein, vikipeediyaane BBC radio 4 par 30 minute ke ek vruttachitr ko prastut kiya,[149] jisne tark diya ki, upayogita aur jaagrukta ke badhne ke saath lokapriya sanskruti mein vikipeediya ke sandarbh ki sankhya is prakaar se hai ki tarm 21 veen sadi ki sanjnyaaaon ke ek chayan band mein se ek hai jo bahut lokapriya hain (Google, Facebook, Youtube) ki ve unhane adhik vyaakhya ki jarurat naheen hoti hai aur hoovaring aur kok ki tarah 20 veen sadi ke tarms ke samatulya hain.

kai haasyaaspad vikipeediya ka khulaapan, online vishvakosh pariyojana lekhon ke sanshodhan ya vidhvans pravruti ke paatron ko darshaata hain. 

vishesh roop se, haasya abhineta Stefan kolbert ne apne sho the kolabart report ke asankhya prakaranon mein vikipeediya kiye haasya ka prayog kiya hai aur iske liye ek shabd diya "vikialiti".[63]

is saaitane media ke kai roopon par ek prabhaav paida kiya hai. kuchh media srot trutiyon ke liye vikipeediya ki sanvedanasheelata par vyangya karte hain, jaise July 2006 mein the aniyn mein mukh prushth ka lekh jiska sheershak tha "vikipeediya selebrets 750 iyars of American indeepenadeins."

[150] anya vikipeediya ke baare mein kehte hain ki koi bhi sanpaadan kar sakta hai jaise the office ke ek prakaran "the negoshiyeshan", jismein paatr Michael Scott ne kaha, "vikipeediya ek sabse achhi cheej hai". is duniya mein koi bhi kisi bhi vishay ke baare mein kuchh bhi likh sakta hai, isliye aap jaante hain ki aapko sarvottam sambhav jaankaari mil rahi hai." kuchh chayanit vikipeediya ki neetiyon jaise xkcd strip ko "vikipidiyn protestar" naam diya gaya hai.

ek xkcd strip jiska sheershak hai "vikeepeediyn protestar"

April 2008 mein dach film nirmaata eijesabraand vaun veelen ne apne 45 minute ke television vruttachitr "the truth akaarding tu vikipeediya" ka prasaaran kiya.[151] vikipeediya ke baare mein ek aur vruttachitr sheershak " truth in nanbars: the vikipeediya story" 2009 pradarshan ke liye nirdhaarit hai. kai mahaadveepon par shoot ki gayi, yeh film vikipeediya ke itihaas aur duniya bhar mein vikipeediya ke sampaadkon ke saath kiye gaye saakshaatkaaron ko kavar karegi.[152][153]

28 September 2007 ko, itaalavi raajaneetijnya freinko grillini ne chitramaala ki svatantrata ki aavashyakta ke baare mein saanskrutik sansaadhan aur gatividhiyon ke mantri ke samnaaksh sansadeeya prashn uthaaya.unhonne kaha ki aisi aajaadi ki kami vikipeediya par dabaav banaati hai," jo saataveen aisi vebasaait hai jis par log vijit karte hain" yeh aadhunik itaalavi imaaraton aur kala ki sabhi chhaviyon par rok lagaati hai aur daava kiya ki isne paryatan raajasv ko behad kshati pahunchaayi hai. [154]

Jimmy vels ko kvaadiruga a mission of enalaaitaenameint puraskaar ki praapti

16 September 2007 ko the Washington post ne soochana di ki vikipeediya 2008 ameriki chunaav abhiyaan mein ek kendra bindu ban gaya, iske anusaar "jab aap Google mein ummeedavaar ka naam type karte hain, ek vikipeediya prushth hi pehla parinaam hota hai, yeh in pravishtiyon ko utana hi mahatvapoorn banta hai jitna ki ek ummeedavaar ko paribhaashit karna.

pehle se hi, raashtrapati pravishtiyon ko pratidin anginat baar sanpaadit, avalokit kiya ja raha hai aur is par vichaar-vimarsh kiya ja raha hai."

[155] October 2007 ke raayatars lekh sheershak "vikipeediya pej the letest status simbal" mein is ghatna par report di gayi ki kaise ek vikipeediya lekh kisi ki vikhyaati ko saabit karta hai.[156]

vikipeediya ne May 2004 mein do pramukh puraskaar jeete.[157] pehla tha, vaarshik priks ars ilektronika pratiyogita mein golden nika for dijeetal kamayoonitees; yeh puraskaar € 10000 (£ 6588; $ 12,700) anudaan ke saath aaya tha aur iske saath ostriya mein pi A E saibaraaarts samaaroh mein us varsh dastaavej karne ke liye ek nimantran bhi praapt kiya gaya tha. doosra, "samudaaya" shreni ke liye mein nyaayaadheeshon ka vebbi award tha.[158] vikipeediya ko "best praktiss" vebbi ke liye manoneet kiya gaya. 26 January 2007 ko, vikipeediya ko braandachainal.com ke paathakon dvaara sarvottam chauthi brand shreni se sammaanit kiya gaya tha; "kis brand ne 2006 mein hamaare jeevan par sarvaadhik prabhaav daala" savaal ke javaab mein 15% matadaan praapt kiya gaya.[159]

sitmbar 2008 mein, vikipeediya ne boris taadik, ekaart hofling aur Peter gebriyl ke saath verkastaat dauishalaind ka kvaadiruga a mission of enalaaitaenameint puraskaar praapt kiya. yeh puraskaar Jimmy vels ko David veinberger dvaara pesh kiya gaya.[160]

sambandhit pariyojanaayein

vikipeediya ke baare mein, vikipeediya ke bandhuprakalpon par aur jaane:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png shabdakosheeya paribhaashaaen
Wikibooks-logo.svg paathya pustakein
Wikiquote-logo.svg uddharan
Wikisource-logo.svg mukt strot
Commons-logo.svg chitr evam media
Wikinews-logo.svg samaachaar kathaaen
Wikiversity-logo-en.svg gyaan saadhan

janta dvaara likhit intaraiktiv malteemeediya vishvakosh ki asankhya pravishtiyaan, vikipeediya ki sthaapana se bhi lambe samay pehle maujood theen. inmein se pehla tha 1986 BBC domasde project, jismein Britain ke 1 million se adhik yogadaanakartaaon ke paathya (BBC micro computer par pravisht) aur tasveerein shaamil theen aur yeh Britain ke bhoogol, kala aur sanskruti ko kavar karta tha. yeh pehla intaraiktiv malteemeediya vishvakosh tha (aur saath hi aantarik links ke maadhyam se juda pehla mukhya malteemeediya dastaavej bhi tha), ismein adhikaansh lekh Britain ke ek intarektiv maanachitr ke maadhyam se upalabdh the. upayogakarta intarafes aur domasde project ke avayavon ke ek hisse ko ab ek vebasaait par daal diya gaya hai.

[161] sabse safal praarambhik online vishvakoshon mein se ek tha h2g2 jis par janta ke dvaara pravishtiyaaain ki jaati theen, jise dagalas edams ke dvaara nirmit kiya gaya aur ise BBC ke dvaara chalaaya jaata hai. h2g2 vishvakosh tulanaatmak roop se halka fulka tha, yeh un lekhon par dhyaan kendrit karta tha jo haasyapoorn bhi hon aur jaanakaareepoorn bhi hon. in donon pariyojanaaon mein vikipeediya ke saath samaanata thi, lekin donnon mein se kisi ne bhi saarvajanik upayogakartaaon ko poorn sampaadkeeya svatantrata naheen di.aisi hi ek gair-viki pariyojana GNU peediya pariyojana, apne itihaas ke aarambh mein nyoopeediya ke saath upasthit thi; haalaanki ise sevaanivrutt kar diya gaya hai aur iske nirmaata muft software vyakti richrd staalamen ne vikipeediya ko samarthan diya hai. [20]

vikipeediya ne kai sambandhi pariyojanaaon ka sootrapaat bhi kiya hai, inhein bhi vikeemeediya foundation dvaara sanchaalit kiya jaata hai. pehla, "in memoriym: September 11 viki",[162] October 2002 mein nirmit,[163] jo 11 September ke hamlon ko vistrut kiya; is pariyojana ko October 2006 mein band kar diya gaya tha. viktiyonari, ek shabdakosh pariyojana, December 2002 mein shuroo ki gayi thi;[164] vikikot koteshans ka ek sangrah, jo vikimeediya ke udaghaatan ke ek saptaah baad shuroo hua aur vikibuks sahayog se likhi gayi muft pustakon ka ek sangrah. tab se vikimeediya ne kai anya pariyojanaaen shuroo ki hain, ismein vikeevarsiti bhi shaamil hai, yeh muft adhyayan saamagri ke nirmaan ke liye aur online shikshan gatividhiyon ka praavadhaan karne ki pariyojana hai. [165] haalaanki, in mein se koi bhi sambandhit pariyojana, vikipeediya ki safalta praapti mein sahaayak naheen rahi hai.

vikipeediya ki jaankaari ke kuchh upasamuchchaya aksar vishisht uddeshya ke liye atirikt sameeksha ke saath viksit kiye gaye hain.

udaaharan ke liye, vikipeedeeyans aur SOS bachchon ke dvaara nirmit CD /DVD ki vikipeediya shrrunkhala (urf "vikipeediya for skools"), ek muft, haath se jaanch ki gayi, vikipeediya se gair vaanijyik chunaav hai, jo Britain ke raashtreeya paathyakram mein lakshit hai aur adhikaansh angreji bhaashi duniya ke liye upayogi hai. vikipeediya for skools online upalabdh hai: ek samakaksh print vishvakosh ke liye lagbhag bees sanskaranon ki aavashyakta hogi. ye vikipeediya ke lekh ke ek salekt sabaset ko ek mudrit pustak roop dene ka prayaas bhi kiya gaya hai. [166]

sahayogi gyaan aadhaar vikaas par kendrit anya vebasaaiton ne ya to vikipeediya se prerana praapt ki hai ya use prerit kiya hai. kuchh, jaise susning.nu (Susning.nu), enasiklopediya leebre (Enciclopedia Libre) aur vikijnaani (WikiZnanie) kisi aupachaarik sameeksha prakriya ka istemaal naheen karte hai, jabki anya jaise enasaaiklopeediya of life (Encyclopedia of Life), stainaford enasaaiklopeediya of filosofi (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy), skolarapeediya (Scholarpedia), h2g2, evreethinga2 (Everything2), adhik paaramparik sahakarmi sameeksha ka upayog karte hai. ek online vishvakosh, sitijnadiym ko vikipeediya ke sah-sansthaapak lairi seingar ke dvaara vikipeediya ke "visheshagya anukool" ka nirmaan karne ke prayaas mein shuroo kiya gaya tha.[167][168][169]

yeh bhi dekhiye

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/w' not found.

  • vikipeediya ke baare mein academic adhyayan
  • online vishvakoshon ki soochi
  • vikeej ki soochi
  • khuli vishay-vastu
  • USA kongreshanal staaf vikipeediya ka sanpaadan karta hai
  • prayokta srujit vishay-vastu
  • vikipeediya ki sameeksha
  • vikipeediya ki nigraani
  • viki truth

nots

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  5. kuchh sanskaranon jaise angreji bhaasha ke sanskaran mein gair mukt vishay-vastu samaavisht hai.
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