vijyanagar saamraajya

ವaaಿaaಜaaಯaaನaaಗaaರ ಸaaಾaaಮaa್aaರaaಾaaಜaa್aaಯ
వaaిaaజaaయaaనaaగaaర సaaాaaమaa్aaరaaాaaజaa్aaయaaమaaు
'vijyanagar saamraajya'
saamraajya
1336 – 1646

Flag of Vijayanagara Empire o o

dhvaj

rajdhani vijyanagar
sarkaar raajatantr
itihaas
- sansthaapit 1336
- visansthaapit 1646
vijyanagar saamraajya - 15veen sadi mein

vijyanagar saamraajya (1336-1646) madhyakaaleen dakshin Bhaarat ka ek saamraajya tha. iske raajaaon ne 310 varsh raaj kiya. iska vaastavik naam karnaatak saamraajya tha. iski sthaapana harihr pratham aur bukka rai pratham naamak do bhaaiyon ne ki thi. aisa maana jaata hai ki yeh bhaai paasi the. purtagaali ise bisnaaga raajya ke naam se jaante the.

is raajya ki 1565 mein bhaari paraajaya hui aur rajdhani vijyanagar ko jala diya gaya. uske pashchaat ksheen roop mein yeh aur 80 varsh chala. rajdhani vijyanagar ke avashesh aadhunik Karnataka raajya mein hampi shahar ke nikat paaye gaye hain aur yeh ek vishv viraasat sthal hai. puraataattvik khoj se is saamraajya ki shakti tatha dhan-sampada ka pata chalta hai.

anukram

parichay

dakshin Bhaarat ke naresh islaam ke pravaah ke sammukh jhuk na sake. musalmaan us bhoobhaag mein adhik kaal tak apni vijyapataaka faharaane mein asamarth rahe. islaam ke prabhutv ko mitaakar vijyanagar ke samraaton ne pun: hindu dharm ko jaagrat kiya. yahi kaaran hai ki dakshinpath ke itihaas mein vijyanagar raajya ko vishesh sthaan diya gaya hai.

dakshin Bhaarat ki Krishna nadi ki sahaayak tungabhadra ko is baat ka garv hai ki vijyanagar usaki god mein pala. usi ke kinaare pradhaan nagari hanpi sthit rahi. vijyanagar ke poorvagaami hoyasal nareshon ka pradhaan sthaan yaheen tha. dakshin ka pathaar durgam hai isliye uttar ke mahaan samraat bhi dakshin mein vijay karne ka sankalp adhiktar poora na kar sake.

dvaarasamudr ke shaasak veer vallaal truteeya ne Delhi sultaan dvaara niyukt kanpili ke shaasak malik muhammd ke viruddh ladaai chhed di. aisi paristhiti mein Delhi ke sultaan ne malik muhammad ki sahaayata ke liye do (hindu) karmachaariyon ko niyukt kiya jinke naam harihr tatha bukk the. inheen donon bhaaiyon ne svatantr vijyanagar raajya ki sthaapana ki. san 1336 E. mein harihr ne vaidik reeti se raajyaabhishek sampann kiya aur tungabhadra nadi ke kinaare vijyanagar naamak nagar ka nirmaan kiya.

vijyanagar raajya mein chaar vibhinn vanshon ne shaasan kiya. pratyek vansh mein prataapi evam shaktishaali nareshon ki kami na thi. yuddhapriya hone ke atirikt, sabhi hindu sanskruti ke rakshak the. swayam kavi tatha vidvaanon ke aashrayadaata the. harihr tatha bukk sangam naamak vyakti ke putr the ataev unhonne sangam samraat ke naam se shaasan kiya. vijyanagar raajya ke sansthaapak harihr pratham ne thode samay ke pashchaat apne varishth tatha yogya bandhu ko raajya ka uttaraadhikaari ghoshit kiya. sangam vansh ke teesare prataapi naresh harihr dviteeya ne vijyanagar raajya ko dakshin ka ek vistrut, shaktishaali tatha sudrudh saamraajya bana diya. harihr dviteeya ke samay mein saayan tatha maadhav ne ved tatha dharmashaastr par nibandharachana ki. unke vanshajon mein dviteeya devaraaya ka naam ullekhaneeya hai jisne apne raajyaabhishek ke pashchaat sangam raajya ko unnati ka charam seema par pahuaincha diya. musalamaani riyaasaton se yuddh karte hue, debaraaya prajaapaalan mein sanlagn raha. raajya ki suraksha ke nimitt Turkey ghudsavaar niyukt kar sena ki vruddhi ki. uske samay mein anek naveen mandir tatha bhavan bane.

doosra raajavansh saaluv naam se prasiddh tha. is vansh ke sansthaapak saalub narasinh ne 1485 se 1490 E. tak shaasan kiya. usane shakti ksheen ho jaane par apne mantri naras naayak ko vijyanagar ka sanrakshak banaaya. vahi tuluv vansh ka pratham shaasak maana gaya hai. usane 1490 se 1503 E. tak shaasan kiya aur dakshin mein kaaveri ke sudoor bhaag par bhi vijyadundubhi bajaai. tulub vanshaj krushnadev rai ka naam garv se liya jaata hai. usane 1509 se 1539 E. tak shaasan kiya. vah mahaan prataapi, shaktishaali, shaantisthaapak, sarvapriya, sahishnu aur vyavahaarakushal shaasak tha. usane naayak logon ko dabaaya, udeesa par aakraman kiya aur dakshin ke bhoobhaag par apna adhikaar sthaapit kiya. solahaveen sadi mein Europe se purtagaali bhi pashchimi kinaare par aakar dera daal chuke the. unhonne krushnadev rai se vyaapaarik sandhi ki jisse vijyanagar raajya ki shreevruddhi hui. tuluv vansh ka antim raaja sadaashiv parampara ko kaayam na rakh saka. sinhaasan par rahate hue bhi usaka saara kaarya raamaraaya dvaara sanpaadit hota tha. sadaashiv ke baad raamaraaya hi vijyanagar raajya ka svaami hua aur ise chauthe vansh araveedu ka pratham samraat maanate hain. raamaraaya ka jeevan kathinaaiyon se bhara pada tha. shataabdiyon se dakshin Bhaarat ke hindu naresh islaam ka virodh karte rahe, ataev bahamani sultaanon se shatruta badhti hi gayi. musalamaani sena ke paas achhi topein tatha hathiyaar the, isliye vijyanagar raajya ke sainik islaami badhaav ke saamane jhuk gaye. vijyanagar shaasakon dvaara niyukt musalmaan senaapatiyon ne raaja ko gherava diya ataev san 1565 E. mein talikot ke yuddh mein raamaraaya maara gaya. musalamaani sena ne vijyanagar ko nasht kar diya jisse dakshin Bhaarat mein bhaarateeya sanskruti ki kshati ho gayi. araveedu ke nirbal shaasakon mein bhi vekantapatidev ka naam dhisheshataya ullekhaneeya hai. usane naayakon ko dabaane ka prayaas kiya tha. bahamani tatha mugal samraat mein paarasparik yuddh hone ke kaaran vah musalamaani aakraman se mukt ho gaya tha. iske shaasanakaal ki mukhya ghatnaaon mein purtagaaliyon se hui vyaapaarik sandhi thi. shaasak ki sahishnuta ke kaaran videshiyon ka svaagat kiya gaya aur isaai paadari kuchh seema tak dharm ka prachaar bhi karne lage. veinkat ke uttaraadhikaari nirbal the. shaasak ke roop mein ve vifal rahe aur naayakon ka prabhutv badh jaane se vijyanagar raajya ka astitv mit gaya.

hindu sanskruti ke itihaas mein vijyanagar raajya ka mahatvapoorn sthaan raha. vijyanagar ki sena mein musalmaan sainik tatha senaapati kaarya karte rahe, parantu isse vijyanagar ke mool uddeshya mein rko parivartan naheen hua. vijyanagar raajya mein saayan dvaara vaidik saahitya ki teeka tatha vishaal mandiron ka nirmaan do aise aitihaasik smaarak hain jo aaj bhi usaka naam amar banaae hain.

hampi ke virupaksh mandir ke alankrut stambh

vijyanagar ke shaasak swayam shaasanaprabandh ka sanchaalan karte the. keindreeya mantrimandal ki samast mantrana ko raaja sveekaar naheen karta tha aur suprabandh ke liye yogya Rajkumar se sahayog leta tha. praacheen bhaarateeya pranaali par shaasan ki neeti nirbhar thi. sudoor dakshin mein saamant vartamaan the jo vaarshik kar diya karte the aur Rajkumar ki nigraani mein saara kaarya karte the. praja ke sanrakshan ke liye police vibhaag satarkata se kaarya karta raha jiska sundar varnan videshi lekhakon ne kiya hai.

vijyanagar ke shaasakagan raajya ke saat angon mein kosh ko hi pradhaan samajhte the. unhonne bhoomi ki paimaaish karaai aur banjar tatha sinchaaivaali bhoomi par pruthak-pruthak kar baithaae. chungi, raajakeeya bheint, aarthik dand tatha aayaat par nirdhaarit kar unke anya aay ke saadhan the. vijyanagar ek yuddh raajya tha ataev aay ka do bhaag sena mein vyaya kiya jaata, teesara ansh sanchit kosh ke roop mein surakshit rahata aur chautha bhaag daan evam mahal sambandhi kaaryon mein vyaya kiya jaata tha.

bhaarateeya saahitya ke itihaas mein vijyanagar raajya ka ullekh amar hai. tungabhadra ki ghaati mein braahman, jain tatha shaiv dharm prachaarakon ne kannad bhaasha ko apnaaya jismein raamaayan, mahaabhaarat tatha Bhagwat ki rachana ki gayi. isi yug mein Kumar vyaas ka aavirbhaav hua. iske atirikt telugu bhaasha ke kaviyon ko bukk ne bhoomi daan mein di. krushnadev rai ka darbaar kushal kavign dvaara sushobhit kiya gaya tha. sanskrut saahitya ki to varnanaateet shreevruddhi hui. vidyaaranya bahumukh pratibha ke pandit the. vijyanagar raajya ke prasiddh mantri maadhav ne meemaansa evam dharmashaastr sambandhi kramash: jaimineeya nyaayamaala tatha paraasharamaadhav naamak granthon ki rachana ki thi usi ke bhraata saayan ne vaidik maargapravartak harihr dviteeya ke shaasan kaal mein hindu sanskruti ke aadi granth ved par bhaashya likha jiski sahaayata se aaj ham vedon ka arth samajhte hain. vijyanagar ke raajaaon ke saya mein sanskrut saahitya mein amoolya pustakein likhi gain.

bauddh, jain tatha braahman maton ka prasaar dakshin Bhaarat mein ho chuka tha. vijyanagar ke raajaaon ne shaiv mat ko apnaaya, yadyapi unki sahishnuta ke kaaran vaishnav aadi anya dharm bhi pallavit hote rahe. vijyanagar ki kala dhaarmik pravruttiyon ke kaaran jatil ho gayi. mandiron ke vishaal gopuram tatha sundar, khachit stanbhayukt mandap is yug ki visheshata hain. vijyanagar shaili ki vaastukala ke namoone uske mandiron mein aaj bhi shaasakon ki keerti ka gaan kar rahe hain.

sthaapatya kala

is saamraajya ke viraasat ke taur par hamein sampoorn dakshin Bhaarat mein smaarak milte hain jinmein sabse prasiddh hampi ke hain. dakshin Bhaarat mein prachalit mandir nirmaan ki anek shailiyaaain is saamraajya ne sankalit keen aur vijyanagareeya sthaapatya kala pradaan ki. dakshin Bhaarat ke vibhinn sampradaaya tatha bhaashaaon ke ghulane-milne ke kaaran is nai prakaar ki mandir nirmaan ki vaastukala ko prerana mili. sthaaneeya kanaashm patthar ka prayog karke pehle dakkan tatha uske pashchaat Dravid sthaapatya shaili mein mandiron ka nirmaan hua. dharmanirpeksh shaahi smaarakon mein uttari dakkan saltanat ki sthaapatya kala ki jhalak dekhne ko milti hai.

utpatti

is saamraajya ki utpatti ke baare mein vibhinn dantakathaaeain bhi prachalit hain. inmein se sabse adhik vishvasaneeya yahi hai ki sangam ke putr harihr tatha bukka ne hampi hastinaavati raajya ki neenv daali. aur vijyanagar ko rajdhani banaakar apne raajya ka naam apne guru ke naam par vijyanagar rakha[1].

dakshin Bhaarat mein musalmaanon ka pravesh alaauddeen khilji ke samay hua tha. lekin alaauddeen un raajyon ka haraakar unase vaarshik kar lene tak hi seemit raha. muhammad bin tugalak ne dakshin mein saamraajya vistaar ke udyeshya se kampili par aakraman kar diya aur kampili ke do raajya mantriyon harihr tatha bukka ko bandi banaakar Delhi le aaya. in donon bhaaiyon dvaara islaam dharm sveekaar karne ke baad inhein dakshin vijay ke liye bheja gaya. maana jaata hai ki apne is udyeshya mein asafalata ke kaaran ve dakshin mein hi rah gaye aur vidyaaranya naamak sant ke prabhaav mein aakar hindu dharm ko pun: apna liya. is tarah muhammad bin tugalak ke shaasanakaal mein hi Bhaarat ke dakshin pashchim tat par vijyanagar saamraajya ki sthaapana ki gayi.

saamraajya vistaar

vijyanagar ki sthaapana ke saath hi harihr tatha bukka ke saamane kai kathinaaiyaan theen. Warangal ka shaasak kaapaaya naayak tatha usaka mitr prolaya vem aur veer ballaal truteeya uske virodhi the. devagiri ka soobedaar kutalug khaaain bhi vijyanagar ke svatantr astitv ko nasht karna chaahata tha. harihr ne sarvapratham baadaami, udayagiri tatha guti ke durgon ko sudrudh kiya. usane krushi ki unnati par bhi dhyaan diya jisse saamraajya mein samruddhi aayi. hoyasal saamraat veer ballaal madurai ke vijay abhiyaan mein laga hua tha. is avsar ka laabh uthaakar harihr ne hoyasal saamraajya ke poorvi baag par adhikaar kar liya. baad mein veer ballaal truteeya madura ke sultaan dvaara 1342 mein maar daala gaya. ballaal ke putr tatha uttaraadhikaari ayogya the. is mauke ko bhunaate hue harihr ne hoyasal saamraajya par adhikaar kar liya. aage chalakar harihr ne kadamb ke shaasak tatha madura ke sultaan ko paraajit karke apni sthiti sudrudh kar li.

harihr ke baad bukka samraat bana hanlaaainki usane aisi koi upaadhi dhaaran naheen ki. usane Tamil Nadu ka raajya vijyanagar saamraajya mein mila liya. Krishna nadi ko vijyanagar tatha bahamani ki seema maan li gayi. bukka ke baad usaka putr harihr dviteeya sattaaseen hua. harihr dviteeya ek mahaan yoddha tha. usane apne bhaai ke sahayog se kanaara, Mysore, trichnaapalli, kaanyachi, chingalaput aadi pradeshon par adhikaar kar liya.

shaasakon ki soochi

sangam vansh

saluv vansh

tuluv vansh

aravidu vansh

sandarbh

  1. citebook | title=praanteeya raajya | page=171|

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