vidyutashakti ka preshan

uchch-voltata preshan line

vidyutshakti ko janitrasthal se upayogasthal tak le jaana preshan (Transmission) kahalaata hai. adhikaansh sthaanon mein vidyutshakti ka utpaadan uske upayogasthalon se door hota hai. vaise to janitrasthal se upayogasthal tak vidyutshakti ko le jaana hi preshan kahalaata hai, parantu is shabd k vyaavahaarik arth bahudha doori tatha uchch boltata se sambandhit hai. preshan laainein pol athva meenaaron par aaropit, oopari laainon ke roop mein bhi tatha bhoomigat kebilon ke roop mein bhi hoti hain. oopari laainein saadhaaranataya taaainbe ke taar ki hoti hain, parantu ailuminiym tatha ispaat aur ailuminiym ke sanyukt chaalak bhi vistrut roop se prayukt kiye jaate hain.

parichay

adhikaansh sthaanon mein vidyutshakti ka utpaadan uske upayogasthalon se door hota hai. janitrasthalon ki sthaapana, vastut:, saadhanon ki upalabdhi tatha aarthik auchitya ke aadhaar par ki jaati hai. jalavidyutgharon ko kisi vishisht sthaan par bana dene ka prashn hi naheen uthata, kyoki unka sthaan to praakrutik saadhanon par nirbhar karta hai jo saadhaaranataya ghani aabaadeevaale kshetron se door hote hain. taapeeya bijleegharon ki sthaapana bhi bhaarakeindr (load centre) ke saath-saath koyale ki upalabdhi tatha iske parivhan ki samasya par nirbhar karti hai. at: bahudha janitrasthalon ki doori bhaar se kai sau meal bhi ho sakti hai aur aisi dashaaon mein preshan laainon dvaara shakti ko bhaar tak pahuainchaana hota hai. ataev preshan bhi vidyut udyog ka utana hi mukhya aur mahatvapoorn ang hai jitna swayam vidyutshakti ka utpaadan.

vidyutashakti ka utpaadan, preshan, vitran tatha upayog

vaise to janitrasthal se upayogasthal tak vidyutshakti ko le jaana hi preshan kahalaata hai, parantu is shabd ka vyaavahaarik arth bahudha doori tatha uchch boltata se sambandhit hai. preshan laainein pol athva meenaaron par aaropit, oopari laainon ke roop mein bhi tatha bhoomigat kebilon ke roop mein bhi hoti hain. oopari laainein saadhaaranataya taaainbe ke taar ki hoti hain, parantu ailuminiym tatha ispaat aur ailuminiym ke sanyukt chaalak bhi vistrut roop se prayukt kiye jaate hain. oopari laainein bhoomigat se kam se kam 20 foot ki ooainchaai par honi chaahiye aur inka koi bhi bhaag isse kam ooainchaai par naheen hona chaahiye. bhoomi se inki ooainchaai, uchch voltata ki dasha mein aur bhi adhik hoti hai. ataev ye laainein polon par le jaai jaati hain aur paursilen ke vidyutarodhiyon (insulators) par aaropit hoti hain. adhik shakti preshan karanevaale, mote chaalakon ki laainein pol ke sthaan par badi badi meenaaron par le jaai jaati hain, jo chaalak sankhya tatha unapar laganevaale balon ke anusaar vibhinn aakruti ki bani hoti hai. vidyutarodhi bhi vibhinn praroopon ke hote hain aur mukhyat: apni sthiti tatha voltata ke anusaar vibhinn vargon ke hote hain. is prakaar vidyutarodhi 440 volt ki alp voltata se lekar 11 kilovolt, 33 kilovolt, 66 kilovolt ityaadi vargon ke hote hain aur sthiti ke anusaar vidyutarodhi shaikal (shackle), pin (pin), disk (disk) tatha nilanban (suspension) praroop ke hote hain, jo vibhinn sthitiyon mein prayukt kiye jaate hain. vidyutarodhi saadhaaranataya pol par kainchi (cross arm) mein lage hote hain aur is prakaar vinyasit hote hain ki kisi bhi dasha mein chaalak jhoolakar, doosare chaalak se, athva pol, athva uske kisi bhi sanrachana anshak se na chhoo jaaeain. inki aakruti evam rachana bhi is prakaar ki hoti hai ki kisi bhi paristhiti mein chaalak tatha pol ke kisi sanrachana anshak ke beech chaalak ka sandhaaran kar sakein.

kebil, vastut:, kisi bhi vidyutarodhi chaalak ko kaha ja sakta hai, parantu vidyut ke preshan mein prayukt honevaale kebil ka upayog mukhyat: bhoomi ke andar hota hai. at: kebilon ki rachana bhi aisi hoti hai ki ve bhoomi ke andar padnevaale prabhaavon se surakshit rah sakein. saamaanyat: preshan kebil trikleeye (triphase) hote hain. at: uname kam se kam teen krod (core) haate hain, jo alag alag vidyutaruddh haate hain aur fir oopar se bhi unapar doosra vidyutrodhi lapet diya jaata hai. yeh vidyutrodhi, saadhaaranataya, vyaapt kaagaj (impregnsted paper), athva rui ki tape (cotton tape) ka hota hai, jo kebil ki kaaryakaari voltata ke varg par nirbhar karta hai. vidyutrodhi kharaab na ho jaae, isliye chaalak krod tatha achaalak seese ki nali mein, jo nami ko andar naheen jaane deti, samaavrut hote hain. is nali ko yaantrik haani se bachaan ke liye joot ka feeta (braid) diya jaata hai aur oopar se lohe ki patti ka kavach chadha diya jaata. is kaaran inhein kavachit kebil (Armoured Cable) bhi kehte hain.

ati uchch voltata preshan ke kebil, tel se bhare kebil bhi hote hain. tel, vastut:, uttam achaalak maadhyam hai. parantu aise kebilon ki banaavat kaafi jatil hoti hai aur inki dekhbhaal bhi kathin hoti hai. iske kaaran inka upayog seemit hai.

vidyutpreshan ki mitvyayita bahut seema tak chaalak ke aakaar par nirbhar karti hai. chaalak ka aakaar mukhyat: vahan ki jaanevaali dhaara par nirbhar karta hai. kisi nirdhaarit shakti ke liye vahan ki jaanevaali dhaara, mukhyat: voltata par nirbhar karti hai. at: preshan ke liye uchchatam voltata prayog karna hi upayukt hai, jisse us shakti ke liye vahan ki janevaali dhaara kam ho sake aur chhote aakaar ke chaalak prayukt kiye ja sakein. parantu uchchatam voltata ki bhi apni seemaaeain hain. 36 kimi. se adhik voltataaon par chaalak ka aakaar dhaara ke parimaan par hi naheen, vastut:, koraana (corona) ke prabhaav par nirbhar karta hai. korona uchch voltataaon par chaalak ke aaspaas ki vaayu ke ayanit (ionized) hone ka prabhaav hota hai. iske kaaran him him ki dhvani tatha chamak utpann hoti hai aur yeh antat: shakti haani ke roop mein prakat hoti hai. is kaaran chaalak ke aakaar ka abhiklp is shakti haani tatha uske prabhaavon ko drushti mein rakhate hue karna hota hai. uchchatam voltataaon par preshan laainon ka sanchaar laainon (communication lines) se vyatikran doosari mahatvapoorn samasya hai. uchch voltata preshan karne waali laainein sameepasth sanchaar laainon mein ek vyatikran voltata prerit kar deti hain, jiske kaaran sanchaar mein gadbadi hoti hai, par yeh vyatikran, sanchaar laainon ki vidyut laainon se door rakhakar, kam kiya ja sakta hai tatha doosare bhi bahut se upachaar kiye ja sakte hain.

teesari kathinaai uchch voltata achaalakon tatha meenaaron ki uchit sanrachana ki hai, jisse doshi sthitiyaaain utpann na ho sakein. saath hi saath unki uchit dekhbhaal bhi ek samasya ban jaati hai. inke atirikt uchchatam voltataaon par shakti sthaayitv (power stability) mahatvapoorn samasya hai. ati uchch voltata ki lambi laainon mein, shaktipravaah, vastut:, shakti sthaayitv dvaara seemit hota hai. is kaaran nirdhaarit shakti keval kisi vishisht voltata par vishisht doori tak hi preshit ki ja sakti hai. saath hi saath preshit shakti tatha doori ke anusaar ek vishisht voltata par preshan hi sabse adhik mitvyayi ho sakta hai. ye samasyaaeain badi badi yojanaaon mein bahut mahatvapoorn hoti hai aur preshanatantr ka abhiklp yojana ka ek mukhya ang hota hai.

preshanatantr ki yojana ka aadhaar bhaar sarvekshan (load survey) hota hai. sabse pehle vibhinn sthaanon mein prastaavit bhaar ka pariklan kar liya jaata hai aur tab unke anusaar upakeindron (substations) ki sthiti nishchit ki jaati hai. bhaar tatha doori ke anusaar preshan ki voltata tatha paripth ki sankhya nishchit ki jaati hai aur prastaavit laainon ka path nishchit kiya jaata hai. line abhiklp ke praroop evam abhiklp, vidyutarodhiyon ka praroop aur unako lagaane ka yantravinyaas tatha sanrakshanatantra kisi bhi yojana ke liye aarthik pahaloo sabse mahatvapoorn hota hai. preshanatantr ka safal abhiklp bhi aarthik pahaloo sabse mahatvapoorn hota hai. preshanatantr ka safal abhiklp bhi aarthik kasauti par nirbhar karta hai. kisi nirdhaarit shakti ke preshan ke teen mukhya sanghatak hai : shakti, doori tatha voltata. kisi bhi preshanatantr ki yojana ka safal abhiklp in teenon sanghatakon ke upayukt samanvaya par nirbhar karta hai. line abhiklp ki disha mein mahatvapoorn shodh ho rahe hain, jinke parinaamasvaroop ab vidyutarodhon ke star ko utana ooaincha naheen rakha jaata jitna 10 varsh pehle rakha jaata tha. is prakaar laainon ke moolya mein bhaari bachat sambhav ho saki hai.

atyuchch voltata (110 kivo. se adhik) ka preshan, saadhaaranataya, 100 meal se adhik ki doori ke liye hi kiya jaata hai. bahudha preshan ke do kramon mein karna padta hai. atyuchch voltata par preshan saadhaaranataya bijleeghar ke upakeindr se upayogakshetr ke bhar kendra ke niktasth upakedron tak kiya jaata hai, jahaaain se kisi madhyam voltata par (udaaharanataya 33 kivo. athva 11 kivo. par) upayogasthal ke upakeindr tak shakti kar preshan kiya jaata hai. is prakaar ise praathamik evam dviteeyak preshan ke naam se pukaara jaata hai. antim upakeindr se bhaar tak vitrak athva sanbharan (feeder) laainein le jaai jaati hain, jahaaain se vyaktigat bhaaron ka sanbharan kiya jaata hai.

saadhaaranataya janit voltata ko preshan karne ke liye ati uchch voltataaon mein roopaatarit karna hota hai. ataev parinaamit bhi preshanatantr ke mahatvapoorn ang hote hain. inke saath hi bahut se sanrakshan yuktiyaaain tatha paripth trotak (breaker) bhi tantr ka vishisht anshak hain. parinaamitr ke donon or tel paripth trot (oil circuit breakers) ki vyavastha rahati hai, jisse parinaamitr ke donon or ka paripth khola ja sake. isi prakaar kisi line athva uske prabhaag ko nishkriya kar sakane ka praavadhaan hota hai, jisse dosh ki sthiti mein line ki manramat ki ja sake. vastut: sanrakshan yuktiyaaain dosh ki sthiti mein doshi prabhaag ko apne aap kholkar alag kar deti hai. line sanrakshan ke liye upakeindr mein bahut prakaar ke rile prayukt kiye jaate hain. base saamaanya rile atibhaar rile (over current relay) aur bhoomi kshaaran rile (earth leakage relay) hain. atibhaar rile, atibhaar ki avastha mein, paripth trotak ka pravartit kar paripth ko khol dete hain aur is prakaar line tatha usase sambandhit saajasajja ko atibhaar se honevaali kshati athva haanikaarak prabhaavon se bachaate hain. bhoomi ksharan rile bhoomidosh ki avastha mein kaarya karte hain aur doshi line ko yojit kar dete hain. aur bhi bahut se bhinn bhinn prakaar ke rile prayukt kiye jaate hain. bahut se rile dosh ki doori ka vyavastha ke aadhaar par kaarya karte hain aur bahut se ek paailat taar (pilot wire) ka prayog karte hain, tathaapi aadhuniktam sanrakshan tantr kairiyr sanrakshan tantr hai. kairiyr (carrier), vastut:, ek uchch aavrutti ki tarang ko kehte hain, jo paailat taaron par shakti aavrutti ke saath hi adhyaaropit (superimpose) kar di jaati hai. dosh ki sthiti mein usase sanyojit rile tatkshan kaarya kar, line ko viyojit kar dete hain. kairiyr sanrakshan tantr doosare tantron ki apeksha adhik drutagaami hai aur adhik vishvasaneeya bhi hai. parantu yeh keval uchch voltata laainon ke liye hi aarthik roop se uchit ho sakta hai.

preshan laainon ke abhiklp mein tadit sanrakshan ka praavadhaan karna bhi atyant mahatvapoorn hota hai. tadit line par girkar use tatha usase sanyojit sabhi saajasajja ko nasht kar sakti hai. isse bachaav ke liye bahut si yuktiyaaain prayukt ki jaati hai, jinmein mukhyat: bhoomi taar tatha taditnirodhak (lightning arrestors) ka praavadhaan hai. bhoomi taar saamaanya roop se line ko tadit ke haanikaarak prabhaavon se bachaata hai aur tadit ko line par yathaasanbhav girne se rokata hai. taditnirodhak upakeindr athva ant sanrachanaaon par lagaae jaate hain aur tadit ke line par gir jaane par us seedhe hi bhooyojit (earthed) kar dete hain, jisse line athva saajasajja ko kshati naheen pahuainchane paati. sabhi meenaar theek se bhooyojit hote hain aur unka bhoomirodh vividh prakaar ki vyavasthaaeain karke atyant kam rakha jaata hai. taditsanrakshan ke drushtikon se adhik varg ke achaalakon ka bhi prayog karna padta hai, parantu aajkal taditnirodhak par shodh ke falasvaroop achaalak ka star ooaincha rakhane ki aavashyakta naheen rahati.

preshanatantron ko bahudha grid ke roop mein antarbandhit kar dete hain, jisse grid ke andar shakti ka svatantrataapoorvak pravaah ho sake. aise grid ati uchch voltataaon par kaarya karte hain aur sampoorn tantr ki voltata tatha aavrutti ek hi hoti hai. ismein niyantran ki kathinaaiyaaain to avashya hi badh jaati hain, parantu tantr mein kisi bhi sthaan ki faalatoo shakti doosare sthaanon par, jahaaain usaki aavashyakta ho, prayukt ki ja sakti hai. is prakaar bijleegharon mein atirikt sthaapit shakti ka rakhana aavashyak naheen rah jaata. vastut:, bade gridon mein kisi ek bijleeghar, athva machine, ki shakti sampoorn tantr ki shakti ki tulana mein naganya hoti hai aur sampoorn tantr ke kaarya ko vishesh roop se prabhaavit naheen kar paati. Bhaarat mein bhi aise bahut se grid hain, jaise bhaakhada grid, ganga jalavidyut grid, shaarada grid, di.vi.si.grid, heeraakund grid, Madras grid, Mumbai grid aadi. sabhi badi badi yojanaaeain grid ke roop mein hain. ab to in sab gridon ko antabandhit kar akhil Bhaarat grid ki rooparekha banaai ja rahi hai, jo shaayad 350 kivo. athva isse bhi ooainchi voltata par kaarya karegi.

alp voltata se uchch voltata mein tatha uchch se alp voltata mein parinaamitron dvaara roopaantaran ki suvidha ke kaaran lagbhag sabhi vidyut preshan pratyaavarti dhaara par hi hote hain. parantu haal mein hi is vichaaradhaara mein ek gahan parivartan aa raha hai aur ati uchch voltataaon par disht dhaara preshan vyaavahaarik tatha praavidhik donon roopon se adhik upayukt samjha jaane laga hai. aise tantr mein janan tatha upabhog donon hi pr.dha. mein hote hain aur keval preshan ke liye hi disht dhaara ka prayog kiya jaata hai. janan ki gayi pr.dha. shakti ko dishtakaariyon (rectifiers) ke dvaara uchch voltata di.dha. mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai aur preshan di.dha. mein hota hai. line ke doosari or fir di.dha. ko upayog ke liye pr.dha. kaariyon (invertors) dvaara pr.dha. mein parint karna hota hai. di.dha. preshan ke kuchh vishisht laabh hai jaise ismein line vidyutarodhi usi voltata ki pr.dha. line ki apeksha kam varg ka prayukt kiya ja sakta hai, jisse line ke moolya mein bhaari bachat sambhav ho sakti hai. doosra mahatvapoorn laabh yeh hai ki ismein shakti sthaayitv ki samasya naheen rahati, jo pr.dha. preshan tantron mein mukhya seemaakaarak hai. isi prakaar aur bhi bahut se laabh hai, parantu dishtakaariyon tatha pr.dha. kaariyon ka vishvasaneeya kaarya ke liye abhiklp, unki mukhya samasya hai. is disha mein santoshajanak pragati hone ke kaaran hi di.dha. kaariyon ka vishvasaneeya kaarya ke liye abhiklp, unki mukhya samasya hai. is disha mein santoshajanak pragati hone ke kaaran hi di.dha. preshan ko vyaavahaarik roop dena sambhav ho saka hai. sveedan mein, gotalaind yojana mein, sabse pehle di.dha. preshan ka prayog kiya gaya hai. vahaaain par aur bhi di.dha. preshan laainon ki yojanaaeain banaai ja rahi hai. roos mein mauskon se kasheera tak lagbhag 75 meal lambi 200 kivo. ki bhoomigat kevil line hai tatha 400 kivo. ki kebil line kuibeeshev tatha Moscow ke beech hain. iske atirikt, 750 megawatt ki lagbhag 340 meal lambi, 800 kivo. di.dha. preshan line ki yojana par kaarya kiya ja raha. amareeka mein bhi is disha mein teevrata se pragati ho rahi hai. 750 kivo. ki ek praayogik line pitsafeeld ke nikat banaai ja rahi hai, jiski safalta ke aadhaar par ek vruhat grid ki yojana bhi banaai ja rahi hai.

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  • uchch-voltata deesi paareshan

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