vidyut utpaadan

urja ke anya sroton se vidyut shakti ka nirmaan vidyut utpaadan kahalaata hai. vyaavahaarik roop mein vidyut shakti ka utpaadan, vidyut janitron (generators) dvaara kiya jaata hai. vidyut utpaadan ke moolabhoot siddhaant ki khoj angrej vaigyaanik maaikel fairaade ne 1920 ke dashak ke dauraan evam 1930 ke dashak ke aarambhik kaal mein kiya tha. taar ki ek kundali ko kisi chumbakeeya kshetr mein ghumaakar vidyut utpann karne ki maaikel fairaade ki mool vidhi aaj bhi usi roop mein prayukt hoti hai.

vidyut ka utpaadan jahaaain kiya jaata hai use bijleeghar kehte hain. bijleegharon mein vidyut-yaantrik janitron ke dvaara bijli paida ki jaati hai jise kisi kisi anya yukti se ghumaaya jaata hai, ise mukhyaghoornak ya pradhaan chaalak (prime moovar) kehte hain. prime moovar ke liye jal tarbaain, vaashp tarbaain ya gas tarbaain ho sakti hai. vidyut shakti, jal se, koyale aadi ki ushma se, naabhikeeya abhikriyaaon se, pavan shakti se evam anya kai vidhiyon se paida ki jaati hai.

anukram

parichay

vidyut shakti ke liye, vastut:, teen sanghatak aavashyak hain :

(1) chaalak, jo vyaavahaarik roop mein ek nirdhaarit vyavastha ke anusaar yojit sanvaahak samooh hota hai,

(2) chunbakeeya kshetr, vyaavahaarik roop mein ek kundali mein vidyut dhaara pravaahit karke praapt kiya jaata hai aur

(3) chaalak samooh ko chunbakeeya kshetr mein ghumaane ki vyavastha, jiska taatparya hai yaantrik oorja ka praavadhaan.

vastut:, yahi yaantrik oorja, vidyut oorja ke roop mein parivrtit hoti hai aur oorja avinaashita niyam ka pratipaadan karti hai.

uparyukt vivechan ke aadhaar par kisi bhi vidyut janitr ke teen mukhya avayav hote hain :

1. chaalakon ko dhaaran karanevaale aarmechar (armature) ki, jo saamanyat: naram lohe ke patalit staron ka bana hota hai, paridhi ke chaaron or khaaainche bane hote hain, jinmein chaalan kundaliyaaain rakhi jaati hain. chaalakon ko ek nishchit vyavastha ke anusaar yojit kiya jaata hai, jise aarmechar kundalan (Armature winding) kehte hain.

2. kshetr kundali - ismein dhaara ke pravaahit hone par chunbakeeya kshetr ki utpatti hoti hai.

3. yaantrik shakti ka sanbhaarak - yeh saadhaaranataya ek pradhaan chaalak hota hai. yeh jal ka tarabaain, bhaap ka tarabaain, bhaap ka engine, athva diesel engine mein se koi bhi ho sakta hai.

vidyutajanitr

ek vastranirmaan kaarkhaane mein lagi altaranetar

dhaara ke praroop ke anusaar vidyut janitr, mukhyat:, do praroop ke hote hain : disht dhaara janitr (D.C. generator) aur pratyaavarti dhaara janitr (A.C. generator). yadyapi moolat: donon ke mool siddhaant ek hi hote hain, parantu banaavat ke drushtikon se unamein kaafi antar hota hai. disht dhaara janitr mein chunbakeeya kshetr achal kshetr kundaliyon dvaara utpann kiya jaata hai aur aarmechar par aaropit chaalak tantr ghoornan karta hai. is prakaar, chunbakeeya abhivaah ko kaatne se usamein ek voltata janit hoti hai. vastut:, voltata ke janan ke liye yeh aavashyak naheen ki chaalak mein hi gati ho. yeh bhi ho sakta hai ki chaalakatantr sthir ho aur chunbakeeya abhiva unako kaatata hua jaaega iska taatparya yeh hai ki chunbakeeya kshetr gatisheel ho aur chaalak apne sthaan par hi rahe. kisi bhi prakaar se chaalak tatha chunbakeeya kshetr mein aapekshik gati hona aavashyak hai, jisse chaalak mein voltata janit ho sake. vastut:, donon vidhiyaaain hi vyaavahaarik hai aur pratyaavarti dhara janitron mein, jinhein pratyaavartitr (Alternator) bhi kehte hain, chaalak samooh achal hota hai aur use staitar (Stator) kehte hain. chunbakeeya kshetr utpann karanevaale dhruv aur kundali ghoorni bhaag hote hain aur unhein rotar (Rotor) kehte hain. aarmechar ko achal rakhane ka mukhya laabh yeh hai ki is prakaar saapekshataya uchchatar voltata janit ki ja sakti hai. uchch voltata janan ke liye ya to chaalak ki sankhya badhaani padti hai, athva ghoornanaveg, ya donon hi. chaalak ki sankhya badhaane se aarmechar ka aakaar bahut badh jaata hai aur uske ghoorni bhaag hone ke kaaran apakeindri bal itna badh jaaega ki sanrachana ke drushtikon se chaalakon ko apne sthaanon par sthir rakhana bhi ek samasya ho jaaegi. bade aakaar ke ghoorni bhaag banaavat ke drushtikon se upayukt naheen hote aur na unka veg hi bahut adhik badhaaya ja sakta hai. at:, ghoorni aarmechar vaale janitron mein uchch voltata janit karna pariseemit ho jaata hai, parantu yadi achal ho, to usaka aakaar bhi bada banaaya ja sakta hai aur apakeindri bal ka bhi prashn nahi uthata. saath hi janit dhaara ko sthir sansparshakon (contacts) se le jaana hota hai, jo bahut sugam ho jaata hai. ghoorni aarmecharon mein janit dhaara ko koorcho dvaara hi baahari paripth mein le jaaya ja sakta hai. kshetr ke rotar hone mein samasya itni jatil naheen hoti, kyonki usamein pravaahit honevaali uttejak dhaara (exciting current), saapekshataya, bahut kam hoti hai. uttejan keval disht dhaara se hi sambhav hai aur pratyaavarti dhaara janitron mein kshetr uttejan ke liye disht dhaara sanbhaarak ka hona aavashyak hai, jo saamaanyat: isi shaift (shaft) par aaropit ek chhote se disht dhaara janitr dvaara, jise uttejak (exciter) kehte hain, praavadhaan kiya jaata hai.

aarmechar chaalakon mein chunbakeeya kshetr ke saapeksh, aapekshik gati ke kaaran janit honevaali voltata, vastut: pratyaavarti praroop ki hoti hai. kisi bhi kshan par iska parimaan chunbakeeya kshetr ke chaalakon ki saapeksh sthiti par nirbhar karta hai. disht dhaara janitr ke aarmechar mein bhi isi prakaar ki voltata prerit hoti hai, par ek dikparivrtak (commutator) dvaara use baahari paripth mein adisht dhaara ke roop mein praapt kiya jaata hai. dik parivrtak aarmechar ke saath usi isha (shaft), par aaropit hota hai aur aarmechar chaalak nishchit vyavastha ke anusaar uske taamr khandon (copper segments) se yojit hote hain. dhaara ke dikparivrtak se baahari paripth mein le jaane ke liye burushon (brushes) ka praavadhaan hota hai, jo saadhaaranataya kaarban ke hote hain aur burush dhaarak (brush holder) mein lage hote hain.

vidyut utpaadan ki vividh vidhiyaaain

jalavidyut ke utpaadan ke liye baandh banaakar paani ko uainchaai par rokakar rakha jaata hai aur niyantrit roop mein jal-tarabaain se hokar pravaahit kiya jaata hai.

jahaaain tak yaantrik shakti ka prashn hai, vah chaahe to kisi tarabaain se athva engine se praapt ki ja sakti hai, ya nadi ke bahate hue paani se, jismein aseem shakti ka bhandaar nihit hai. prayatn to kiya ja raha hai ki samudra ke jvaar bhaate mein nihit oorja ko tatha jvaalaamukhi parvaton mein chhipi hui asami shakti ke bhandaaron ko bhi kaam mein laaya jaae. paramaanveeya shakti ka upayog to vidyut utpaadan ke liye sheeghrata se badh raha hai aur bahut se bade bade paramaanveeya bijleeghar banaae gaye hain, parantu abhi tak, mukhyat:, teen prakaar ke bijli ghar hi saamaanya hain : pan, bhaap evam deejl engine chaalit.

panabijleeghar aise sthaanon mein banaae jaate hain jahaaain kisi nadi mein sugamataapoorvak baaaindh baaaindhakar paryaapt jal ekatrit kiya ja sake aur use aavashyakataanusaar ooainchaai se nalon dvaara giraakar jal tarabaain chalaae ja sakein. ye tarabaain, vidyut janitron ke pradhaan chaalak hote hain. parvato se bahanevaali nadiyon mein aseem jalashakti nihit hoti hai. aise bijleeghar banaane ke liye pehle saare kshetr ka sarvekshan kiya jaata hai aur sabse upayukt aisa sthaan khoja jaata hai jahaaain nyoonatam parishram aur laagat se yathaasanbhav bada baaaindh banaaya ja sake. aise bijleegharon ki laagat bahut adhik hoti hai, par unka prachaalan vyaya (operating cost) bahut kam hota hai. aise bijleegharon ki sthaapana, mukhyat:, upayukt sthaan par nirbhar karti hai. yeh ho sakta hai ki ye bijleeghar udyog sthal se bahut door hon. aisi dasha mein bahut lambi sancharan laainein bhi banaani pad sakti hain. ataev aise bijleegharon ke nirmaan ka arthaauchitya siddh karne ke liye sancharan doori tatha usaki sajja ka vichaar rakhana bhi aavashyak hai.

bhaap chaalit bijleegharon mein bhaap se chalanevaale tarabaain hote hain. bhaap injanon ka upayog to ab vyaavahaarik roop mein puraani baat ho gayi hai. bhaap tarabaain, saadhaaranataya, uchch veg par chaalan karte hain aur santat prachaalan ke liye banaae jaate hain. adhikaansh tarabaainon mein uchch dabaav par bhaap prayukt ki jaati hai, jiske liye uchch dabaav ke vaashpitr (boilers) ki aavashyakta hoti hai. 600 pound prati varg inch ka dabaav ab saamaanya ho gaya hai aur aadhunik tarabaain to isse bhi adhik dabaav par prachaalan karne ke liye banaae ja rahe hain. tarabaain bhi ab is kshetr mein safalataapoorvak prayukt hone lage hain. tarabaain ki rachana mein nitya nae shodh ho rahe hain jisse bhaap chaalit bijleegharon ki dakshata aur bhi adhik badhaai ja sake.

naabhikeeya urja se chalne wala vaashpavidyutagruh

aajkal paramaanveeya bijleegharon ki sthaapana mein adhik dhyaan diya ja raha hai. paramaanveeya bijleeghar bahut se deshon mein banaae gaye hain aur unki badi badi yojanaaeain banaai ja rahi hain. Britain, amareeka tatha roos mein pichhle 10 varshon mein bahut bade bade paramaanveeya bijleeghar banaae gaye hain aur bahut se banaae ja rahe hain. inka mukhya laabh yeh hai ki ye bhaar keindro ke sannikt banaae ja sakte hain, jisse lambi sancharan laainon ki aavashyakta naheen rahati. iske atirikt, indhan ki maatra atyant kam hone ke kaaran, parivhan vyaya tatha usaki samasya naheen rahati. parantu inka pratishthaapan vyaya saapekshataya adhik hota hai aur fir inki prachaalan pranaali abhi tak shodh ka vishay hai. pranaaliyon mein nitya nae anusandhaan ke kaaran inki sthaapana ka nishchaya bahut hi vivaadaaspad hai. jo pranaali aaj se paaainch saal pehle apnaai jaati thi, vah ab gayi beeti baat ho chuki hai. doosare, inhein keval bade roop mein banaana hi aarthik tatha praavidhik roop se uchit ho sakta hai. utpaadit ki gayi saari shakti ka upayog usi sthal par ho jaana saadhaaranataya sambhav naheen hota. yeh avashya mahatvapoorn hai ki shakti ke doosare srot nirantar samaapt hote ja rahe hain, athva kaha ja sakta hai ki unamein se adhikaansh antat: samaapt hone ko hain. anumaan ke anusaar yadi sansaar mein koyale ki khapat isi prakaar hoti rahi, to vartamaan koyale ki khaanein sansaar ko adhiktam 200 varsh tak koyala deti rah sakti hain. isi prakaar tel ki utpatti ke vishay mein bhi kaha ja sakta hai. jalavidyut bhandaar avaya hi samaapt honevaala naheen hai, parantu ye bhandaar saamaanyat: upayog sthalon se bahut door hain. udaaharanat:, brahmaputr nadi ke jal mein, Bhaarat ki seema mein pravesh karne ke sthal par, lagbhag 35 lakh kiva. shakti ki kshamata hai. par pratham to vahaaain bijleeghar ki sthaapana karna itna sugam naheen aur doosare yeh sthaan upayog sthalon se lagbhag 500 meal door hai. Bhaarat mein lagbhag 40v109 tan koyala hone ka anumaan hai aur jalavidyut shakti, jiska upalabdh hona sambhav hai, lagbhag 40v106 kiva. hai. ye aaainkade kaafi aashaapad prateet hote hain, parantu yadi hamaara star bhi amareeka tatha doosare gatisheel deshon ke samaan ho aur prati manushya utan hi vidyut ki khapat ho, to itni shakti bhi hamaare liye bahut aparyaapt hogi. aisi dasha mein yeh svaabhaavik hai ki paramaanveeya shakti ka upayog kiya jaae.

chhote nagaron, athva chhote udyogon ke vaiyaktik sanbharanon, ke liye deejl injanon ka bhi upayog kiya jaata hai. ye set adhiktar kam kshamata ke hote hain. ye panabijleegharon evam taapeeya bijleegharon (koyale ka prayog karanevaale) ki tarah bade aakaaron mein naheen banaae ja sakte tatha inse utpaadit vidyut shakti ka prati unit moolya bhi saapekshataya kaheen adhik hota hai, parantu chhote sanbharanon ke liye ve bahut hi upayogi hote hain. inhein aasaani se chalaaya ja sakta hai aur kuchh hi minton mein bhaar lene ke anukool ho jaate hain. is kaaran ye atirikt (standby) sanchaayak ke roop mein bahut upayogi hote hain. deejl chaalit bijleegharon ko bhi, jo aarthik roop se mainhage hone ke kaaran band kar diye gaye hain, atirikt sanchaayak ke roop mein prayukt kiya ja raha hai.

deejl engine ka sthaan aajkal gas tarabaain le raha hai. gas tarabaain ki dakshata inki apeksha kaheen adhik hoti hai aur ve bade aakaaron mein bhi nirmit kiye ja sakte hain, parantu ve bahut adhik taap evam dabaav par prachaalan karte hain. adhik dakshata ke liye aur bhi ooainche taap par prachaalan karna aavashyak hai aur abhi aise padaarthon ka nirmaan sambhav naheen ho paaya hai jinka upayog gas tarabaainon ke nirmaan mein vyaavahaarik roop se kiya ja sake. at: gas tarabaain vidyutshakti ke utpaadan mein bahut saamaanya naheen ho paaya hai.

prakruti mein vidyutshakti ke aseem saadhan vidyamaan hain. uparyukt jaane maane saadhanon ke atirikt, kuchh aise saadhan bhi hain jinki or pichhle 50 varshon mein hi manushya ka dhyaan aakarshit hua hai. samudra ke jvaar-bhaate mein aparimit shakti vidyamaan hai. France evam Britain mein is shakti ka bhi vidyut utpaadan ke liye upayog kiya gaya hai. samudri jvaar ke samay nadi ke muhaane ki or badhte hue paani ko ek or khulanevaale baaaindh dvaara ghire jalaashaya mein bhar liya jaata hai. jvaar ke samay jalaashaya mein paani bhar jaane ke baad, bhaate ke samay, vah samudra mein vaapas naheen jaane diya jaata. fir to is jalaashaya ke paani ka kam ooainche sheershavaale bijleeghar ki bhaaainti hi jalavidyut janan ke liye upayog kiya ja sakta hai. aise bijleegharon mein nalikaaeain evam tarabaain ka ranar aisi dhaatu, saamaanyat: kaaainsa (bronze), ka hona chaahiye jispar samudra ka khaara paani raasaayanik pratikriya na kar sake. Bhaarat mein bhi jvaar bhaata bijleeghar banaane ki yojana banaai ja rahi hai aur agale 20 varshon mein aise bijleegharon ke saamaanya ho jaane ka sahal hi anumaan kiya ja sakta hai.

bhootaapeeya urja: shakti ka doosra aseem saadhan jvaalaamukhi parvaton ke antastal mein nihit bhayankar taap hai. yadi is antastal ko chhedakar usaki garam gas ka bijleeghar ke vaashpitron mein prayukt kiya ja sake, to sahaj hi aparimit shakti ka bhandaar khul jaaega. nyoojeelaind mein aise bijleeghar ko kriyaatmak roop diya gaya hai. vahaaain 30 g.j. ka ek bijleeghar jvaalaamukhi ki shakti ka upayog kar raha hai. Italy evam Japan mein bhi aise bijleegharon ki yojana banaai ja rahi hai aur is prakaar abhi tak jo jvaalaamukhi apni bhayankarata ke liye hi prasiddh the, ab upayogita ke kshetr mein bhi agraganya ho jaaeainge.

saur urja: soorya bhi vidyutshakti ka aseem saadhan hai. abheetak to keval prayogaatmak roop mein hi ise vidyutshakti ke utpaadan ke liye prayog kiya gaya hai, parantu sahaara evam arab ke registaanon ki chilchilaati dhoop mein saur bijleeghar banaane ki yojanaaeain banaai ja rahi hai aur aasha ki ja sakti hai ki yeh bhavishya mein sabse mahatvapoorn saadhan ban jaaeainge.

pavan urja: hava ka upayog abhi tak keval chakki chalaane evam kueain se paani nikaalne ke liye hi hua hai. parantu Germany evam haulaind ke kuchh doorasth ilaako mein iska upayog chhote janitr ka chalaane ke liye bhi kiya gaya hai, jisse vidyutshakti utpann ho sakti hai. hava ke bahne ki anishchitta ke kaaran, iska upayog saamaanya naheen ho paaya hai, parantu doorasth ilaako ke liye hava se chalanevaale chhote sayantr upayogi ho sakte hain.

vastut: bijli ki maaaing dino din badhti ja rahi hai aur manushya ko nitya nae saadhanon ki khoj hai, jisse is badhti hui maaaing ka poora kiya ja sake.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain