vidyut motor

vibhinn aakaar-prakaar ki vidyut motarein

vidyut motor (electric motor) ek vidyutayaantrik machine hai jo vidyut urja ko yaantrik urja mein badalti hai; arthaat ise upayukt vidyut srot se jodane par yeh ghoomane lagti hai jisse isse judi machine ya yantr bhi ghoomane lagti hai. yeh vidyut janitr ka ulta kaam karti hai jo yaantrik oorja lekar vidyut urja paida karta hai. kuchh motarein alag-alag paristhitiyon mein motor ya generator (janitr) dono ki tarah bhi kaam karti hain.

vidyut motor vidyut oorja ko yaantrik oorja mein parint karne ke saadhan hain. fairaade dvaara pratipaadit siddhaant par ye aadhaarit hote hain. vidyut motor audyogik pragati ka mahatvapoorn soochak hai. yeh ek badi saral tatha badi upayogi machine hai. udyogon mein shaayad hi koi aisa prayojan ho jiske liye upayukt vidyut motor ka chayan na kiya ja sake.

anukram

upayogita

vidyut motor (Electric Motor) udyogon mein ek aadarsh pradhaan chaalak (prime mover) hai. adhikaansh masheenein vidyut motaron dvaara hi chalaai jaati hai. iska mukhya kaaran yeh hai ki vidyut motaron ki dakshata doosare chaalakon ki tulana mein ooainchi hoti hai. saath hi usaka nishpaadan (performance) bhi adhiktar unase achha hota hai. vidyut motor pravartan tatha niyantran ke drushtikon se bhi aadarsh hai. motor ko chalaana, athva band karna, tatha chaal ko badalna anya chaalakon ki apeksha adhik sugamata se kiya ja sakta hai. iska doorasth niyantran (remote control) bhi ho sakta hai. niyantran ki sugamata ke kaaran hi vidyut motor itne lokapriya ho gaye hain.

vidyut motor anek kaaryon mein prayukt ho sakte hain. ye kai sau ashvashakti ki badi badi masheenein tatha chhoti se chhoti, ashvashakti tak ki, masheenein chala sakte hain. udyogon ke atirikt ye krushi mein bhi, kheton ke jotane, bone tatha kaatne ki masheenon ko aur sinchaai ke pumpon ko chalaane ke liye, prayukt hote hain. gharon mein prasheetan, dhovan, tatha anya vibhinn kaamon ki masheenein bhi inse chalaai jaati hain.

vidyut motor bhinn-bhinn prayojanon ke liye bhinn bhinn prayojanon ke liye bhinn bhinn praroopon ke bane hain. inmein saral niyantrak lage rahate hain, jinse anek prakaar ka kaam liya ja sakta hai.

vargeekaran

sanbharan (supply) ke anusaar paramparaagat roop se motor do prakaar ke ginaaye jaate rahe hain - dishtadhaara motor (deesi motor) evam pratyaavarti dhaara motor (AC motor). apne vishisht lakshanon ke anusaar donon hi ke bahut se praroop hote hai. kintu samay ke saath yeh vargeekaran kamjor pad gaya hai kyonki yoonivrsal motor AC se bhi chal sakti hai. shakti elektraaniki (power elektraaniks) ke vikaas ne kamyutetar ko ab motaron ke andar se baahar kar diya hai.

motaron ka doosra vargeekaran sinkronas aur asinkronas ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. yeh kuchh seema tak adhik tarkapoorn vargeekaran hai. sinkronas masheenon ka rotar usi koneeya chaal se chakkar kaatata hai jis gati se us motor ki pratyaavarti dhaara ke kaaran utpann chumbakeeya kshetr gati karta hai. kintu iske vipreet asinkronas motaron ka rotar kuchh kam gati se chakkar karta hai. preran motor (indakshan motor) iska pramukh udaaharan hai.

kuchh pramukh motarein is prakaar hain:

deesi motor

deesi motor ka rotar jismein kaumyutetar aur aarmechar drushtigochar hain.

deesi motarein vahaaain adhik upayogi hoti hain jahaaain chaal-niyantran (speed kantrol) bahut mahatva rakhata hai. aisa isaliye hai ki inka speed kantrol bahut aasaani se kiya ja sakta hai. di.si motor ka upayog

  • brashasahit deesi motor (brushed DC motor)
  • brasharahit deesi motor (Brushless DC motor) .

yoonivrsal motor

yeh vaastav mein sereej deesi motor hai jo AC evam deesi dono se chalaayi ja sakti hai. gharon mein upayog mein aane wala miksar ka motor yoonivrsal motor hi hota hai. iske atirikt relagaadi ka engine kheenchne ke liye (traikshan motor) yoonivrshal motor ka hi upayog kiya jaata hai kyonki inki chaal ke saath balaaghoorn ke badalne ka sambandh (taurk-speed hakairektaristik) is kaam ke liye bahut upayukt hai. yeh motor kam chaal par bahut adhik balaaghoorn paida karta hai jabki chaal badhane par iske dvaara utpann kiya gaya balaaghoorn kramash: kam hota jaata hai.

preran motor

skvairel kej preran motor ke stetar aur rotar

sabse-saamaanya pratyaavarti dhaara motor preran motor (induction motor) hai, jo preran ke siddhaant par kaarya karta hai. yeh motor sabse adhik upayog mein aata hai jiske kaaran ise udyogon ka varkahaurs kehte hain. ismein ghisne wala koi avayav naheen hai jisse yeh bina marammat ke bahut dino tak chal sakta hai.

  • teen feji
    • skvairel kej
    • slip-ring
  • ek feji

gharon mein saamaanya kaaryon evam kam shakti ke liye prayukt adhikaansh motarein ek-feji preran motor hi hoteen hain inhein fraikshnal haurshapauvar motor bhi kehte hain. udaaharan ke liye pankhon, dhulaai ki masheenon ke motor aadi.

pratyaavarti dhaara motaron mein bhi disht dhaara motaron ki bhaaainti hi kshetrakundaliyaaain tatha aarmechar hote hain, parantu kuchh vibhinn roop mein. inmein do mukhya bhaag hote hain : ek to stetar (stator), jo sthir rahata hai aur doosra rotar ko ghoomta hai. pratyaavarti dhaara motarein bhi vibhinn praroopon ke hote hain.

sinkronas motor

teen feji sinkronas motor bahut kam upayog mein aati hai. iska ek pramukh upayog shakti gunaank (power factor) ko achha banaane (lagbhag 1 karne hetu) ke liye kiya jaata hai. yeh apne-aap staart naheen hoti evam chalaana aarambh karne ke liye kuchh atirikt vyavastha karni padti hai. kintu sinkronas janitr ya altaranetar ka bahut upayog hota hai aur duniya ka adhikaansh vidyut shakti altaranetaron ke dvaara hi paida ki ja rahi hai.

rekheeya motor

inka upayog aajkal tej gati ki gaadiyon mein ho raha hai.

stepar motor

aajkal inka upayog sthiti niyantran (posishn kantrol) evam chaal-niyntran (speed kantrol) ke liye bahut hota hai. inko aankik nikaayon (digital sistams) ki sahaayata se kantrol karna bahut aasaan kaarya hai; jaise ki kisi maaikrokanatrolar ki sahaayata se. from A.C

motaron ki paraspar tulana

motor ka prakaar laabh haaniyaaain pramukh upayog praaya: prayukt drive
AC Induction (Shaded Pole) Least expensive
Long life
high power
Rotation slips from frequency
Low starting torque
Fans Uni/Poly-phase AC
AC Induction (split-phase capacitor) High power
high starting torque
Rotation slips from frequency Appliances Uni/Poly-phase AC
sinkronas motor Rotation in-sync with freq
long-life (alternator)
More expensive Industrial motors
Clocks
Audio turntables
tape drives
Uni/Poly-phase AC
stepar motor Precision positioning
High holding torque

Requires a controller
Positioning in printers and floppy drives Multiphase DC
brasharahit deesi motor Long lifespan
low maintenance
High efficiency
High initial cost
Requires a controller
Hard drives
CD/DVD players
electric vehicles
Multiphase DC
brashasahit deesi motor Low initial cost
Simple speed control (Dynamo)
High maintenance (brushes)
Low lifespan
Treadmill exercisers
automotive starters
Direct PWM

[1]

upayukt prakaar ke motor ka chunaav

yadi chaal vyavasthaapan kaafi vistrut paraas mein karna ho, to shraag motor (Schrage motor) bahut upayukt hote hain. bahut se sthaanon mein disht dhaara, shreni motor ka prachaalan lakshan vaanchhaneeya hota hai. iski vyavastha karne ke liye pratyaavarti dhaara motaron mein bhi prayatn kiya gaya hai. pratyaavarti dhaara shreni motor (A.C. Series motor) evam dikparivrtak motor (commutator motor) isi prakaar ke vishisht lakshanon ki vyavastha karte hain. tulyakaalik motor (synchronous motor) keval tulyakaalik chaal par hi prachaalan kar sakte hain. at: jahaaain ekasamaanachaal ki aavashyakta ho, vahaaain ye aadarsh hote hain. jis prakaar disht dhaara janitr evam motor, vastut: ek hi machine hain aur donon ko kisi bhi roop mein prayog karna sambhav hai. usi prakaar tulyakaalik motor bhi, vastut:, pratyaavarti dhaara janitr ka, jise saamaanyat: pratyaavartitr (Alternator) kehte hain, hi roop hai aur donon ko kisi bhi roop mein prayog karna sambhav hai. iske prachaalan ke liye iske stetar mein pratyaavarti dhaara sancharan tatha rotar mein disht dhaara uttejak (D.C. excitation) donon ki aavashyakta hoti hai. in motaron ka prayog kuchh seemit hai. disht dhaara uttejan ke liye pratyaavartit ki bhaaainti hi inmein bhi ek uttejan ke liye pratyaavartit ki bhaaainti hi inmein bhi ek uttejak (exciter) ki vyavastha hoti hai. in motaron ka mukhya laabh yeh hai ki uttejana ko badhaane se shaktigunaank (power factor) bhi badhaaya ja sakta hai. at: visheshataya un udyogon mein jahaaain bahut se preran motor hone ke kaaran, athva kisi aur kaaran, se shaktigunaank bahut kam ho jaata hai, vahaaain tulyakaalik motaron ki vyavastha kar shaktigunaank ko sudhaara ja sakta hai. bahut se sthaanon mein to ye motor keval shaktigunaank sudhaar ke liye hi prayukt kiye jaate hain. aisi dasha mein inhein tulyakaalik sandhaaritr (Synchronous condenser) kaha jaata hai.

bahut se sthaanon mein keval ekakaleeya (single phase) sanbharan hi upalabdh hota hai. vahaaain ekakaleeya motor prayog kiye jaate hain. chhoti masheenon tatha ghareloo kaaryon ke liye ekakaleeya preran motor (single phase induction motor) bahut lokapriya hain. bijli ke pankhon mein bhi ekakaleeya motor prayukt hote hain. isi prakaar dhaavan masheenon, prasheetakon tatha silaai ki masheenon ityaadi mein ekakaleeya motor hi pramukh kiye jaate hain. ekakaleeya motaron ki mukhya kathinaai inke aarambh karne mein hoti hain. aarambh karne ke liye kisi prakaar ka kala vipaatan (phase spliting) aavashyak hota hai. kala vipaatan saadhaaranataya ek sahaayak kundali dvaara kiya jaata hai, jiske eripth mein ek sandhaaritr diya hota hai, jo sahaayak kundalan ki dhaara ko mukhya kundalan ki dhaara se lagbhag 10 vidyut degree visthaapit kar deta hai. iske kaaran ghoorni chunbakeeya kshetr ki utpatti sambhav ho sakti hai aur motor chalne lagta hai. sandhaaritr ke paripth mein rahane se motor ka prachaalan shaktigunaank bhi sudhar jaata hai. bahut se chhote chhote motor saarvatrik kism ke hote hain aur disht dhaara evam pratyaavarti dhaara donon mein hi prayukt kiye ja sakte hain. vastut: ye shreni motor hote hain, jinka prachaalan disht dhaara evam pratyaavarti dhaara donon mein hi prayukt kiye ja sakte hain. vastut: ye shreni motor hote hain, jinka prachaalan disht dhaara ev pratyaavarti dhaara donon mein hi sambhav hai, parantu ye atyant chhote aakaaron mein hi banaae ja sakte hain aur keval kuchh vishesh prayuktiyon mein hi kaam aate hain.

meetaron tatha doosare ukaranon mein tatha jahaaain kisi vidyut raashi ka maapan karna ho vahaaain atyant chhote aakaar ke motor prayukt hote hain. doorasth niyantran, athva vaalv ityaadi ko kholne ke liye bhi, bahut se chhote motor prayukt hote hain.

motaron ka upari aavaran

motor ka oopari aavaran vibhinn paristhitiyon ke anusaar banaaya jaata hai. kuchh motor khule hue praroop ke hote hain, jinmein unke andar ke bhaag saamane dikhaai padte hain, parantu aise motaron mein dhool mitti jaane ka dar rahata hai. ataev ye khule sthaanon mein naheen prayukt kiye ja sakte. parantu aise motaron mein praakrutik sanvaatan (ventilation) achha hota hai. ataev ye sheeghrata se garam naheen hone paate. is kaaran aise motor aakaar ke anusaar saapekshataya adhik kshamata ke hote hain. jahaaain motor ko khule sthaanon mein prachaalan karna padta hai vahaaain dhool mitti ityaadi ka dar ho sakta hai, at: poornataya aavrut motor prayukt kiye jaate hain. aise motaron mein mukhya kathinaai sanvaatan ki hoti hai. inka aavaran bhi aisa banaaya jaata hai ki vah adhiktam ooshma vistarit (dissipate) kar sake. saath hi usi isha (shaft) par aaropit ek pankhe ki bhi vyavastha hoti hai, jo motor ke andar sanvaatan vaayu ko pravesh kar sake aur usamein utpann honevaali ooshma ko vistarit kar sake. adhikaansh prayojanon ke liye ardh-paribddh (semienclosed) motor santoshajanak hote hain, jinmein motor ke drushtigochar honevaale bhaag jaali dvaara dhake rahate hain. is prakaar inmein uparyukt donon praroopon ke laabh nihit rahate hain. vishesh paristhitiyon ke liye vishesh prakaar ke aavaran banaae jaate hain, jaise khaanon ke andar athva visfotak vaataavaran mein poornataya jvaalaarahit (flame-proof) motor prayukt kiye jaate hain. isi prakaar kuchh motor paani mein neeche kaam karne ke liye banaae jaate hain aur unke aavaran ki rachana kaam karne ke liye banaae jaate hain aur unke aavaran ki rachana is prakaar hoti hai ki paani motor ke andar na ja sake. aur bhi bahut si vibhinn paristhitiyon mein vibhinn prakaar ke aavaran banaae jaate hain.

lod ke saath sambaddh karne ki vidhiyaaain

bahut si motaron ko bhaar se (kaaryakaari machine se) seedhe hi sambaddh kar diya jaata hai aur bahut si avasthaaon mein unhein patti (belt), giyr (gear) athva chen (chain) dvaara sambaddh kiya jaata hai. giyr se chaalak evam chaalit masheenon mein lagbhag sthir chaal anupaat poshit kiya ja sakta hai aur giyr kram badalkar vibhinn chaalein bhi praapt ki ja sakti hain. patti dvaara shakti ke preshan mein machine ko motor se kaafi door bhi rakha ja sakta hai aur ek saamaanya isha ko bhi chalaaya ja sakta hai, jisse doosari masheenein sambaddh hon. bade bade kaarkhaanon mein saadhaaranataya yahi vinyaas hota hai.

kshamata ya rating

motaron ki kshamata ke liye mukhya pariseema taap ki vruddhi hai. taap ke badhne par kshat hone ka bhi bhaya rahata hai, tatha haaniyon ke badh jaane se motor ki dakshata bhi kam ho jaati hai. is prakaar motor anvarat prachaalan naheen kar sakta. adhikaansh motor ek vishisht taap vruddhi ke liye kshamit hote hain, jo vidyutarodhi ke varg par nirbhar karta hai. bahut se motor "santat kshamata" (contiuous rating) ke hote hain, jiska taatparya hai ki vah nirdhaarit bhaar, bina taap ke vishisht seema tak badhe, nirantar sanbharan kar sakte hain. bahut se motor keval alp kaal ke liye hi poorn bhaar par prachaalan karte hain aur baaki samay bahut kam bhaar par rahate hain athva band rahate hain. yadi prachaalanakram nishchit ho, to aise prayojanon ke liye kam kshamata ki motor keval alp kaal ke liye hi poorn bhaar par prachaalan karte hain aur baaki samay bahut kam bhaar par rahate hain athva band rahate hain. yadi prachaalanakram nishchit ho, to aise prayojanon ke liye kam kshamata ki motarein prayog ki ja sakti hain, jinka prachaalan tatha kshamata alp samay ke liye hi nirdhaarit hoti hai.

sandarbh

  1. http://www.circuitcellar.com/ Motor Comparison, Circuit Cellar Magazine, July 2008, Issue 216, Bachiochi, p.78

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