vidyut apaghatan

Daniel sel se mel khaata ha ek vidyutaraasaayanik sel

rasaayan vigyaan evam nirmaan (mainyufaikcharing) me vidyut apaghatan (electrolysis) us prakriya ko kehte hain jiske dvaara kisi raasaayanik yaugik mein vidyut-dhaara pravaahit karke uske raasaayanik bandhon ko ko toda jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye jal mein vidyut dhaara pravaahit karne par jal, haaidrojan evam okseejan mein vightit ho jaata hai jise jal ka vidyut apaghatan kehte hain. vidyut apaghatan ke bahut se upayog hain. ayaskon ko prasanskaarit karke unamein nihit raasaayanik tatv ko shuddh karna evam use alag karna iska sabse mahatvapoorn audyogik evam vyaavasaayik upayog hai.

anukram

sankshipt itihaas

  • 1800 - William niklsanaur johaan ritr ne jal ka vidyut apaghatan karke haaidrojan evam aakseejan praapt kiya.
  • 1886 - henari mvaayasan (Henri Moissan) ne vidyut apaghatan ke upayog ke dvaara floreen ka aavishkaar kiya.
  • 1886 - alamuniym ke nishkarshan (extraction) ke liye haal-herolt (Hall-Héaroult) prakriya ki khoj
  • 1890 - kaastanar-kelnar prakriya (Castner-Kellner process) dvaara sodiym haaidraaksaaid ka nirmaan

parichay

jab kisi oyanik padaarth (jo ki vilyan ke roop mein ho ya pighla ha ho) se jab vidyut dhaara pravaahit karte hain to vidyutaagron (elektrods) ke upar raasaayanik abhikriya hoti hai aur isse naye padaarth bante hain.

vidyut apaghatan ke liye aavashyak avayav

  • disht dhaara ka srot
  • do thos pletein ya chhade, jinhein elektrod kehte hain

uparokt avayavon ki bhoomika is prakaar hai-

  • chalaayamaan oyan vidyutadhaara ke pravaah ke liye "vaahak" (kairiar) ka kaam karte hain. yadi aayan chalaayamaan na hon (jaise kisi thos mein) to vidyut apaghtan sambhav naheen hoga.
  • baahar se vidyut dhaara pravaahit karne se aayan banane ya "dischaarj" hone ke liye aavashyak urja praapt hoti hai.
  • do vidyutaagr - baahari vidyut paripth evam aayanik vilyan ko vidyuteeya drushti se jodane ka kaam karte hain.

vidyutaagr, vidyut ke chaalak hone chaahiye. dhaatu, grefaait aur ardhachaalak padaarthon ke elektrod bahuta prayog mein laaye jaate hain. elektrod ke padaarth ka chunaav in baaton se prabhaavit hota hai-

  • elektrod aur elektrolaait ke beech koi kriya naheen honi chaahiye.
  • elektrod ke nirmaan ka khrch kam hona chaahiye.

vidyut apaghatan ke audyogik upayog

elmuniym ke nirmaan mein prayukt haal-herolt prakriya
  • Production of aluminium, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium
  • Production of hydrogen for hydrogen cars and fuel cells; high-temperature electrolysis is also used for this
  • Coulometric techniques can be used to determine the amount of matter transformed during electrolysis by measuring the amount of electricity required to perform the electrolysis
  • Production of chlorine and sodium hydroxide
  • Production of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate
  • Production of perfluorinated organic compounds such as trifluoroacetic acid
  • Production of electrolytic copper as a cathode, from refined copper of lower purity as an anode.
anya upayog -
  • Electrometallurgy is the process of reduction of metals from metallic compounds to obtain the pure form of metal using electrolysis. For example, sodium hydroxide in its molten form is separated by electrolysis into sodium and oxygen, both of which have important chemical uses. (Water is produced at the same time.)
  • Anodization is an electrolytic process that makes the surface of metals resistant to corrosion. For example, ships are saved from being corroded by oxygen in the water by this process. The process is also used to decorate surfaces.
  • A battery works by the reverse process to electrolysis. Humphry Davy found that lithium acts as an electrolyte and provides electrical energy.
  • Production of oxygen for spacecraft and nuclear submarines.
  • Electroplating is used in layering metals to fortify them. Electroplating is used in many industries for functional or decorative purposes, as in vehicle bodies and nickel coins.
  • Production of hydrogen for fuel, using a cheap source of electrical energy.
  • Electrolytic Etching of metal surfaces like tools or knives with a permanent mark or logo.
  • Electrolysis is also used in the cleaning and preservation of old artifacts. Because the process separates the non-metallic particles from the metallic ones, it is very useful for cleaning old coins and even larger objects.

paani ka vidyut apaghatan

jal ka vidyut apaghatan karne ke liye disht dhaara (deesi) ka koi srot aavashyak hota hai, jaise baitari ya deesi janitr ya rektifaayar aadi. paani ke vidyut apaghatan se haaidrojan aur aakseejan praapt hote hain. paani se haaidrojan ki praapti ise mahatvapoorn banaati hai.

2H2O(l) → 2H2(g) + O2(g); E0 = 1.229 V

haaidrojan bahut upayogi hai. iska upayog antardahan injanon mein indhan ke roop mein kiya ja sakta hai athva ise indhan sel (fuel sel) mein upayog karke usase vidyut motarein chalaane ke kaam mein laaya ja sakta hai.

prayogakarta (Experimenters)

vidyut apaghatan ke kshetr mein agrani kaarya karne vaale kuchh vyaktiyon ke naam -

  • entoni levaase (Antoine Lavoisier)
  • raabart bunsen (Robert Bunsen)
  • hamfri devi (Humphry Davy) - jiska abhaya deep (sefti laimp) prasiddh hai.
  • Michael fairaade (Michael Faraday)
  • paul herolt (Paul Heroult)
  • svaante arheeniys (Svante Arrhenius)
  • kolbe (Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe)
  • William nikolsan (rasaayanajnya) (William Nicholson)
  • gay lusaak (Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac)
  • vaun hambolt (Alexander von Humboldt)
  • volta (Alessandro Volta)

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain