vidyut

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vaayumandaleeya vidyut

vidyut aaveshon ke maujoodagi aur bahaav se jude bhautik parightanaaon ke samuchchaya ko vidyut (Electricity) kaha jaata hai. vidyut se anek jaani-maani ghatnaaen judi hai jaise ki tadit, sthaitik vidyut, vidyutachumbakeeya preran, tatha vidyut dhaara. iske atirikt, vidyut ke dvaara hi vaidyutachumbakeeya tarango (jaise radio tarang) ka srujan evam praapti sambhav hota hai.

vidyut ke saath chumbakatv judi hui ghatna hai. vidyut aavesh vaidyutachumbakeeya kshetr paida karte hain. vidyut kshetr mein rakhe vidyut aaveshon par bal lagta hai.

samast vidyut ka aadhaar ilektraun hain. ilektraanon ke hastaanaantaran ke kaaran hi koi vastu aaveshit hoti hai. aavesh ki gati hi vidyut dhaara hai. vidyut ke anek prabhaav hain jaise chumbakeeya kshetr, ooshma, raasaayanik prabhaav aadi.

jab vidyut aur chumbakatv ka ek saath adhyayan kiya jaata hai to ise vidyut chumbakatv kehte hain. vidyut ko anekon prakaar se paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai kintu saral shabdon mein kaha jaaye to vidyut aavesh ki upasthiti tatha bahaav ke parinaamasvaroop utpann us saamaanya avastha ko vidyut kehte hain jismein anekon kaaryon ko sampann karne ki kshamata hoti hai. vidyut chal athva achal ilektraan ya protaan se sambaddh ek bhautik ghatna hai. kisi chaalak mein vidyut aaveshon ke bahaav se utpann urja ko vidyut kehte hain.

itihaas

isa se lagbhag 600 varsh poorv yoonaan nivaasi theleej is baat se parichit the ki kuchh vastueain ragadne ke pashchaat halaki vastuon ko aakarshit karti hain. iska ullekh theeaafraistas (Theophrastus) ne 321 E.poo. mein tatha plini (Pliny) ne san 70 mein kiya tha. is aakarshan shakti ka adhyayan 16 veen shataabdi mein William gilbart (1540-1603 E.) dvaara hua tatha unhonne ise 'ilektrik' kaha. aadhunik shabd 'ilektraun' ka upayeg [[yoonaani bhaasha] mein anbar ke liye kiya jaata hai. 'ilektrisiti' shabd ka upayog san 1650 mein vaaltar shaarltan (Walter Charlton) ne kiya. isi samay raabart baayal (1627-1691 E.) ne pata lagaaya ki aaveshit vastueain halki vastuon ko shoonya mein bhi aakarshit karti hain, arthaant vidyut ke prabhaav ke liye hava ka maadhyam hona aavashyak naheen hai. san 1729 mein steefn gre (Stephen Gray, san 1696-1736) ne apne prayogon ke aadhaar par kaha ki yeh aakarshan shakti kisi vastu ke ek bhaag se doosare bhaag ko sanchaarit ki ja sakti hai. aisi vastuon ko desaagyuliyrs (Desaguliers, 1683-1744) ne 'chaalak' (Conductor) kaha. sabhi prakaar ki dhaatueain is shreni mein aati hain. ve vastueain jinmein is shakti ko sanchaarit naheen kiya ja sakta, vidyutarodhi (Insulator) kahalaati hain. is shreni mein anbar, mom, sookhi hava, sookha kaaainch, rabar, lakh ityaadi hain.

vastuon ki ragad ke kaaran vidyut do prakaar ki hoti hai, ghanaatmak evam rinaatmak. pehle inke kramash: kaachaabh (vitreous) tatha rejini (resionous) naam prachalit the. san 1737 mein doofe (Du Fay, 1699-1739) ne bataaya ki sajaateeya aavesh ek doosare ko pratikrshit karte hain tatha vijaateeya aakarshit karte hain. 1745 mein klaaist (Kleist) ne kyoomin (Kummin) mein, masenabrook (Musschen brock) ne laaiden (Leyden) mein, tatha William Watson (William Watson) ne London mein kaha ki vidyut ka sanchaya bhi kiya ja sakta hai, inke prayogon tatha vichaaron ne prasiddh sanchaayak leeden jaar (Leydenjar) ko janm diya. lagbhag isi samay vidyut ko paryaapt maatra mein praapt karne ke prayatn bhi jaari the tatha vibhinn prakaar ke vidyut yantron ka aavishkaar hua. viliya vatasan ka vichaar tha ki vidyut ek prakaar ka pratyaasth taral (Elastic fluid) hoti hai jo pratyek vastu mein vidyamaan hoti hai. aaveshaviheen vastuon mein yeh saadhaaran maatra mein hoti hai at: iska nireekshan naheen kiya ja sakta. Watson ke taral siddhaant ke anusaar vidyut ek vastu se doosari vastu mein chali jaati hai. Amreeki vaigyaanik tatha raajaneetijnya beinjaamin Franklin (Benjamin Franklin, san 1706-1790) ne is siddhaant ka samarthan kar, vistaar kiya. Franklin ne kaha ki vidyut na to utpann ki ja sakti hai, na nasht hi. Franklin ne leeden jaar ka adhyayan kar usaki kriya ko samajhaane ki cheshta ki. par Franklin ka sabse prasiddh evam mahatvapoorn vah prayog tha, sismein unhonne siddh kiya ki meghon se meghagarjan ke samay vidyut tatha saadhaaran vidyut ke gun samaan hain. unhonne yeh bhi kaha ki vidyut ke kan ek doosare par bal daalte hain.

Franklin ke pashchaat epeenus (Aepinus, san 1724-1802) ne in vichaaron ko liya tatha iska aabhaas diya ki do vastuon ka bal unke beech ki doori badhaane par ghat jaata hai. is siddhaant ka vistaar jaajef preestali (Joseph Priestley, san 1733-1804) tatha henari kaiveindish (Hernry Cavendish, san 1731-1810) ne kiya. fir koolaum (Coulomb, san 1736-1806) ne khoj ki ki do aaveshon ke beech ka bal, unke beech ki doori ke varg ke vyutakramaanupaati tatha aaveshon ke gunanafal ke samaanupaati hota hai. vidyut ka yeh mool niyam ab bhi 'koolaum ka balaniym' kaha jaata hai. san 1837 mein Michael fairaade (Faraday, san 1791-1867) ne kinheen do aaveshit vastuon ke beech ke vidyut bal par maadhyam ke prabhaav ka adhyayan kiya tatha pata lagaaya ki yadi maadhyam hava ke sthaan par koi aur vidyutarodhi ho to vidyut bal ghat jaata hai, vidyutrodhi ke is gun ko unhonne 'vishisht paaravaidyutata' (Specific Inductive capacity) athva paraavidyut (Dielectric) kaha. unhonne apne barf ke baratanavaale prasiddh prayog (icepile experiment) dvaara darshaaya ki yadi kisi aaveshit chaalak ka ek baratan mein laaya jaae, to baratan ke andar ki or vijaateeya aavesh prerit hota hai tatha baahar ki or sajaateeya avesh. fairaade ne paraavidyut ka gahan adhyayan kiya tatha unke vibhinn prabhaavon ko samajhaane ke liye vidyut bal rekhaaon ka vichaar upasthit kiya tatha aaveshit vastuon ke beech ke khaali sthaan ko 'kshetr' kaha. fairaade ke kshetr siddhaant ko ganit ki sahaayata se gaaus (Gauss) ne aage badhaaya.

aththaarahaveen shataabdi ke antim varshon mein aaveshon ke chalan (arthaat vidyut pravaah) ke sambandh mein kai prayog tatha siddhaant prakaash mein aane lage the. san 1780 mein Italy ke lyugi gailavaani (Luigi Galvani, san 1737-1798) ne medhak ke upar vidyut pravaah ke kai prayog kiye. san 1800 mein volta (Volta, san 1745-1827) ne tanu aml athva lavan vilyan se bheegi hui do asamaan dhaatuon mein vidyut prabhaav paae tatha unase vidyuddhaara praapt ki. is vidyut pravaah ko kai guna karne ke liye unhonne aisi kai asamaan dhaatuon ke jodon ko lekar ek punj banaaya jise volteeya punj (Volta's pile) kehte hain. volta dvaara in prayogon ke anusaar vidyuddhaara praapt karne ke liye 'volteeya sel' ki rachana hui. usi varsh England mein niklsan (Nicholson) tatha kaarlaail (Carlisle) ne is baat ka pata lagaaya ki yadi paani mein vidyutdhaara pravaahit ki jaae to paani ke haaidrojan tatha okseejan mein apaghatan ko jaata hai. aise apaghatan ko vaidyut apaghatan (Electrolysis) kehte hain. krukashaik (Cruick shank, 1745-1800) ne pata lagaaya ki vilyan ke dhaatulavan bhi isi prakaar apaghatit kiye ja sakte hain. iske pashchaat fairaade ne is kriya ka niyamit adhyayan kiya tatha 'fairaade ke niyamon' ki sthaapana ki. in niyamon athva inse sambandhit prayogon ke aadhaar par vidyut dhaara utpaadan karanevaale vibhinn prakaar ke sel tatha sanchaayakon ki rachana ki gayi hai.

san 1820 mein hains krishchiyn arasted (Hans Christian Oersted, san 1771-1851) ne khoj kiya ki ek taar mein pravaahit vidyut dhaara ke saath usase sambandhit ek chunbakeeya kshetr bhi hota hai. is mahatvapoorn khoj ko kipro (Biot, san 1774-1862) tatha saavaar (Savart, san 1791-1841) ne aur ainpiyr (Ampere, san 1775-1836) ne ganit evam prayogon ki sahaayata se aage badhaaya. ainpiyr ne yeh dikhaaya ki do samaantar taaron mein vidyut dhaara ki disha samaan hone par aakarshan tatha vipreet hone par pratikrshan hota hai. aarasted ke siddhaanton ko fairaade ne viksit kiya tatha vidyut-chunbakeeya preran ke niyamon ki sthaapana ki. preran ka adhyayan baad mein naaiman (Neumann) tatha vebar (Weber) ne bhi kiya parantu prarena sambandhi vichaaron ka mahatvapoorn upayog Clark Maxwell (Clerk Maxwell, san 1831-1879) ne san 1851 mein kiya tatha 'Maxwell sameekaranon' ki sthaapana kar vidyuchchunbakeeya siddhaanton ko ganit ki sahaayata se ek sulajha hua roop diya. aadhunik bhautiki mein in sameekaranon ka vishesh sthaan hai.

san 1822 mein jebek (Seebeck, san 1770-1831) ne dekha ki yadi ek paripth mein do asamaan dhaatuon ko jod diya jaae aur ek jod ko garam kiya jaae to paripth mein vidyut pravaahit hoti hai. aisi vidyut ko 'ooshma vidyut' kehte hain.

san 1826 mein George Simon om (George Simon ohm, san 1787-1854) ne prasiddh 'om ke niyam' ki sthaapana ki. san 1841 mein jool (Joule) ne vidyut ke ooshma prabhaav ka adhyayan kiya tatha batalaaya ki kisi sel ki raasaayanik oorja, jo paripth mein dhaara pravaahit karti hai, us paripth mein utpaadit ooshma urja ke baraabar hoti hai. helm holtaj (Helm holtz, san 1821-1894), William taumasan, kelavin, laardan, (William Thomson, Kelvin Lord, san 1847-1853) aadi ne vidyut oorja sambandhi anya siddhaanton ka vikaas kiya. san 1848 mein kirkhahaaf (Kirchoff, san 1824-1887) ne vidyuddhaara sambandhi niyamon ko prastut kiya. san 1851 mein laard kelavin ne ooshma vidyut ka ooshmaagatiki ke siddhaaton dvaara vishleshan kiya. san 1855 mein Maxwell dvaara vidyut tatha prakoshatarang sambandhi vichaaron ki neenv padi. san 1884 mein John henari paaniting (John HenryPoynting) ne vidyut chunbakeeya kshetr mein oorja pravaah ka adhyayan kiya. san 1886 mein haainrikh herts (Heinrich Hertz, 1857-1894) ki sahaayata se Maxwell ke siddhaanton ko praayogik samarthan mila. iske pashchaat vidyuchchunbakeeya tarangon ke vishay mein kai vaigyaaniko ka dhyaan aakarshit hua. maarakoni ne san 1896 mein inka prayog sandesh bhejane mein kiya. isi samay ke lagbhag Bhaarat ke jagadeeshachandr Basu, (1858-1937) ne uchch aavruttivaali vidyuchchanbakeeya tarangon ka janan kiya tatha inke gunon ko prakaash ke siddhaanton se samajhaane ki cheshta ki. iske pashchaat is vishay ki paryaapt pragati hui jise falasvaroop radio, telivijn tatha 'ilektrauniki' ka kshetr viksit hua.

herts ke anya prayogon ne 'prakaashavidyut' ki bhi khoj ki jisko aainsateen (Einstein) ne kvaantam siddhaanton dvaara san 1905 mein samajhaaya. san 1895 mein tatha usi samay ke lagbhag bhautiki ke kshetr mein ek kraantikaari aandolan aaya. san 1895 mein rantagen (Roentgen) ne 'eksare' ka, 1896 mein bekrel ne (Becquerel) ne rediyosakriyta (Radio activity) ka tatha 1897 mein sar J.J. taumasan (Sir J.J. Thomson) ne 'ilektraan' ka aavishkaar kiya. taamasan ne gaison mein se vidyudvisrjan ke vishay ka bhi adhyayan kiya. is vishay mein inse pehle, aarambh mein (san 1850 evam uske baad) gaaisalar (Geissler), plakar (Plucker), hitaurf (Hitlorf), goldasteen (Goldstein) aadi ne kaarya kiya tha.

baad ke vaigyaaniko mein se pramukh hain J.S. taaunaseind (J.S. Townsend) tatha unke saathi. san 1902 mein richrdasan (Richardson) ne 'taapaayanik' vishay ki neenv daali. 'taapaayan dhaara' ke siddhaant par radio vaalv tatha ilektrauniki ke anya vaalvon ki rachana hui hai. beesaveen shataabdi mein ek ke pashchaat ek mahatvapoorn khojon ka taaainta baindh gaya jinke parinaam svaroop aaj ke haaidrojan bam, sangalan oorja (Fusion energy), 'sputanik' tatha anya upagrah ityaadi. inke panapane mein kisi na kisi roop mein vidyut ke siddhaanton ka upayog hua hai.

baahari kadiyaaain