vidyaadhar chakravarti

vidyaadhar chakravarti. vidyaadhar Bhattacharya (?). vidyaadhar (1693-1751) Bhaarat ke nagar-niyojan ke purodha the. aaj se 286 saal pehle Jaipur jaisa suvyavasthit aur aadhunik nagar basaane ke aamer mahaaraaja savaai jayasinh ke sapane ko saakaar karne mein unki bhoomika sabse nirnaayak aur mahatvapoorn rahi. ganit, shilpashaastr, jyotish aur sanskrut aadi vishyon mein unki asaadhaaran gati thi.

sab se pehle vidyaadhar ne jiski rachana ki : kila jayagadh, aamer

vidyaadhar Bengal mool ke ek gaud-braahman the, jinke das vaidik braahman poorvaj aamer-raajya ki kuladevi durga shilaadevi ki shila khulana-upakshetr ke jaisor (tab poorv Bengal), ab Bangladesh) se laane ke samay Jaipur aaye the. unheen mein se ek ke vanshaj vidyaadhar the.[1]

anukram

janm-aur mrutyu-tithi

Jaipur itihaas ke jaane maane vidvaan aur anusandhaanakarta dau॰ aseem Kumar rai ne city-pailes, Jaipur ke potheekhaane se praapt janmapatri ke aadhaar par likha hai -'vidyaadhar ka janm Bengal mein vaishaakh shukl dashami, vikram samvat 1750 (san 1693 isvi) mein jnyaaaneindr chakravarti, jo aamer mein santosh Ram naam se prasiddh hue ke ghar mein hua tha. unki mrutyu faalgun sudi navami samvat 1807 (san 1751) ko Jaipur mein hui. dau॰ aseem Kumar rai ke anusandhaan ke anusaar Jaipur darbaar ke puraane kaagajaat mein vidyaadhar ke naam ka sabse pehle ullekh samvat 1775 (san 1719-20) mein upalabdh hua hai, jab vah aamer ke 'mahakama-hisaab' ('kachahari-mustafi') (ya lekha-vibhaag) mein 'naayab-daroga' (Junior Inspector Audit) ke pad par kaam kar rahe the. samvat 1781 (san 1725-26) mein vidyaadhar ke maama krushnaaraam ko apni putri aur bhaanje vidyaadhar ke vivaah ke liye darbaar ki aur se 5 hajaar rupaye bataur paravarish diye jaane ka likhit ullekh mila hai.[2]

deevaan pad par padonnati

savaai jayasinh, Kabul mein hui ladaai mein apne pita mahaaraaja vishnusinh ke dehaant ke baad 1699-1700 E. mein aamer ki gaddi par baithe the- vidyaadhar ke janm ke praay: chh: saal baad- jinhonne apne ek praay: anaam lekha-lipik vidyaadhar ki asaamaanya pratibha ko na keval pahachaana aur sammaanit kiya; balki san 1729 mein unhein padonnat kar aamer raajya ka 'desh-deevaan' (ya raajasv-mantri) ka mahatvapoorn pad bhi diya. san 1743 mein savaai jayasinh ke dehaavasaan ke baad bhi vidyaadhar shaasan mein rahe aur samay-samay par sammaanit aur puraskrut hote rahe. [2]

Jaipur ko vidyaadhar ka yogadaan

Jaipur ke nagar niyojak aur pramukh-vaastuvid ke roop mein vidyaadhar ka naam kisi parichay ka mohataaj naheen. vah kai avsaron par apni pratibha pradarshit kar chuke the aur savaai jayasinh ko unki medha aur yogyata par poora bharosa tha isliye san 1727 mein aamer ko chhod kar jab paas mein hi ek naya nagar banaane ka vichaar utpann hua to bhala vidyaadhar ko chhod kar is kalpana ko kriyaanvit karne wala bhala doosra aur kaun hota? lagbhag chaar saal mein vidyaadhar ke maargadarshan mein nae nagar ke nirmaan ka aadhaarbhoot kaam poora hua. jayasinh ne apne naam par is ka naam pehle pahal 'savaai jayanagar' rakha jo baad mein 'savaai jaipur' aur antat: aam bolachaal mein aur bhi sankshipt ho kar 'Jaipur' ke roop mein jaana gaya.

chitr:Jaigarh Fort Wall.JPG
vidyaadhar dvaara aakalpit bahucharchit kila 'jayagadh'

1734 isvi mein Jaipur mein saat-khand (manjil) ke raajamahal ' (chandramahal)' ka nirmaan jahaaain vidyaadhar ne karavaaya, vaheen is se pehle san 1726-27 (samvat 1783) mein aamer mein durgam aur prasiddh kile jayagadh ki taameer bhi inhone hi shilpashaastr ke siddhaanton ke aadhaar par karavaai[3] - jiske turant baad inhein aamer raajya ka raajasv-mantri ('desh-deevaan') ka ohada mila. [3] puraana shahar chaaron or se oonche majboot parakote se ghira hua tha, jismein pravesh ke liye saat darvaaje banavaaye gaye. bahut baad mein ek aur dwaar bhi bana jo 'new gate' kahalaaya. poora shahar saamaan aakaar ke chhah bhaagon mein bainta hai aur yeh 111 foot (34 mi.) chaudi sadkon se vibhaajit hai. praasaad-bhaag mein havaamahal parisar, taaunahaal, taalakatora, govindadev mandir, udyaan evam vedhashaala aadi hain, to puraane shahar ke uttar-pashchimi or ki pahaadi par naaharagadh, shahar ke mukut jaisa lagta ek kila.[4]

nagar ko vaastu shaastr ke anuroop alag-alag prakhandon (chaukadiyon) mein samakoneeya maargon (jinhein nagar niyojan ki bhaasha mein 'grid aayaran paitarn' kaha jaata hai) ke aadhaar par baantane, vishesheekrut haat-baajaar viksit karne, iski sundarata ko badhaane vaale anekaanek nirmaan karavaane vaale vidyaadhar ka nagar-niyojan [5] aaj desh-videsh ke kai vishvavidyaalayon mein maanak-udaaharan ke roop mein chhaatron ko padhaaya jaata hai. li kaarboojiyr ke Chandigarh ki vaastu-yojana [6][7] bahut kuchh Jaipur ke nagar-niyojan se hi abhiprerit hai. roos ke bhaaratavid vidvaan A. A.korotskaaya ne apni prasiddh kitaab Bhaarat ke nagar mein vidyaadhar aur Jaipur ki vishisht vaasturachana baare mein vistaar se vichaar vyakt kiye hain.

savaai jayasinh ke samakaaleen, sanskrut aur brajabhaasha ke mahakavi shreekrushnabhatt kaviklaanidhi ne apne itihaas-kaavyagranth ishvaravilaas mahaakaavya mein vidyaadhar ki prashasti mein kaha hai "bangaalayapravar vaidikaagaudvipr: kshipraprasaadasulabh: sumukh:kalaavaan vidyaadharojaspati mantrivro nrupasyaraajaadhiraajaparipoojit: shuddh-buddhi:" bhaavaarth yeh ki mahaaraaja jayasinh ka mantri vidyaadhar (vaidik) gaud jaati ka bangaali-braahman hai, dekhne mein bada sundar aur bolne mein bada saral svabhaav ka hai, vibhinn kalaaon mein nishnaat shuddh buddhi vaale (is vidyaadhar) ko mahaaraajaadhiraaj jayasinh bada maan-sammaan dete hain." kavishiromani bhatt mathuraanaath shaastri ne san 1947 mein 476 prushthon mein prakaashit apna ek yashasvi kaavya-granth Jaipur-vaibhavam to vidyaadhar ki amar vaastukruti- Jaipur ke nagar-saundarya, darshaneeya sthaanon, devaalayon, maargon, yahaaain ke sammaanit naagrikon, utsavon aur tyohaaron aadi par hi kendrit kiya tha.

sammaan-puraskaar aur smruti-chinh

san 1727 mein jayagadh(dekhein chitr) poora hone par inhein 'siropaav' sammaan mila, 1734 mein chandramahal banavaane par pun: siropaav aur san 1735 mein jhotavaada ke paas 'darbhaavati nadi'/ 'drayaavati' (baandi nadi) se nahar banava kar usaka paani Jaipur shahar mein laane par ek bada raajasammaan 'siropaav' mila.[4] isi baare mein yadunaath sarkaar ne apni pustak' Jaipur ka itihaas' ('a history of Jaipur') ke prushth 196 par likha hai-" jaisa Jaipur raajya ke kaagajaat (abhilekh) se jaahir hai, vidyaadhar ka sammaan aur ohada ek vaastuvid ke roop mein Jaipur-sarkaar mein nishchit roop se ooncha tha. san 1729 isvi mein unhein 'desh-deevaan' pad par padonnat kiya gaya, san 1734 mein 'saat-manjil ke raajamahal ko sheegra poora karavaane' aur varsh 1735 mein 'drayaavati' nadi ka paani Jaipur mein laane' ke upalakshya mein ke liye raajya se sammaanit kiya gaya. is baat ki pushti bhi Jaipur abhilekhon se hoti hai- unhein iske alaava bhi anek sammaan aur puraskaar mile jinmein 23 fravari 1751 ko unhein ek haathi bheint kiye jaane ka (likhit) pramaan bhi shaamil hai...."[5] Jaipur raajadarabaar mein vidyaadhar ka sammaan itna tha ki "unke putr muraleedhar chakravarti ko na keval apne pita ka pad saunpa gaya balki 5,000 rupaye saalaana ki vaarshik aay ki jaageer bhi."[6] yadunaath sarkaar ke 'Jaipur ka itihaas' mein yeh tathya sarvapratham baar ullekhit hai.

jis sundar shahar ka naksha aise gunavaan nagar-niyojak ne banaaya tha, aaj us Jaipur mein unheen vaastuvid vidyaadhar ke koi vanshaj naheen bache hain, par Jaipur-Agra mahaamaarg par 'ghaat ki ghooni' mein banaaya gaya muglon ki 'chaarabaag' shaili par aadhaarit ek sundar udyaan 'vidyaadhar ka baag' aur tripoliya baajaar mein 'vidyaadhar ke raaste' mein sthit unki pushtaini-haveli, unki dhundhali si yaad ko yathaasanbhav surakshit rakhe hue hain. Jaipur vikaas praadhikran ne Ahmedabad ke prasiddh vaastuvid baalakrushn vitthal das doshi (janm 26 August 1927-) ke nakshe se unke naam par ek poora ka poora vishaal upanagar 'vidyaadhar nagar' hi Jaipur-seekar road par basaaya hai.

parivaar

itihaas se gyaat hota hai ek putr muraleedhar ke alaava vidyaadhar ke do putriyaaain bhi theen- maayaadevi aur kamyaadevi. maayaadevi ne tripoliya ke baahar 'chaude-raaste' mein prasiddh shivaalaya 'taadkeshvaraji mandir' ki pratishtha karavaai aur yon apne pita ki smruti ko chirsthaai banaaya, vaheen aamer ke 'bakaan ke kuaine' ke paas ek aur Shiv-mandir bhi (sanbhavat: apne pita ki yaad mein (?) nirmit karavaaya. inheen maayaadevi ke putr harihr chakravarti ki mahaaraaja ishvareesinh ke shaasan mein 'desh-deevaan' ke mantri-pad par niyukti ki gayi.[7]

Jaipur ka 'chandramahal' : jiske vaastuvid vidyaadhar the

vidyaadhar ke poorvaj aur Mathura ke raaja kans ki shila

vidyaadhar ke vanshaj (prapautr ke pautr) soorajabaksh ki jaankaari[8] ke anusaar "mahaamahopaadhyaaya haraprasaad shaastri ke chhote bhaai (anuj) meghanaath Bhattacharya ne san 1904 isvi mein apne poorvaj vidyaadhar par ek bahut mahatvapoorn tippani ' saahitya-parishd-patrika' mein prakaashit karavaai thi. is vivran ko samvat 1322 (san 1918 isvi) mein Calcutta ke jnyaaaneindr mohan das ne apni baangala-pustak 'bagair baahire baangaali' mein bhi shaamil kiya tha. is vivran ke anusaar : " yashohar (jo baangalaadesh mein aaj ka jaisor hai) ke raaja vikramaaditya ne apne putr prataapaaditya ko mugl shaasan ki jaankaari karne ke liye Agra bheja tha. jab vah Agra pahuainchane se pehle kuchh din Mathura mein tha, to use vahaan grenaait ki ek kaali shila mili jiske baare mein yeh baat itihaas mein prasiddh thi ki yeh shila vahi hai, jis par ek ke baad ek patak kar Mathura ke raaja kans ne devaki ki saat santaanon ko maar daala tha. kaha jaata hai ki aathaveen santaan ek baalika thi aur jab kans ne is shila par patak kar use bhi maut ke ghaat utaarana chaaha to vah uske haathon se chhoot gayi. aakaashagaami ho kar us yogamaaya ne (ashtabhuja devi ke roop mein prakat ho kar) kans ke vadh ki bhavishyavaani ki.

jaisor ke raaja vikramaaditya ka putr prataapaaditya Mathura se isi shila ko apne pita ke raajya jaisor (Bengal) le gaya. jab vah raaja bana, to aamer ke raaja Mansingh(pratham) ne (Bengal-Bihar ke soobedaar ke naate) jaisor ko mugl satta ke adheen karne ke liye us par aakraman kar diya. prataapaaditya ko yuddh mein paraajit kar Akbar ke senaapati raaja Mansingh is shila ko aamer le aaye." us 'bhayankar' shila ke saath vidyaadhar ke poorvaj das vaidik bangaali braahman bhi aamer aaye the jinki charcha oopar ki gayi hai. "taantrik-paddhati se pooja archana karne vaale vaidik bangaali braahmanon ke paraamarsh se is shila par ashtabhuja mahishaasur mardini mahishaasur mardini ki sundar pratima utkeern karavaai gayi"[9] aur aamer mahalon mein ek mandir nirmit karva kar vidhivt pratishthit kar di gayi. aaj bhi aamer ke raajapraasaad mein yahi moorti vidyamaan hai. pashubali par kaanooni-pratibndh lagne se pehle is vigrah par ek samay durga ashtami ke din jeevit mahish (bhainse) (aur baad mein bakare) ki bali bhi di jaati thi.

pustak sandarbh

[8]

sandarbh

  1. 1.Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : 'Jaipur adhaaishati samaaroh samiti' pradhaan-sampaadak : dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma'sahrudaya' naatyaachaarya varsh 1978
  2. 2.'Jaipur-darshan' Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti: sampaadak : dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma sahrudaya naatyaachaarya evam hari maharshi tatha anya : 1978
  3. [1]
  4. 'Jaipur-darshan' Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti: sampaadak : dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma sahrudaya naatyaachaarya evam hari maharshi tatha anya : 1978
  5. 3.Jadunath Sarkar: "A history of Jaipur': Orient Black Swan:Hyderabad: 2011 Reprint: ISBN 978 81 250 3691 3
  6. 4.'Jaipur-darshan' Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti: sampaadak : dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma sahrudaya naatyaachaarya evam hari maharshi tatha anya : 1978
  7. 5.'Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : pradhaan-sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978 [pej 210] prakaashak : Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti, nagar vikaas vyaas (ab Jaipur vikaas praadhikran) parisar, bhavaani Singh maarg, Jaipur,
  8. 6. 'Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : 'Jaipur adhaaishati samaaroh samiti' pradhaan-sampaadak : dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya' naatyaachaarya varsh 1978
  9. 7.'Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : pradhaan-sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978 [pej 210] prakaashak : Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti, nagar vikaas vyaas (ab Jaipur vikaas praadhikran) parisar, bhavaani Singh maarg, Jaipur,

pathaneeya-saamagri

1. 'Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : pradhaan-sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978 [pej 210] prakaashak : Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti, nagar vikaas vyaas (ab Jaipur vikaas praadhikran) parisar, bhavaani Singh maarg, Jaipur

2. 'sanskrut-kalpataru' : sampaadak kalaanaath shaastri evam ghanashyaam Goswami: manjunaath shodh sansthaan, si-8, pruthveeraaj road, si-skeem, Jaipur-302001 se praapya

3. dau॰ gyaan prakaash pilaaniya, 'Enlightened Government in Modern India: Heritage of Sawai Jai Singh (heritej of savaai jayasinh)' (pustak)[9] ISBN 8187359161, ISBN 9788187359166

4. yadunaath sarkaar : The History of Jaipur :Orient BlackSwan:

5. dau॰ aseem Kumar rai ki pustak : "the history of jaipur city "[10]

6.kavishiromani bhatt mathuraanaath shaastri: Jaipur-vaibhavam[11]

baahari kadiyaaain