vidhik vrutti

vidhik vrutti (Legal profession) vah vrutti (vyavasaaya) hai jisse sambandhit log vidhi ka adhyayan karte hain, usaka vikaas karte evam use laagoo karte hain. vartamaan samay mein vidhik vrutti chunane ke ichhuk vyakti ko pehle vidhi mein degree praapt karna hota hai ya koi anya vidhik shiksha praapt karni padti hai.

aarambh mein vidhik vrutti nyaayaalaya mein vidhi ke goodhaarth ko spasht karne ke sahaayataarth thi. aaj bhi iska mukhya kaarya yahi hai. iske atirikt aaj adhivakta keval vidhivisheshajnya naheen, samaaj ke nirdeshak bhi hain. aadhunik samaaj ka svaroop evam pragati mukhyat: vidhi dvaara niyantrit hoti hai aur vidhaanasabhaaon dvaara nirmit vidhi keval saiddhaantik mool niyam hoti hai, uske shabdajaal ko vyavasthit kar jo svaroop chaahein adhivakta use pradaan karte hain. ataev vidhi ka vyaavahaarik roop adhivktaaon ke haathon hi nirmit hota hai, jiske sahaare samaaj pragati karta hai. vidhik vrutti aadhunik samaaj ka mukhya aadhaar stambh hai.

vidhi ka svaroop aur nirmaan svabhaavataya vidhikaaron se sambaddh aur santulit hota hai. vidhi ka roop tabhi parishkrut evam parimaarjit ho paata hai jab us desh ki vidhik vrutti pusht aur parishkrut hoti hai. praacheen aadiyug mein samaaj ki sampoorn kriyaashakti mukhiya ke haath mein hoti thi. tab vidhi ka svaroop bahut aadim tha. jyon hi nyaayaprashaasan vyakti ke haath se samudaayon ke haath mein aaya ki vidhi ka roop nikhrane laga, kyonki ab niyam vyaktivishesh ki nirankush manovaanchhaaeain naheen, saarvajanik siddhaant ke roop mein hote. vidhi ke utkarsh mein sada kisi samudaaya ki sahaayata rahi hai. madhya Asia mein sarvapratham nyaayaadheeshon, dharmapradhaan deshon mein dharmapanditon, misr aur mesopotaamiya mein nyaayaadheeshon, grees mein adhivktaaon aur panchon, rom mein nyaayaadheeshon, adhivktaaon evam nyaayavisheshajnyaon, madhyakaaleen Britain aur France mein nyaayaadheeshon, adhivktaaon evam etarni tatha Bhaarat mein vidhipanditon ne sarvapratham vidhi ko samuchit roop diya. pratyek desh ka kram yahi raha hai ki vidhinirmaan kramash: dharmaadhikaariyon ke niyantran se svatantr hokar vidhikaaron ke kshetr mein aata gaya. vidhivisheshajnyaon ke shuddh bauddhik chintan ke sammukh dharmaadhikaariyon ka anushaasan ksheen hota gaya.

aarambh mein vyakti nyaayaalaya mein swayam pakshanivedan karte the, kisi vishesh dvaara pakshanivedan ki pratha naheen thi. vidhi ka roop jyon jyon parishkrut hua usamein jatilta aur praavidhikta aati gayi, at: vyakti ke liye aavashyak ho gaya ki vidhi ke goodh tatvon ko vah kisi visheshagya dvaara samajhe tatha nyaayaalaya mein vidhivt nivedan karavaae. kabhi vyakti ki niji kathinaaiyon ke kaaran bhi yeh aavashyak hota ki vah apni anupasthiti mein kisi ko pratinidhi roop mein nyaayaalaya mein bhej de. is prakaar vaiyaktik suvidha aur vidhi ke praavidhik svaroop ne adhivktaaon (aidavokets) ko janm diya. paashchaatya evam poorvi donon deshon mein vidhijnyaaataaon ne sada se samaaj mein, vidvaan hone ke kaaran, bada samaan praapt kiya. inki khyaati aur pratishtha se aakrusht hokar samaaj ke anek yuvak vidhijnyaaan ki or aakarshit hone lage. kramash: vidhivisheshajnyaon ke shishyon ki sankhya mein vruddhi hoti gayi aur vidhismmati pradaan karne ke atirikt inka kaarya vidhideeksha bhi ho gaya. falasvaroop inheen ke niyantran mein vidhi-shiksha-kendra sthaapit hue. vidhi sammati dene athva nyaayaalaya mein anya ka pratinidhi ban pakshanivedan karne ka yeh paarishramik bhi lete the. kramash: yeh ek upayogi vyavasaaya ban gaya. aarambh mein dharmaadhikaari tatha nyaayaalaya is vidhik vyavasaaya ko niyantrit karte the kintu kuchh samay pashchaat vyavasaaya tanik pusht hua to inke apne sangh ban gaye, jinke niyantran se vidhik vrutti shuddh roop mein pragatisheel hui. vidhik vrutti mein sada do prakaar ke visheshagya rahe-ek vah jo anya vyakti ki or se nyaayaalaya mein pratinidhitv kar pakshanivedan karte, doosare vah jo nyaayaalaya mein jaakar adhivktrutv naheen karte kintu anya sab prakaar se daave ka vidhi-daayitv lete. yahi bhed aaj ke saulisitr tatha aidavoket mein hai. vidhik vrutti ki pragati ki yeh rooparekha praaya sab deshon mein rahi hai.

anukram

roman vidhik vrutti

vaiyaktik suvidha aur vidhi ki jatilta ko lakshya kar rom mein vidhivisheshajnyaon se vidhisanmati lene ki pratha sthaapit hui. vidhijnyaaata apne uchchatar gyaan dvaara janasaadhaaran ki sahaayata karte. chatur vidhijnyaaata vaadi ya prativaadi ek paksh ko vidhi ke anukool vaktavya rata dete, vah unheen shabdon mein nyaayaalaya mein apna paksh nivedan karta. is sahaayata ke liye yeh paarishramik bhi lete. roman yuvak is vyavasaaya ki or aakrusht hue aur vidhi ka adhyayan karne lage. 300 E. poo. ke paarshvakaal mein vidhivisheshajnya vaadi ya prativaadi ko vaktavya likhkar dene ke sthaan par unke pratinidhi ban nyaayaalaya mein unka paksh nivedit karne lage. sisro isi prakaar ke ek pramukh adhivakta the. pramukh adhivktaaon ke sansarg mein rahanevaale yuvak vidhishiksha grahan karte. in vaiyaktik shiksha keindron mein yeh visheshagya saiddhaantik aur vyaavahaarik donon prakaar ki shiksha dete ataev yeh adhivktaon ke srashta bhi the. in vaiyaktik shikshaakeindron ke atirikt Europe aur madhya Europe mein anya vidhi-shiksha-kendra sthaapit hue. Athens, elagajanaadriya, kustunatuniya tatha beroot mein 5veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh mein aise keindron ka varnan milta hai. shikshaakeindron ke praadurbhaav ke saath hi yeh niyam bhi bana ki adhivakta pad grahan karne ke liye in keindron mein nishchit kaal ki upasthiti evam pramaanapatr anivaarya hai. yeh avadhi kaheen chaar tatha kaheen paaainch varsh tak nirdhaarit thi. aatoman saamraajya kaal ki samruddhi mein Italy, veviya, Milan ityaadi mein vidhik vrutti ki shiksha hoti rahi. baarahaveen shataabdi mein renaasaaain ke saath rom ki vidhishiksha ki punarjaagrati hui tatha samast Europe mein vidhik vrutti ke shikshaalaya nirmit hue.

France mein

France mein bhi adhivakta aur vidhi sahaayak do prakaar ke vidhivruttikaar the. terahaveen shataabdi se adhivktaaon ne pratinidhi roop mein pakshanivedan aarambh kar diya tha. chaudahaveen shataabdi mein adhivakta itne lokapriya ho gaye the ki inko pakshanivedan ki vidhivt sveekruti mil gayi aur inke niyantranaarth raajya dvaara ek vidhi niyam bana. iske anusaar inhein sadvyavahaar ki shapath grahan karni padti tatha raajya ko kuchh kar dena padta. inhein uchit paarishramik lene ki anumati praapt thi. saadharanataya ab sab nyaayaalayon mein adhivktaaon dvaara hi pakshanivedan kiya jaata. adhivakta sangh bhi the jo kaalaantar mein itne shaktisanpann hue ki adhivakta vrutti ka vyavahaar sanchaalan aur niyantran karne lage. keval inke sadasyon ko hi pakshanivedan karne ka ekaadhikaar praapt tha.

England mein

England mein terahaveen shataabdi mein shuddh vidhik vrutti ka praadurbhaav hua. isse poorv vidhik vrutti dhaarmik sansthaaon se sambandhit thi. adhivakta aur vidhi sahaayak ka bhed yahaaain bhi vidyamaan tha. aarambh mein nyaayaalaya ki vishesh anumati praapt kar hi adhivakta dvaara pakshanivedan kiya jaata; kramash: yeh saadhaaran vyavahaar ban gaya. Edward pratham ke kaal se adhivakta ke viruddh paksh ke prati asaavadhaani tatha dhokhe ka daava chal sakta tha. kaaman law adhivakta tatha dhaarmik sansthaaon ke adhivktaaon mein bhed kiya gaya tatha unhein kaaman law nyaayaalayon mein vishesh avsaron ke atirikt vaktrutv ka adhikaar naheen raha. iyar book ke anusaar terahaveen chaudahaveen shataabdi mein hi desh mein adhivakta samudaaya samuchit roop dhaaran kar chuka tha tatha England ki vidhipranaali ki mukhya shakti tha. isi samay inke do bhed hue, saajeint tatha apreintis. jo raajya ki or se daavon mein pakshanivedan karte ve saarjet (raajyasevak) kahalaae, doosare apreintis maane gaye. saarjeint ko apreintis se adhik suvidhaadhikaar praapt the. iyar book sambhavat: inheen ki sanpaadit hai. adhivakta aur pakshon ke beech ek samjhauta hota, jiska pravartan nyaayaalaya mein vidhivt asaavadhaani ya kisi anya dosh ke liye ho sakta tha. adhivakta sangh "in" kahalaate. mukhya ke naam the, Lincoln in, grej in, din inar teinpal, di middle teinpal. in sanghon mein England ki vidhi ki shiksha di jaati jo vishvavidyaalayon mein naheen milti thi. ataev ye vidhi vyavasaaya ke shikshaalaya bhi the. inmein saiddhaantik evam vyaavahaarik donon prakaar ki shiksha di jaati. pandrahaveen shataabdi tak ye sangh pusht ho chuke the. shishyon ko adhivktrutv ka pramaanapatr dene ka inhein ekaadhikaar praapt tha. inheen ki aajnyaa se atarni pakshanivedan ke adhikaar se vanchit hue. yeh bhed aaj ke saulisitr tatha adhivakta mein vidyamaan hai, pratham saulistar tatha doosra bairistar ke naam se prachalit hai. England ki vidhik vrutti ka ek vishesh roop yeh hai ki jahaaain anya Europeeya deshon mein vidhishiksha, shikshaalayon dvaara niyantrit hui, yahaaain vidhi vrutti sanghon ne vidhishiksha, shikshaalayon dvaara niyantrit hui, yahaaain vidhi vrutti sanghon ne vidhishiksha ka daayitv grahan kar ise niyantrit kiya. ataev England mein vidhi dhaarmik ankush se svaadheen ho shuddh roop mein pragatisheel ho pai.

Bhaarat ki sthiti

bhaarateeya aarya parampara ke anusaar aadikaal se vidhipoorn nyaaya ki apeksha ki jaati thi. nyaayakaari ke roop mein raaja sarvada vidhi-aabaddh hota. rigvaidik kaal mein purohit, vidhijnyaaata, evam dharmasootrakaal mein vidhipanditon evam unki sabhaaon ki sahaayata se nyaayaprashaasan hota. gautamasootr mein is prakaar ka vidhijnyaaata praaङavivaak ke naam se varnit hai jisne sambhavat: kramash: nyaayaadheesh ka roop liya. bruhaspati ka kathan hai ki nyaayaalaya ke samaksh trutipoorn yaachika asveekrut ho jaati. isse spasht hai ki vidhi ka roop bahut kuchh praavidhik ho chuka tha tatha nyaaya kaarya mein vidhivisheshajnyaon ki sahaayata aavashyak thi. kintu yeh vidhishaayak raajya dvaara niyukt hote tatha samaaj mein yeh ek pramukh vyavasaaya tha kintu aadhunik adhivakta ka parichay is kaal mein naheen milta. vidhik pratinidhi dvaara pakshanivedan ki pratha naheen thi. nyaayaalayon mein raajakeeya vidhipandit, tatha samaaj mein vidhijnyaaata hote, jinse vidhik sahaayata lene ki pratha avashya thi. bahudha yeh paarishramik bhi lete.

yavanon (videshiyon) ke aagaman ke pashchaat nyaayaprashaasan yavan ya musalim pratha ke anusaar hone laga. yavan pratha ke anusaar bhi Spain, turkistaan, Iran mein islaam raajya ke aarambh mein adhivakta ki pratha naheen milti. kaaji, mufti, mujtahid vidhijnyaaata hote, jinki sahaayata se Quraan evam ijma ke anukool nyaaya kiya jaata. subuktageen, Mehmood gajani tatha mohammad gori ne yahi pratha Bhaarat mein prachalit ki. ibnabatoota ke kathanaanusaar tugalak kaal mein vakeel ka varnan milta hai. Akbar ke raajyakaal mein vakeel pratha thi ya naheen, ispar matabhed hai. inka varnan jaise fikhe feerojashaahi tatha fatwa A aalamageeri mein hai. aurangajeb ke raajyakaal mein vakeel pratha thi, yeh pramaanit hai. niyam tha ki donon pakshon ki tatha unke vakeelon ki anupasthiti mein daava asveekrut ho jaata. itihaasakaar baadauni, rai arajaani naamak ek hindu vakeel ka varnan karta hai. sar taamas ro ne bhi is kaal mein vakeel pratha hone ki baat ki pushti ki hai. East India company ke kai daavon mein vakeelon dvaara pakshanivedan ka varnan praapt hota hai. Bhaarat ke antim svatantr shaasak bahaadurashaah ke samay mein gyaat hota hai ki ek vyakti ko chatur adhivakta hone ke liye vakaalat khaaain ki padavi di gayi thi. aurangajeb ke kaal se hi vakeel (adhivakta) raajakeeya tatha saadhaaran donon prakaar ke hote the. raajakeeya adhivakta vakeel-A-sarkaar tatha saadhaaran adhivakta vakeel-A-shahara kahalaate the. vakeel-A-sarkaar ko ek rupaya prati din vetan milta tha. yeh aavashyak tha ki sab adhivakta vakaalatanaama lekar hi pakshanivedan karein.

tatpashchaat East India company ke samay mein vishesh pradeshon mein adhivakta sambandhi regyooleshan dhaaraaeain bani. sarvapratham 1793 E. mein Bengal, Bihar, udeesa mein laard kaarnavaalis ke udyog se vidhik vrutti vyavasthit hui. is dhaara ke anukool inki shapathapranaali, nishchit paarishraamik, vakaalatanaame dvaara hi pakshanivedan ka adhikaar evam sadar deevaani adaalat dvaara adhivktrutv ki sanadapraapti, sab baatein nishchit huin tatha vakeel evam mukhtaar donon ko adhivktrutv ka adhikaar praapt hua. 1803 E. mein uttar pashchimi seemaant pradeshon mein vidhik vrutti ka niyam bana. 1802 mein Madras tatha 1802 aur 1827 mein Mumbai praant mein isi prakaar ke regyooleshan niyam bane. sab pradeshon ke liye saarvajanik roop se vidhik vrutti ka niyantran sarvapratham 1846 E. mein vidhiniym dvaara hua. iske anusaar poorv niyam ke viruddh keval hindu, musalmaan hi naheen kisi dharm ka anuyaayi bhi adhivakta ho sakta tha evam bairistaron ko Supreme court ke atirikt sadar adaalaton mein bhi pakshanivedan ki anumati praapt hui. kintu yeh keval company ke nyaayaalayon se sambandhit tha. 1865 E. mein vidhiniym dvaara pleedar, mukhtaar, revenyoo pratinidhi vidhivt roop se adhivktrutv ke adhikaari hue. 1879 mein iska sanshodhan hua tatha High Court ka adhivktaaon ko sanad dene tatha usase varjit karne ka adhikaar praapt hua. 1923 E. mein striyon ko adhivakta hone ka adhikaar spasht hua. ant mein desh ke samast evam vibhinn shreniyon ke adhivktaaon mein samaanata laane ke hetu 1926 mein Indian baar kaaunsil aikt paas hua. vartamaan kaal mein bairistar solisitr (etarni), vakeel, pleedar, mukhtaar, revenyoo agent adhivktrutv ke adhikaari hain. inka niyantran iske adhivakta sangh, baar kaaunsil, tatha desh ke vishesh niyamon evam adhiniymon dvaara hota hai. anya deshon ki bhaaainti yahaaain bhi niji suvidha evam vidhi praavidhikta ke kaaran adhivakta ka janm hua. kintu yahaan teen preseedeinsi taaun ke atirikt saalisitr ki pratha kaheen naheen milti.

bhaarateeya vidhi shiksha ke paathyakram mein praay: nimnalikhit vishyon ki shiksha sammilit hoti hai-

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain