vidhi

vidhi (ya, kaanoon) kisi niymasanhita ko kehte hain. vidhi praay: bhaleebhaanti likhi hui sansoochakon (instrakshans) ke roop mein hoti hai. samaaj ko samyak dhang se chalaane ke liye vidhi atyant aavashyak hai.

vidhi manushya ka aacharan ke ve saamaanya niyam hote hai jo raajya dvaara sveekrut tatha laagoo kiye jaate hai, jinka paalan anivrya hota hai. paalan na karne par nyaayapaalika dand deta hai. kaanooni pranaali kai tarah ke adhikaaron aur jimmedaariyon ko vistaar se bataati hai.

vidhi shabd apne aap mein hi vidhaata se juda hua shabd lagta hai. aadhyaatmik jagat mein 'vidhi ke vidhaan' ka aashay 'vidhaata dvaara banaaye hue kaanoon' se hai. jeevan evam mrutyu vidhaata ke dvaara banaaya hua kaanoon hai ya vidhi ka hi vidhaan kah sakte hai. saamaanya roop se vidhaata ka kaanoon, prakruti ka kaanoon, jeev-jagat ka kaanoon evam samaaj ka kaanoon. raajya dvaara nirmit vidhi se aaj poori duniya prabhaavit ho rahi hai. raajaneeti aaj samaaj ka anivaarya ang ho gaya hai. samaaj ka pratyek jeev kaanoonon dvaara sanchaalit hai.

aaj samaaj mein bhi vidhi ke shaasan ke naam par duniya bhar mein sarkaarein naagariko ke liye vidhi ka nirmaan karti hai. vidhi ka udeshya samaaj ke aacharan ko niyamit karna hai. adhikaar evam daayitvon ke liye spasht vyaakhya karna bhi hai saath hi samaaj mein ho rahe anaikatik kaarya ya lokaneeti ke virooddh hone vaale kaaryo ko aparaadh ghoshit karke aparaadhiyon mein bhaya paida karna bhi aparaadh vidhi ka udeshya hai. sanyukt raashtra sangh ne 1945 se lekar aaj tak apne chaartar ke maadhyam se ya apne vibhinn anusaangik sangathano ke maadhyam se duniya ke raajyo ko va naagariko ko yeh bataane ka prayaas kiya ki bina shaanti ke samaaj ka vikaas sambhav naheen hai parantu shaanti ke liye sahaastitv evam nyaayapoorn drushtikon hi naheen aacharan ko jinda karna bhi jaroori hai. nyaayapoorn samaaj mein hi shaanti, sadabhaav, maitri, sahaastitv kaayam ho paata hai.

anukram

parichay

kaanoon ya vidhi ka matlab hai manushya ke vyavahaar ko niyantrit aur sanchaalit karne vaale niyamon, hidaayaton, paabandiyon aur hakon ki sanhita. lekin yeh bhoomika to naitik, dhaarmik aur anya saamaajik sanhitaaon ki bhi hoti hai. daraasal, kaanoon in sanhitaaon se kai maayanon mein alag hai. pehli baat to yeh hai ki kaanoon sarkaar dvaara banaaya jaata hai lekin samaaj mein use sabhi ke oopar samaan roop se laagoo kiya jaata hai. doosare, 'raajya ki ichha' ka roop le kar vah anya sabhi saamaajik niyamon aur maanakon par praathamikta praapt kar leta hai. teesare, kaanoon anivaarya hota hai arthaat naagrikon ko uske paalan karne ke chunaav ki svatantrata naheen hoti. paalan na karne vaale ke liye kaanoon mein dand ki vyavastha hoti hai. lekin, kaanoon keval dand hi naheen deta. vah vyaktiyon ya pakshon ke beech anubandh karne, vivaah, uttaraadhikaar, laabhon ke vitran aur sansthaaon ko sanchaalit karne ke niyam bhi muhaiya karaata hai. kaanoon sthaapit saamaajik naitiktaaon ki pushti ki bhoomika bhi nibhaata hai. chauthe, kaanoon ki prakruti 'saarvajanik' hoti hai kyonki prakaashit aur maanyata praapt niyamon ki sanhita ke roop mein usaki rachana aupachaarik vidhaayi prakriyaaon ke jriye ki jaati hai. ant mein kaanoon mein apne anupaalan ki ek naitik baadhyata nihit hai jiske tahat ve log bhi kaanoon ka paalan karne ke liye majaboor hote hain jinhein vah anyaayapoorn lagta hai. raajaneetik vyavastha chaahe lokataantrik ho ya adhinaayakavaadi, use kaanoon ki kisi na kisi sanhita ke aadhaar par chalana padta hai. lekin, lokataantrik vyavasthaaon mein badalate samay ke saath apraasangik ho gaye ya nyaayapoorn na samajhe jaane vaale kaanoon ko radd karne aur usaki jagah naya behtar kaanoon banaane ki maaaing karne ka adhikaar hota hai. kaanoon ki ek ullekhaneeya bhoomika samaaj ko sangathit shaili mein chalaane ke liye naagrikon ko shikshit karne ki bhi maani jaati hai. shuruaat mein raajaneetishaastr ke kendra mein kaanoon ka adhyayan hi tha. raajaneetik daarshanik vidhi ke saar aur sanrachana ke savaal par zabardast bahason mein ulajhe rahe hain. kaanoon ke vidvaanon ko maanavashaastr, raajaneetik arthashaastr, naitikshaastr aur vidhaayi moolya-pranaali ka adhyayan bhi karna padta hai.

sanvidhaanasammat aadhaar par sanchaalit hone vaale udaarataavaadi lokatantron mein 'kaanoon ke shaasan' ki dhaarana prachalit hoti hai. in vyavasthaaon mein kaanoon ke daayare ke baahar koi kaam naheen karta, na vyakti aur na hi sarkaar. iske peechhe kaanoon ka udaarataavaadi siddhaant hai jiske anusaar kaanoon ka uddeshya vyakti par paabandiyaaain lagaana na ho kar usaki svatantrata ki guaranty karna hai. udaarataavaadi siddhaant maanata hai ki kaanoon ke bina vyaktigat aacharan ko sanyamit karna naamumkin ho jaaega aur ek ke adhikaaron ko doosare ke haathon hanan se bachaaya naheen ja sakega. is prakaar John lauk ki bhaasha mein kaanoon ka matlab hai jeevan, svatantrata aur sampatti ki raksha ke liye kaanoon. udaarataavaadi siddhaant spasht karta hai ki kaanoon ke banaane aur laagoo karne ke tareeke kaun-kaun se hone chaahiye. udaaharanaarth, kaanoon nirvaachit vidhikrttaaon dvaara aapasi vichaar-vimarsh ke dvaara kiya jaana chaahiye. doosare, koi kaanoon pichhli taareekh se laagoo naheen kiya ja sakta, kyonki us soorat mein vah naagrikon ko un kaamon ke liye dandit karega jo tatkaaleen kaanoon ke mutaabik kiye gaye the. isi tarah udaarataavaadi kaanoon kroor aur amaanaveeya kism ki sajaaeain dene ke viruddh hota hai.  raajaneetik prabhaavon se nirpeksh rahane waali ek nishpaksh nyaayapaalika ki sthaapana ki jaati hai taaki kaanoon ki vyavasthit vyaakhya karte hue pakshakaaron ke beech uske aadhaar par faisala ho sake. maarksavaadiyon ki maanyata hai ki kaanoon ke shaasan ki avadhaarana vyaktigat svatantrata ki guaranty karne ke naam par sampatti sambandhi adhikaaron ki raksha karte hue pooainjeevaadi vyavastha ki suraksha ke kaam aati hai. iska nateeja saamaajik vishmata aur vargeeya prabhutv ko banaaye rakhane mein niklata hai. maarks kaanoon ko raajaneeti aur vichaaradhaara ki bhaaainti us suparastrakchar ya adhirchana ka hissa maanate hain jiska base ya aadhaar pooainjeevaadi utpaadan ki vidhi par rakha jaata hai. naareevaadiyon ne bhi kaanoon ke shaasan ki avadhaarana ki aalochna ki hai ki vah laingik nishpakshata par aadhaarit naheen hai. iseeliye nyaayapaalika aur kaanoon ke peshe par purushon ka kabja rahata hai. bahusanskrutivaad ke pairokaaron ka tark hai ki kaanoon asal mein prabhutvashaali saanskrutik samoohon ke moolyon aur ravaiyon ki numaaindagi hi karta hai. parinaamasvaroop alpasankhyak aur haashiyaagrast samoohon ke moolya aur sarokaar najraandaaj kiye jaate rahate hain.

kaanoon aur naitikta ke beech antar ke savaal par daarshanik shuroo se hi sir khapaate rahe hain. kaanoon ka aadhaar naitik pranaali mein maanane vaalon ka vishvaas 'praakrutik kaanoon' ke siddhaant mein hai. pleto aur unke baad arastoo ki maanyata thi ki kaanoon aur naitikta mein najdeeki rishta hota hai. ek nyaayapoorn samaaj vahi ho sakta hai jismein kaanoon naitik niyamon par aadhaarit prajnyaa ki pushti karte hon. madhyayugeen isaai vichaarak Thomas ekvina bhi maanate the ki is dharati par uttam jeevan vyateet karne ke liye nechural law yaani ishvar pradatt naitiktaaon ke mutaabik kaanoon hone chaahiye. unneesaveen sadi mein buddhivaad aur vaigyaanik drushtikon ki pratishtha badhne ke kaaran praakrutik kaanoon ka siddhaant nishprabhaavi hota chala gaya. kaanoon ko naitik, dhaarmik aur rahasyavaadi maanyataaon se mukt karne ki koshishein huin. John aastin ne 'vidhik pratyakshataavaad' ki sthaapana ki jiska daava tha ki kaanoon ka sarokaar kisi uchchatar naitik ya dhaarmik usool se na ho kar kisi samprabhu vyakti ya sanstha se hota hai. kaanoon isliye kaanoon hai ki usaka paalan karavaaya jaata hai aur karna padta hai. vidhik pratyakshataavaad ki kaheen adhik vyaavahaarik aur nafees vyaakhya H.L.A. heart ki rachana 'the kansept of law' (1961) mein milti hai. heart kaanoon ko naitik niyamon ke daayare se nikaal kar maanav samaaj ke sandarbh mein paribhaashit karte hain. unke mutaabik kaanoon pratham aur dviteeyak niyamon ka sanyog hai. pratham shreni ke niyamon ko 'kaanoon ke saar' ki sanjnyaa dete hue heart kehte hain ki unka sambandh saamaajik vyavahaar ke viniyman se hai. jaise, faujadaari kaanoon. dviteeya shreni ke niyam sarkaari sansthaaon ko hidaayat dete hain ki kaanoon kis tarah banaaya jaae, unka kis tarah kaaryaanvayan kiya jaae, kis tarah uske aadhaar par faisale kiye jaaeain aur in aadhaaron par kis tarah usaki vaidhata sthaapit ki jaae. heart dvaara pratipaadit vidhik pratyakshataavaad ke siddhaant ki aalochna raajaneetik daarshanik ronauld dvairkin ne ki hai. unke anusaar kaanoon keval niyamon ki sanhita hi naheen hota aur na hi aadhunik vidhi pranaaliyaaain kaanoon ki vaidhata sthaapit karne ke liye kisi ek samaan tareeke ka praavadhaan karti hain.

kaanoon aur naitikta ke beech sambandh ki bahas naajiyon ke atyaachaaron ko dandit karne vaale nyoorembarg mukadame mein bhi uthi thi. prashn yeh tha ki kya un kaamon ko aparaadh thaharaaya ja sakta hai jo raashtreeya kaanoon ke mutaabik kiye gaye hon? iske javaab ke liye praakrutik kaanoon ki avadhaarana ka sahaara liya gaya, lekin usaki abhivyakti maanavaadhikaaron ki bhaasha mein hui. daraasal kaanoon aur naitikta ke rishte ka prashn behad jatil hai aur garbhapaat, veshyaavrutti, pornograafi, TV aur filmon mein dikhaai jaane waali hinsa, apni kokh kiraae par dene waali maataaon aur jenetik engineering jaise masalon ke sadanrbh mein baar-baar uthati rahati hai.

sandarbh

1. H.L.A. heart (1961), the kansept of law, klairandan press, oksafrd.

2. ronauld dvaurkin (1986), laaj empaayar, kolins, London, 1986

3. J. raij, the athauriti all law, klairandan press, oksafrd

4. O. dablyoo. homs (1932), the pyor thiyri of law, yunivrsiti of kailiforniya press, barakal.

5. H. kolins (1982), maarksijm aind law, oksafrd yunivrsiti press, oksafrd.

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